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Full text of "Industrialist (Manhattan, Kan.)"

Aprils 1899. 



iliitof ical Society 



-S. No. 4. 
( Whole Mo. loai. 



THE 



INDUSTRIALIST. 

Issued 10 times per year by the 

K/IN5fl5 5TflTC flQRICULTURflL COLLEQC. 



♦»♦♦♦♦»■ 



»*♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦* 

- e4ta6fi«f 
e6, 1875- 




(5 

promotion 
of 

turaf, . 

■ 

3ndU0ttiaf 
anb 
Citfxc 
€^5ucation- 



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10 CtntM. I 



1 10 Ci 



EDITED KV THE FACULTY. 

H&iMg'ng Kd.tor, - - FRES. THOS. i. WILL. 
Local Sditor. - - - PROF. J. D. VUTERS. 



PUBLISHED BY 

THE PRINTING DIPARTMKMT. 

CHiS. 8. DiVIS, Sapi. 



coNTersTS. 

Outline of U. S. Financial History: VIII. 

From Hayes to Garfield 

thomas elmer will. 

The Evolution of Education 

THOS. E. will. 

RcENTGEN Radiography 

e. k. nichols. 
Contributions to the Knowledge of the 
CocciD^ (second paper) ; 

T. D. A. COCKERELL AND P. J. PARROTT. 

A Perspectivograph 

ARNOLD EMCH. 

Civics Analyses: Kansas III. Cities 

frank parsons. 
The c;ollege Appropriation 

thos. e. will. 
Makers of the K. S. A. C: IX. Hon. Ed. 
Secrest. ( Frontupkce Illustration.) 

j. d. walters. 

Hardy Ornamental Shrubs ^. 

press bulletin number seventeen. 

Board of Instruction 

LOCAL Notes •• 



KoteMdat the Postoffice »t Maaiatten. Kaasas, for transmission as teoond-class mail matWr. 

Subscription Price .... 

One Year, ----- $»o« 

Special Club Rate to Students and Alumni - - ,50 

/I\a9l?attap, KaPSas: . ^olle^e JVPe ai?d pr^«8. 

Chicago address: 77 Clakk street. Room 83. 



GenTGHTs ef pReceDinG nuMBeRs. 



JUNE. 

Root Tubercules and Their Production by 

Inoculation (Illustrated) by D. H, Otis. . 363 
Flora of Kansas, by A. S. Hitchcock.. . 881 
Outlines of U. S. Financial History: V. Re- 
funding the Public Debt, Thos. E. WUL. 389 

Sunshine, by Alice Rupp 401 

Board of Instruction .'• 404 

Industrial Shops at K. S. A. 0. (Illustrated^, 

byOznlP. Hood 407 

Makers of the K. S. A. C : V. Prof. M.' Jl 

Ward, A. M.. by John D. Walters 410 

Reading for Moods, by O. E. Olln 4i8 

Farmers' Institutes, by H. M. Cottrell .."'" 417 
Bovine Tuberculosis, by Paul Fischer 420 

The War with Spain, by Frank Parsons. . . . 428 

Local Notes 425 

BoolM and Periodicals ".]. 435 

Weather for May, Ernest R. Nichols! '.'.'.'...'. 437 



JULY. 

The Problem of Social Duly.— Baccalau- 
reate Sermon before the Class ol 1898, 

by Thomas Elmer WIU .441 

The Romiince of a Masterpiece.— Address 
before the Literary Societies, Etellvered 

June 6. by C.B. McAfee 457 

The Social System and the Christian Con- 
science.— A Commencement Orat'on. 
Given at the Kansas State Agricultural 
College, June 9, 1898, bvGeo. D. Herron 
Foreign Ci',y Markets, by E. E. FaviUe 
Proceedings nf the Board of Regents 

Seed Breeding, oy George L. Clothier ^, , 

Profes.sorParsons'8 Alma Address B05 

One Year, by Thomas E. Will '" 611 

Local Notes " 513 



DECEMBER 
Postgraduate Work In Pure Science- 
II. An American Vniveisity.-Frontu- 

piece Illunt ration.) , 

m. A Summer In Europe, by George f] 

Outlines of jj. S. " PlnancialHistory; vil 
From Demonetization to Partial Restor- 
ation of Silver, by Thomas Elmer Will 66fl 
Growth of Alfalfa in Northwestern Kansas' 

by George L. Clothier 'an 

TheSandPlum ^4 

The National Association of Household 

Economics, by Harriet Howell 
Latent FertiUty in the Soil: Its Utilization 
-r», ^^^ Conservation, by R. W. Clothier. . . „o» 

The Municipal League 702 

Kaffir Corn for Fattening Pigs, Press Bulle- 
tin Number Seven .... 709 

Local Notes 7, , 

Books and Periodicals... .'r. ".'.'. 7i« 

■ ■■■■... . ^iiii,,,,i .., - ,,^^^ I lU 



657 
661 



687 
689 



470 
49.') 
499 



*♦»» ««« ir trtt ttn m, 

OCTOBER. 

Outlines of U. S. Financial History: VI. De- 
monetization of Silver, Part 1 , by Thomas 

Elmer WiU 503 

Student Labor and College Income, by Ed- 
ward W. Bemis : 541 

Manhattan Water- Works, by S'. J. Adani!s'.".." 549 
Makers of the K. S. A. C: VL Hon. Stephen 
M. Wood, Regent, (Frontispiece Illustru- 

tion) by John D. Walters 550 

College Quiz-Questions and Answers con- 
cerning the Kansas State Agricultural 

College 558 

The Higher Education and the Sta'te.'bv 

Thomas Elmer Will ^ 563 

Personal and Explanatory 57] 

New Ideas in Farm Machinery.. 571 

Books ;'nd Periodicals 570 

Local Notes .'."..'..'..."!"; 575 

' > n ii«»« n «>ii m iii m ii 



NOVEMBER. 

Parties and the People, by Frank Parsons .580 

Dairy School, K S. A. C. . ^ 

The Value of Academic Opinions on Eco- 

nomicOuestions.bv Thomas Elmer Wlfl 600 
Tabular View of "Mint Bill' (To face! MU- 
Outlines of U. S. Financial History: VI 
Demonetization of Silver, Part 2 bv 

Thomas Ehner Will '607 

FaU Preparation for Alfalfa Seeding .'.'." ' 620 
Production and Care of Milk for House- 

_ hold Use, by H. M. Cottrell 62r> 

Some Applications of Modern Geometry 
In Mechanics: L The Statics of Peau- 

cellier's Cell, by Arnold Emch 6I6 

S«oJ?/°^i?.,r?"S'*' ^y A. S.Hitchcock.... 632 
Keeping Milk In Summer, by H. M. Cottrell 687 
Editorials— Thos. E. Will: »cii ooi 

Why Workers Want 648 

"Politics In State Schools." " " 644 

T «„» .'"xT® °° ^^^ History of Demonetization 645 
ijocai Notes iu» 

Books and Periodicals '.'.'.'.'.'.'.'[I'.'.'.'.'.'.', m 



JANUARY. 

Municipal Liberty, by Frank Parsons 3 

Topeka Electric Light Plant, by Henry M 

Thomas ' jj 

Prevention of Blackleg in Cattle, by Paul 

Fi.scher — jg 

Alfalfa Investigations in Central Kansas, 

by J. B. Norton 24 

My Christmas Gifts, by Frank Parsons. .....' 30 

College Sewage and Manhattan Water 

Supply, by J. T. WiUard 35 

Prairie Fires and their Prevention, by 

George L. Clothier as 

Needs of the State A grioultural College ..'. 48 
Makers of the K. S. A. C: VII. James 
Hervey Lee, A. M. (Frontispiece Illus- 
tration.) hy J. B.Walt zrs 47 

"Equality Colony No. 1, B, C. O." by Helen 

J. Wescott 49 

Board of Regents 53 

Local Notes ." .' 54 

Books and Periodicals 65 

FEBRUARY. 

A Study of Creamery Patrons. D. H. Otis 69 
Harvard as a State Institution, Thos. E. Will 'is 
John Wlcllf (FlrstPapen, Duren J. H. Ward 8:i 
Business Results of the College Herd, F. C. 

Burtis 91 

Celery (Press Bulletin No. 11), Agricultural 

Experiment Station 97 

Board of Instruction lOO 

Some Applications of Modem Geometry in 

Me-Jhanics: II. Pole and Polar Plane, 

Arnold Emch lOl 

Statistics by the State Temperance Union, 

William Canfleld Lee 110 

Dedication of Domestic Science Hall 113 

Proceedings of the Board of Regents 125 

Local Notes 126 



MARCH. 
John Wlcllf f 2d paper). Duren J. H.Ward. 135 
Why the Farmer Should Study Economics, 

Thomas IClnier Will H4 

A F osty Morning on the Campus, Helen J. 

Wescott ... 150 

Soldic-s In the Spanish War l.M 

A Plea for Opportunity, Thomas E. Will . 1.53 
The Admirable Record of Regent Vrooman 157 
; Contributions to the Knowledge of the 

t Coccidas Cockerell & Parrott 1.59 

I The Oat Crop. P. C. Burtis 166 

J Some Applications of Modem Geometry in 
♦ Mechanics: III. Polygon of Forces 
t and Funicular Polygon, Arnold Emch. 169 

Makers of the K. S. A C: VIU. Hon. F. 
D. Cobum. (Frontispiece Illustration), J. 

D. Walters 178 

Views of One Millionaire Economist, Thos. 

Elmer Will 180 

The White Man's Burden. (Kipling) 183 

Civics A nalj-ses, Frank Parsons 184 

; Local Notes 189 

Books and Periodicals .... 197 



pEKSONS receiving The Inddstbulist without having ordered 

and paid for the. same, and who desire their names continued 

on THU ImmrBJMJST mailing list, are requested to notify the 

Superintendent of Printing, Agricultural College, Manhattan, Kan. 

The m^iing list is to be revised. 



T 



BY THOM.\K KKMKK \\i\A.. 

VIII. From Hayes to aarfield. 

BE law of January 14. IS?.'., uutliori/ju^ the lesuinplion of 
specie payments, provided, as seen, for Ihe tfraduai destruc- 
tion of g-reenbacks until the amount leiuaininj": should V>e *80(),000,- 
000; the vacuum thus ci-eated to b«' tilled by national bank notes, 
furnished to the banks as usual by the .ijoverunient (/rafis. and 
ta,xable by the banks before bein^r p.ejinitted to enter the circnlation. 

MOKE SCOPK FOK BANK NOTKS. 

Five days later, name-ly, on January 19, 187o. the following act, 
providing for further extension of the privilegef^ of national bankers, 
was aj)proved. 

An Oct io rnnorr Ih InnHalh.t, ,;slm-fn»j lh< nrri'hilinn m' l,<nikii>!i "s.snrhilmns h- 

minfl }iol('s puiiahh in (johl. 

Be it. fr'iia»-.tH<l . . . 'I^lutl so jiiiich oC section rivr. Mionsaiid one. Jmndred 
and Hiyhtv-fiveof the ifevised Statutes <»f the Cuited Stales as limits the eJivAi- 
lation <>f'l)anki.itr ass(M-iatioiis oiu-aiii/.ed for the purpose of issuiu- notes 
payable in ycld. severally i<. oTie million dollars, he and the same is hereby re- 
pealed: and"eae,h of s.i<-,h e.xistinj,^ l>ankino- a.ssoe,lati<.rjs may ine,reaHe its circu- 
latinsr notes, and new t»ankinu assoe.iati.ms may he o.j-ani/ed. in a.-fiordance 
with existing law. without respect to sueh limitation. 

This act. as may be observed, was in line with the policy of sup- 
planting public money, issued by the crovermneni directly to the 
people, with semi-private m.mey, created like the jrreenbacks by the 
government but dcmated to the national banks.' 

BUT THE (IRBENHACK MUST STAY. 

The defeat of silver reimmetization by the Rland-Allisou com- 
promise r.roduced. however, one effect that, may not have been 
anticipated bv the gold monometalists: it stoi)ped the destruction of 
the greenbacks. On May HI. IH7H, the following act was approved. 

' Cop.vrightert, 18'.)S, tiy ihe author. 

»8ee INUUSTKIALIST fM Aijril, 1«UK. p 227 ft. 

(201' 



i 




T 



'*j 




Hon. ED. SECREST. 



THE INDaSTRlAlilST. 

(»of. 25, (nc. 4. 0^F»^' ^»99. ^»ofc (Jlo. 1021 



OUTLINES OF THE FINANCIAL HISTORY OF THE UNITED STATES. ■ 

H\ THOMAS KI.MKK WIM,. 

Vlll. From Hayes to Oarfield. 

THE law <»f January 14. IH?'). aiithoi'imig the I'esuinplion of 
specie payments, provided, as seen, for the jfradiial destruc- 
tion of greenbacks until the amount remaining' should he «8()(),()00,- 
000; the vacuum thus created to be tilled by uational bank notes, 
furnished to the banks as usual by the ifovernment (/rofls, and 
taxable by the banks before beinjr peiinitted toenter the circulation. 

MOKE SCOPK FOR BANK NOTKS. 

Five tlays later, namely, (m January 19. 187^). the following? act, 
providing for furt^lier extension of the privileges of national bankers, 
was ap}>roved. 

An ad i» rn,>on th< hmihith',, nslnrlimj lh< rirn,h,linn „l honkinK >^ssnrioli»„s is- 

feuimi iiol'x ixi'l'ihlt in (/old. 

He it en a. -tec I . . 'I'hat s(. inii.'h of section five thonsMtul (.ne, Jumdred 

and eiwhtv-fiveof the Kevise.! Sratutes cf the llnited Stales its Un.itH the eirou- 
lation'of'l.anki..- assoeiatiot.s ortraui/.ed for the purpos.. ..I iss.nno notes 
pavable ill -old. severallv to o,.e million dollars, he an<l the same is hereby re- 
pealed: and"ea.rh of sneh existin- hankin- assoe.iations may inerease its circu- 
latinjx notes, an.l new haukin- asso.-.iations may he o.oani/.ed. in aeeordatice 
with existing law. wittiont fes})ee.t to sii.-h limitation. 

This act, as may be observed, wns in line with the policy i>f sup- 
planting public money, issued by the government directly to the 
people, with semi-private m.mey, created like the greenba<'.ks by the 
governnient but donated to the national Imnks.' 

;nhac;k must stay. 



BUT THE (4RBE1 

The defoat of silver remont 



"tization by the F^land-AUisou 



promise [»rodnced, however, out 



>.tfect that uiay not have 



com- 
been 



anticipated by the gold mono 



m 



Btalists: it sto])ped the destruction of 



the greenbacks. On May 



n. IH7H, the following act w^as approv 



ed. 



I OKp.vriglitea, 18!)S, by the author. 

■' See iNUliSJTKlAXIST for April, 1898. p 227 ff. 



(aoii 



202 



THE INDUSTRIALIST. 



[April, '99 



An act to forbid tfie further Mirement of United Statex leyul-tender notex. 

Beit enacted. . . . That from and after the paBsag-e of this act it shall 
not be lawrful for the secretary of the treasury or other officer under him to 
cancel or retire any more of the United States legal-tender notes. And when 
any of said notes may be redeemed or be received into the treasury under any 
law from any source whatever and shall belong to the United States, they shall 
not be retired, canceled or destroyed, but they shall be reissued, and paid out 
again and kept in circulation: Provided, That nothing herein shall prohibit the 
cancelation and destruction of mutilated notes and the issue of other notes of 
like denomination in their stead, as now provided by law. 

All acts and parts of acts in conflict herewith are hereby repealed. 

This act, then, not only prohibited the further retirement and 
cancelation of government paper money, but it provided that such 
money of this character as should be redeemed or received into the 
treasury should be reissued and kept in circulation. This re- 
quirement for the reissue of government paper money, tho redeemed, 
has been severely criticised by gold monometalists and national 
bank paper advocates on the ground that it permits the operation of 
the "endless chain" — ^to be considered later. Obviously, if this 
provision were re,pealed it would be possible for the enemies of the 
greenback to secure its abolition by simply presenting it at the 
treasury for redemption. Whether the paper when redeemed were 
destroyed or simply locked up would be to them a matter of indif- 
ference. If, further, in order to secure the gold with which to 
redeem, the treasury were compelled to sell bonds, so much the 
better for those presenting the paper for redenjption; for the prac- 
tical effect would be the conversion of legal-tender money into an 
interest-bearing, probably long-time, bonded debt, furnishing a 
safe and desirable investment, and also providing the foundation for 
more national bank notes. 

The amount of greenbacks in existence at the time of the passage 
of the above act was $346,681,016. Tho twenty years have since 
elapsed, and the greenback has during all this period been regarded 
with implacable hostility by national bankers and currency con- 
tractionists, and tho $426,190,220 were actually redeemed between 
January 1, 1879, and June 30, 1896, it has never yet been possible to 
resume the policy rudely interrupted on May 31, 1878, of reducing 
the greenback to ashes.* 

Following these acts came the refunding acts of January 25 and 
February 26, 1879, already discussed." By the refunding acts the 

' Treasury Circular 123, p. 10. BoUes's Financial History, voL iri. p. 297. 
» See INDUSTBIAL.IST for June, 1898, p. 389 ff. 



April> '99. J 



FINANCIAL HISTORY. 



203 



day on which our national debt might be repaid without being 
bought up on the market at a heavy premium was pushed ever 
farther into the future, and a war debt, most of which might by a 
rational system of finance have been paid as the war progressed, 
was fastened upon a generation then unborn. 

HAKD TIMES. 

The Bland-Allison compromise, resulting tho it did in the addition 
of some two million dollars per month to the circulating medium, 
could do but little to offset the effects of closing the mints of several 
important nations against the coinage of silver and attempting at the 
same time to resume specie payments in the United States with one 
metal, when statesmen before 1873 had been unable to explain how 
resumption could be effected even with two. The hard times still 
continued. Representative Kelley on February 14, 1H79, declared 
in the house: 

Ruin has pursued, as an avenging' demon, enterprise wherever it has en- 
gaged in productive business. He only has profited by their toil who has 
wrapped his talent in a napkin of untaxed government bonds, and brought it 
forth for use only when the products of labor, energy and enterprise were to be 
sacrificed at sherilf's or other forced sale. 

But, sir, the sherilf's sale was not the only joyous event with which the 
atricken people of Philadelphia were made to welcome the great fact of the 
equivalency between our paper money and gold. For on the first day of the 
''glad New Year" the owners of 13,582 properties, within the limits of the city, 
on opening their morning papers, were pleasantly greeted by name, by the 
receiver of taxes, with notice that their taxes for 1878 were default, and that 
unless they were paid on or before the loth of the month, preliminary steps 
•would be taken to secure their collection. Living in enforced idleness, as 
thousands of the most industrious and thrifty of them are. think you that 
this was a grateful New Year's greeting? .... 

Sheriff Wright, on January G, will begin the largest sale of real estate ever 
held by any sheriff in this city. There are 692 writs, covering about 1000 
properties. The sale on the first day will begin at 4 o'clock, in the new court- 
house, and extend from No. 370 on the list to No.()92. 

The conditions in European countries whose workers maintained 
a lower standard of living than American workers and were not 
afforded the relief made possible by America's unsettled western 
- lands were even worse. In the latter part of 1873 began the terrific 
faU in prices with which all students of financial history are famiUar. 
In the three years preceding this date England was enjoying un- 
usually good times. Mr. Gladstone spoke of the prosperity as in- 
creasing by "leaps and bounds" while Professor Marshall declared 
that this prosperity was general, affecting both employers and 
employees. 



204 



THE INDUSTRIALIST 



[April, "99 



Witli the bej^inning of the drop in xirices, which the contraction of 
the world's monetary vohime necessa)-ily brought about, the scene 
changed. In 1876 Parliament found it desirable to appoint a commis- 
sion to inquire into the causes of industrial depression. Unemploy- 
ment was found to have increased, strikes multiplied, 161 occui-ring- 
in 1877 alone; while pauperism increased eleven percent in the same 
year. In 1H7K the "financial gloom " deepened: a crisis occurred in 
the cotton trade; "in the coal and iron industries the situation was 
equally gloomy " with bankruptcies common. 

Conditions in Germany were similiai- to those in America and 
England. The speech from the throne read February 6, 1878, refers 
to "the difficulties affecting the development of our industry, doubly 
felt at the present time, in the lasting depressi<m of commerce." 
As in England, c<)mmissi<mers were appointed to in(|uire into the 
conditions of trade and industry. T^abor troubles became common. 
Tens of thousands of unemployed men and rioters assembled in the 
streets and displayed red revolutionary emblems. Two attemi)ts 
were made <m the life of the emperor. Bills were introduced in the 
Reichstag- for the forcible repression of socialism. 

In France the conditions were similar to those i)revailing in the 
countries named. Here, too, a parliamentary comujittee was ap- 
pointed in 1878 to inquire into the cause of the depressed conditions 
in trade and manufactures. 

To relieve the stringency, tai-itt" laws were passed in Uermany. 
France and Italy, each country attempting to protect itself against 
its neighbors and to relieve, by restricting trade, the evils resulting 
from a din)innti(m in the machinery with which trade is performed. 

THK MONKTABY CONFEREN(!E OK 1878. 

The monetary conference, provided for by the Bland- Allison act, 
met in Paris in 1878, holding seven sessions, ccmtfnuing from Au- 
gust 10 to August 29. The countries represented were Austro- 
Hungary, Belgium, France, Great Britain, Greece, Italy, Nether- 
lands, Russia, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland and the United States. 
The commissioners (m the part of the United States were Messrs. 
ReubenE. Pen ton, W. S. (:;roesbeck and Francis A. Walker, assisted 
by Mr. S. Dana Morton as secretary of the American commission. 
The proceedings of this conference were published in a report of 
over nine hundred pages. 

In this conference, as in the international committee and the 
Paris conference of 1867, the anti-silver forces were strongly repre- 



APKii., '99.1 



FINANCIAL HISIXJKY. 



20fi 



sented* England, as in 18fi7, expressed lierself as absolutely 
comitted to the single gold standard, (xermany i-efused to send a 
delegate, even when expressly invited by the conferenoA! itself to do 
so. Mr. F'eer-Herzog of Switzerland was, as usual, strongly against 
the use of silver. Mr. Broch of Norway, and Mi-. Mees of Holland, 
expressed similar views. Mr. Pirme/- of Belgium declared that 
the mints be generally opened to the coinage of both gold and silver 
should at the old ratio, "the increased value gained by silver . . . 
will be attended, as regards gold, by a precisely equal i-eduction 
in value."' By this argument he betrayed the real objectiim of the 
crediU)r countries to the use of silver; the reduction, namely, in the 
value of the gold in which the principal and interest of their claims 
upon debtor nations must be paid. Like Mr. Gladstone Hhey were 
not prepared "to perform this supreme act of self-sacrifice." 

INDKPENDBNT ACTION. 

One conclusion of this conference was important. It was that ex 
pressed in the following words: "It is necessai-y to maintain in the 
world the monetary functions of silver as well as gold, but that the 
selection for use of one or the other of the two metals, or of both 
simultaneously, should be governed by the special position of each 
state or group of states."' The conference, i. e., unguardedly ad- 
mitted that each nation should decide foi" itself upon the money 
system which it would employ, instead of relying u[)on other nations 
for help in establishing its system. Tlu^ policy, in other words, of 
"going it al<»ne" received the sanction of this conference, largely 
gold standard tho it was. The question of a common ratio between 
the two metals it thought it not even worth while to discuss.' 

That in a country so sti'ongly committed as the dnited States to 
the pohcy of "going it alone" in the matters of international trade 
and tariffs there sliould be a strong sentiment in favor of equally in 
dependent action regarding its financial system thei-e could be little 
d(mbt. Why a nation .should seek to protect itself against the world 
by means of tariffs and then leave its money system and its foreign 
obligations at the mercy of foreign creditor nations might well beex' 
pected to arou.se (question. Independent action, it is true, might be 
delayed in the hope of united action; but now, that the attempt to se- 
cure such acticm had miserably failed, it might well be expected that 



' Keporl of the conference, p. 121. 
'Speech In house of commons, Peh. -8, ISi)3 



^Conference report, p. 214. 
♦Conference report, p. 214. 



Hi 




206 THE INDUSTRIALIST. [April, '99 

the United States would insist on standing on its own feet and, like 
the adult of full age, doing business on its own account. 

HOW IT MIGHT BK PREVENTED. 

It now became evident to the financial classes that if such action 
were to be prevented the financial stringency must be relieved and 
a measure of prosperity dealt out to the general public. In a 
country maintaining highly developed industries, an abundance of 
skilled and willing labor, eflficient business men and a financial sys- 
tem consisting largely of credits capable of being issued or with- 
drawn by members of a banking system, themselves closely organized 
and centralized and under the direction of skilled managers at the 
financial center of the country, to produce prosperity or adversity 
at will is a simple matter. By lending the cash actually under their 
control, by "extending accommodations" and inflating credits the 
engineers of this gigantic system may increase the volume of the ex- 
change medium as reaUy as tho gold and silver had been coined or 
United States notes had been printed and injected into the circula- 
tion. Exchanges which hitherto it had been impossible to make 
could now be made; prices till now falling would begin to rise; busi- 
ness would feel the stimulus as the physical body feels the strength 
that comes from the consumption of wholesome food and the in- 
crease of tiie volume of blood — the life of the body. Conversely, by 
refusing "accommodations," contracting credits and calling in loans 
a powerful brake may be applied to the wheels of industry. Ex- 
change media are thus as effectually destroyed for the time being as 
tho greenbacks had been burned or gold and silver coins had been 
melted into bullion for use in the arts. The effect upon the body 
politic is now similar to that produced upon the physical body by 
bleeding. Strength gives place to weakness; and if the process is 
but carried sufiiciently far the whole industrial and commercial sys- 
tem may be sapped of its vitality and compelled to lie prostrate and 
exhausted at the feet of those who hold its life in their hands. 

PROSPERITY MADE TO ORDER. 

The policy was now adopted in Europe of issuing large q[uantities 
of paper money. The circulation of the Imperial Bank of Germany 
was increased between January 1, 1879, and January 1, 1880, by over 
thirty-two million dollars, while that of the Bank of France was in- 
creased between January 29, 1880, and January 27^ 1881, by over 
forty million dollars.' 

' Report of comptroller of currency, p. 65. 



April, '99.] 



FINANCIAL HISTORY. 



207 



Some of the great banks of the world, furthermore, reduced their 
gold holdings: the Bank of France in 1879 "lost" over fifty-four 
million dollars in gold, the Bank of England between August 1, and 
November 26 "lost" thirty-five million dollars, while the coin and 
bullion in the Bank of Germany fell between September 1, and 
October 15, 1879, fifteen million dollars. The gold in the United 
States treasury was also reduced in the last half of 1879 and the first 
half of 1880 by nine milHon dollars. 

This substantial increase in the money volume of the countries 
named produced the inevitable effect. Prices were borne aloft like a 
boat upon the bosom of a lake, the level of which is raised by a large 
influx of water. The rising prices, in accordance with the Ricard- 
ian law, discouraged exports and encouraged imports, the balance of 
trade being paid for in gold. The principal inflation having occurred 
abroad rather than within the United States, this country now be- 
came a heavy exporter of goods, and the flow of gold in payment for 
balances tended largely toward the United States, seventy-eight 
milUon dollars pouring in during 1879 against a single million of 
dollars in the preceding year. 

This abundance of money tended to make money still more abun- 
dant. In accordance with the law of value, as money grew plenty it 
grew correspondingly cheap. Those holding money out of use for 
the unearned increment in its value which follows from contraction, 
now hastened to unload it in exchange for other forms of property, 
as real estate, the price of which would rise as money fell; and in ex- 
change for labor with which to produce goods to meet the enlarged 
consumpti(m which always acccmipanies good times. "Locked up 
capital" was thus thrown upon the inarket, making money more 
abundant and prices and wages still higher. The commercial re- 
ports of the time record' "an increase in valne.s, " a volume of bus- 
iness in internal commerce, manufactures, agriculture, and in finan- 
cial operations, and the extension of jn-oductive facilities and inau- 
guration of new enterprises which exceed the figures of any previous 
year in the commercial history of the United States" and "in the 
scale of consumption an increase which has never been equalled." 
Along with this revival of "confidence" came naturally, and as a part 
of the program, an extension of credit facihtes which inflated still 
further prices and wages and enhanced the boom. 



' See Appletons Annual for 1880. 



psss: 



i^e^^s^ 



208 



THE INDUSTRIALIST 



[ Aprft., '99 



THE COUNTRY SAVED. 

The effect of the good times thus brought about by the financial 
classes was, as anticipated, the "death" for the time being "of the 
silver craze." A people suflFerhig from a money famine are not par 
tial to silver or to any other form of money or exchange medium. 
What they want is the machineiy with which to perforin exchanges; 
and if the bankers furnish this by depleting their reserves, taking 
out more circulation or lending and discounting more freely, the peo- 
ple in general are as well satisfied as tho United States notes had 
been printed or silver and gold coins had been struck. The danger 
of independent bimetalism on the part of the United States was thus 
avoided while at the same time the people were led tti believe that 
resuinpti(m, the direct effects of which would have been to make 
times harder but for the special measures adopted by the financiers, 
had actually operated to make times good. Similarly, countries like 
France, Germany and Italy, 'that had built up their tariff fences, at- 
tributed their good times to protection, while England credited hers 
to free trade. But for post hoc ergo propter hoc where would states- 
men bey 

THE Br-.K(!TION OK \m). 

The contest between those who favored and those who opposed 
scarce money and an appreciating dollar was carried, of course, into 
the electi<m of 1H80; tho, as usual, this vital issue was kept iu the 
background. Blaine, the popular idol of the Republican party, was 
again the candidate for the presidential nomination, and still favored 
the free coinage of silver and opposed the position of the financial 
clas.ses. Other candidates for the same nomination were U. S. 
Grant and John Sherman. General Grant had already served two 
terms but was pressed by his friends to enter the rac<^. for the third 
term. His candidacy was entirely satisfactory to the financial 
clas.ses: Senator Sherman's should also have been all that could be 
desired by those interests. He strengthened it, however, by [)ro- 
posing that congress demonetize the gr«H^nback. Of this the Chicago 
Tribune said:' 

SiiK.-e tlic pas.siijfe of the silver law .\ii'. .Slmrmjiii ha.s doiio Hverythiufj to 
didj)Hi-aufe silv-ei': he has limited the «Miiiiage to the iiiinitnum: has refused to 
exercise the troverniuent's option to pay out silver iu any considerable amounts; 
. . . and has l)y word and lettei- and a(!t done all in his power to discour- 
age tVie use of silvei- in the liiited Slates. . . . At the opeuing of the pres- 
ent <;ongfess he made the exti-aoi-dinary recommendation that congress strike 

MircU so, 1H80. ' . 



APRri.^99.| FINANCIAL HrSTOKY. 209 

ifroin thr-ee hundred and fifty inilliou doljai-s «if tlie fffeenhack diirreinjy of t,ho 
countrv its legal-tender char'acter. It w;i> a hiyh l.id for the support of Wall 
street but a fatal one addressed to the pi-odnciny and industrial classes of the 
countrv. ... It is liij^hiv iniprobalde tliat .Vlr. Sherman will receive 
an electoral vote fr-<>ni an> .^tate l«et\v<><!ii tho Alle>,'-hanv and iloe.kv mountains 
upon the issues of aholition of silvei- nioni'.\ and denioneti/ation of yi-eenbaolcH. 

President Hayes, who desir(>d m sewud term, went still farther 
and advised congress t(» retire jind destroy the trreonbacks and 
supply their ()lac«; with interest-beHriuff bonds. It was evident 
therefore that the fiuanciial classes wern in this c(»m,est well supplied 
with presidential timber. 

Tlie stru^^le, especially in the iin|»()rtaiU states of Pennsylvania, 
New York and Illinois, for tlie eontfol of tho dele«j:ations to the na- 
tional convention, to be held in 01jicaM(>. was one of unusually inten 
si ty, the Wall Street eloment beinjj: detonnined to defeat Blaine at 
all hazards. In the convention IIih conte-st cuntinnerl with even 
greater intensity. Blaine was at last overthrown only by the com 
bination against him and iti favor of the 'dark horse." James A. 
•Gartield, of all tin- itnti-Blaiiio forces, tho this involved the burying 
of hatchjet.s and the joininir of hands of violent eneinies. The i)lat- 
form was silent on tht' money (ptestijni, .save for the following 
oracular utterance: --The credit acquired [by the governraentj 
should never be impaired , . . reviving industries should be 
further promoted." 

Mr (TartiHld\s ))osition on the Hnancial question may be inferred 
from the f(dlowiug letter written him by Mr. Sherman on July 
19, IHHO: 

"I hope congress will coim* together next winter in such temper 
that it may arrest the coinago of the silver dollar, if it will not 
•change the ratio. This <p)estion, however, is a very dehcate one to 
discuss in ])()pnlHr itssemblies. and 1 propose, therefore, in my 
speeches to make only the faintest allusions to it, not surrendering, 
however, onr views u)»on the subject, for upon this, I take it. we are 
•entirely agreed."' 

The foregoing is strengthen<Ml by the following language from 
Mr. Garfield's letter of acceptance. Speaking of r«isumption he 
says it has "brought into use our store of gold and silver. The 
circulating medium is more abundant than ever before. The great 
prosperity which the country is now enjoying sliould not be en- 
dangered by any violent changes or doubtful financial experiments. " 

' UecoUectious »t .Johu Sheimati. p. 77i>. 



210 THE INDUSTRIALIST. [April, '99^ 

In the democratic party a similar contest was waged, with the 
greenback and silver elements favoring Seymour and the financial 
classes favoring Tilden. Tammany opposition, however, made the 
nomination of Tilden seem inadvisable and Mr. Tilden withdrew his 
candidacy two days before the meeting of the convention. General 
Hancock finally received the nomination on a platform the money 
plank of which was ambiguous. General Hancock was understood 
to be "unsound " on the financial question; and, tho this question was 
ignored in the campaign, this fact was sufficient to secure his defeat. 



THE EVOLUTION OF EDUCATION. 

BY THOS. E. WILL. 

THE evolution of education is a fruitful theme. Evolution is 
growth, development, progress from the simple to the com- 
plex; from the crude to the elaborate; from the uniform to the unlike, 
the differentiated and specialized; from the imperfect to the more 
and more complete and perfect. 

One might speak of the evolution of the buildings and appliances 
set apart for the aid of education, and sketch our progress from the 
old log school house to the modern splendid building devoted to the 
work of education; or he might trace the evolution of the teacher 
from the pedant of the Deserted Village or the Ichabod Crane to the 
modern teacher, equipped with the best that general culture and 
special training in psychology, pedagogics and educational history 
can furnish. Again one might speak of the development of educa- 
tional methods from the crudities of the past, the confusing of the 
sign with the thing signified, of the means with the end, and the 
placing of the cart before the horse generally; to the methods 
employed by the equipped teacher of to-day, under whose master 
hand every fact, however trivial, pulsates with life, and every study, 
however dry, is transfigured like the faces of the apostles on the 
mount, and made radiant with the light of truth. 

But upon these aspects of my subject I cannot dwell. I desire to 
speak of the evolution of education itself toward certain goals, and 
the first of these is democracy. 



^■B 



April, '99.] 



EVOLUTION OF EDUCATION. 



211 



The past has been for the few. These are they for whom the 
earth and its fulness have been; it is these who have sat on thrones 
and worn purple and been glorified in song, and it is these of whom 
our history has been written. The many have tilled the soil, built 
the palaces, fought the battles, made the desert blossom and then 
been swallowed up in its bosom unknown and unwej)t. For these, 
in the past, education has been impossible; they have been the 
beasts of burden, propertyless, homeless, voteless, nameless. 
Schools, colleges and universities were for the great; and the edu- 
cation thus acquired has helped these to become great and enabled 
them the better to maintain their privileged position as the ruling 

class. 

But the day of exclusive class culture is about past; the educa- 
tional monopoly is broken: 1870 brought the free public school to 
England, while America has for a much longer time boasted of her 
little red or white schoolhouse on every hill top. This school is free. 
Tuition charges are abolished; books are furnished at a low cost or 
gratis; apparatus is for the free use of all; rich and poor here meet 
together on terms of equality unknown inpoMte society, the market, 
the street or the church. We speak sometimes of leveling tenden- 
cies. What equalizer approaches the public school! The son of the 
American nabob here takes his alphabetical place beside the gutter- 
snipe in rags and stands or falls as his own genius or application or 
the lack of them may determine. Of all places the one place in 
which each to-day finds his level is the public school. 

Not content with erecting the school and providing the teacher 
and the appliances, we have gone farther and enacted compulsory 
laws requiring the child to attend the school. Nor do we stop 
at this. Distance and weather have in cases proved barriers too 
great to be successfully surmounted. Widely scattered and un- 
graded country schools have not been able to keep pace with access- 
ible and highly organized city schools; those living in the country 
bearing a handicap from which those in the city were free. To meet 
these dilficulties we shall in time consolidate districts, thus makmg 
possible graded schools in the country: and shall bring the pupils to 
school in public covered wagons, thus making school privileges avail- 
able in the country as well as in the city, in foul weather as well as 
in fair, for girls as well as for boys and for small as well as for large. 
I have spoken of the girls. I wish to speak of the enormous 
strides that have already been taken toward democracy m education 



212 



THR INDriwSTRrAr.rST. 



[Aprit., '99 



in respect to the education of wotiien. Time was when practically 
the whole female half of the community, high or low, were shut out 
from the benefits of education. Women were supposed to be lacking 
in intellect and to have no need for education.. In time, however, 
women and girls who wanted it and were able to pay for it were per- 
mitted to receive private tuition; later, .seminaries were erected tor 
their especial benefit: now the })nblic schools are designed for girls 
as well as for boys, colleges and universities in the West are open to 
both sexes on equal terms, and even in the conservative East and in 
Europe the doors of the universities are slowly and grudgingly open 
ing for the admission of women. 

Nor are we ready to stop with tlie provision merely of elementary 
education for our children and youth. The higher educati.m we are 
coming to feel is their birthright. That they may enjoy its privileges 
we have established in the generons West the state college and uni 
vesity, not for a class but for all. These, as much as the country 
and village schools, are the people's schools, built and maintained by 
all the peopl^^ that the waters of the higher culture may reach the 
remotest boundaries of the conj nxmwealt h. As yet, however, in our 
higher educational institutions poverty is a far more real barrier 
than in country and village schools. Residence at a distance from 
home, more rigid requirements as todressand living, tuiticm charges 
and fees which in cases still linger as relics <.f the system under 
which colleges, were run not at the public expense for the public 
good, but at theexpen.so of the individual student for private profit, 
all these operate as a property qualiHcation to the higher .nlucaticmi 
barring with gold thegates that should be thrown wide open to all. 

But the leaven of democracy is working. Our people will in time 
see that the commonwealth can m, njore afford to permit all but a 
handful of its youth to grow up uninrtuenced by college and univer 
sity educati(m than they can afford to permit them to renniin in ig 
norance of the three rs. They will realize that the state which per- 
mits the few to obtain a university education while debarring the 
many from its privileges makes m)t for* but against equality" and 
democracy: and out of the proceeds of their wealth, now overpro- 
duced, the people will make provision which will render tuition and 
other fees unneces.sary and will establish fellowships and scholar 
ships by the aid of which the poorest, if he but possess the wit and the 
will, can share equally with the rich in the benefits of a collegiate 
educatit>n. 



Apr.1T.. 'i*^. 1 



EVOLUTION OF EDUCATION. 



213 



Education, thon, isst(ui(lily rt'iU'hinjj: oiU. iiltimaU'ly to onthracoall 
the people. Not only so. hut it is also rcachinii: out to ombrace all 
truth. In the olden days iho subjects of study in schools and 
collet'es wei'o few. Tht' ordinai-y boy learned to rnad and write and 
cipher to the rule of three, and his education was (•oini)l«Atod. The 
collejiri'in studied Latin, because, so far as be liad learned, colle^fians 
alwavs had studied it and ther«'could bo no biirluM- education without 
it; he studied (xreek for mncli the same reason and the additional 
one that the New Testament scriptni-es were wi-itlen in a form of 
Greek; and if he would read in their pnrity those scriptures in which 
all truth was sui)posed to be h)cked up '»' 'nn^l learn (ireok. He 
studied Hebrew because the Old Testament was wi-itten in tliis 
tonj^ue. He studied evidences of ( Miristaiiiity that he mi^dit be 
fortified a«rainst skepticism. He .irave attention to mathematics, 
loj^icand rlu^oric. chiefly tiiat he might l)e prepai'ed to think. sharply 
and to use skilfully the weapons of dialectic airainst assailants of the 
faith once delivered. With these subjects and a very few others we 
have about completed the old-fashioned cni-ri.-ulum. Science was a 
thinjf practically unknown and unheard of; aud wlu'n it did begin to 
asswt Its claims its advance was opix.sed. partly b.'cause it stood 
for an innovation, a departure from the good old ways. an<l partly 
because some who had studied it had weakened upon s.mie of the 
dogmasof tbechurcli.au<l the suspicion ha<h>btained that the truths 
of science negatived some of the ij-uths. of i-evelation. in which 
case as a matter of course the tirst set of supi.o.sed truths instead of 
bein^' carefully conrpared with the second that each might correct 
the other, should be stiunned as witchcraft, alcheu.y and other 
things beheved t.) emanate from the prince of darkm'ss. 

So strenuous has been h. the past the opposition to scientific 
study, on professedly religious grounds, that Hnxh-y declared that 
upon no avenue of investigation could he, travel far without hnd.ng 
erected squarely across his path an impas.sable barrier upon which 
was inscribed the legeml "NO THOKOKAKK. MOSES.' ^ 

Nor can we aitirm that this cowardly positicn. that son.e truth 
must be tabooed is even yet aband.>ned. True, n.en have nisKsted 
that astronomers and navigators be perm,tte<l (o contmne their 
discoveries, tho the earth be thereby found to be round and the 
scriptural statement that four mighty angels stood on the four 
corners of the earth be of necessity taken less literally than .11 the 
past: and they have insisted that the records of the rocks should be 



mmmmHBtm^w^ 



214 THE INDUSTRIALIST. [April, '99 

read tho doubts be thereby cast upon the records of Genesis, They 
have slowly made it possible for students to investigate the structure 
of plants, insects, animals and man, tho striking analogies of form 
be discovered, and the conclusion has seemed to follow that the 
higher arose out of the lower and the good old doctrine of special 
creation was thereby proved a myth. In fact the doctrine of evolu- 
tion in the biological sciences which a few years ago was the "black 
beasf'of conservative thought has to-day conquered the scientific 
world, and the antagonist of evolution is ranked along with the 
antagonists of the doctrines that the earth moves a»d that blood 
circulates. 

We are coming in fact slowly to realize, however, that all truth is 
of God, that each separate truth is but a part of the universal whole, 
that no truth can conflict with any other and that all truth is good 
and worthy of study and ultimately of benefit to man. By no one. 
perhaps, has this eminently wholesome conception of things been 
more strongly set forth than by Mr. Herbert Spencer, in the monu- 
mental work wherein he has endeavored to establish a vast and 
harmonious synthesis among all the sciences and all the departments 
of knowledge. When this view that all truth is one has fully estab- 
lished itself, the petty warfares between schools of thought and, 
especially, the childish and humiliating strife between religion and 
science will be at an end. 

But while we may look forward to the time when every honest 
cultivator of the field of truth and every delver in the mine of knowl- 
edge will be respected and esteemed as a benefactor, that time is 
not yet fully come. But recently the writer visited a community 
where a few short months before a veritable intellectual panic had 
been created and a promising lecture course almost broken up by a 
•calm, dispassionate and convincing lecture by a competent scientist 
on the su bject of evolution. And while such a story may seem to us 
to-day like an echo from the past, it must not be forgotten that there 
are fields even now which the investigator may enter only at his 
peril, and college chairs around which continually plays the lightning 
of the wrath of offended individuals and class interests. I refer more 
particularly to the field of sociology with its sub-departments of 
economics and civics and to the chairs established for the cultivation 
of these sciences. 

If it be indeed true (and who will deny the proposition?) that the 
evolution of education looks toward the conquest of the whole field of 



Apuil, '99. J 



EVOLUTION OF EDUCATION. 



215 



knowable truth, it would seem superfluous to argue that those stud- 
ies touching man most closely, treating of the methods and processes 
whereby we produce the utiUties upon which and by which all must 
hve, the exchange of tliose utilities against each other, their distri- 
bution among the various individuals and classes making up the so- 
ciety, and finally their consumption for the blessing or bane of man, 
should receive first attention in a community peopled not by disem- 
bodied spirits but by creatures of tlesh and blood who must wear 
-clothes, live in houses and eat three times per day. For such a peo- 
ple no questions can be more fundamental than the questions, What 
shall we eat,«and what shall we drink, and wherewithal shall we be 
clothed'? 

. Again, we are a peo})le who pride ourselves upon our love of 
country, dur loyalty to our institutions and our obedience to law. 
What would seem more rational, then, than that we should under- 
stand the constitution of our country, the political relati(ms of in- 
dividuals to each other and to their various governments, the 
methods by which our temporary rulers are sifted out from the 
multitude and lifted into seats of power, the machinery whereby our 
annual and biennial grist of legislation is ground out and the pro- 
cesses whereby the validity of these laws is tested and those that 
have stood the test are applied to the re'/ulation and development of 
the state. Yet this study is the science of government or of politics; 
and there are not wanting those who tell us that the science of 
feeding, clothing and housing a people, that is the science of econo- 
mics, and the science of governing them and administering their 
public affairs, that is the science of politics, should be stricken from 
the courses of study in our schools and colleges, while those who 
pursue them must take rank as "politicians, " who by the same crude 
judgment are assumed to be necessary evils if not public enemies. 

But science and the scientific method admit no permanent terra 
incognita in the field of knowable truth. While islands may remain 
for a time untouched and unexplored, the rising waves of science 
have marked them all for conquest; and one by one will dash over 
them from least and humblest even to greatest and most formidable. 

And where the pioneer of science blazes the way the public 
teacher sooner or later must follow, for it is his function to supply 
the multitude with the spoils which the scientific investigator has 
prepared ready to his hand; the cry of ''wolf, " therefore, whether 
raised by the timid or by the interested, can no more frighten from. 



216 



THE INDUSTRIALIST. 



fAiMiiT., '99' 



our schools the vital truths of oconoinics and civics than it has been 
able to friffhten away chemistry, once called the "black art," or 
fifeology or biology, more recently tabooed as the antagonists of holy 
-writ and the enemies r>f (lod and man. When once the day has be- 
gun to dawn darkness must flee away and owls and bats must skulk 
to their hiding places. 

Evolution, again, moves toward freexhun of teiurhing. Tradition 
tells of the teacher, who. could he but secure the school, was willing 
to "teach the earth as round or flat" as his employers might dictate. 
And the parallel of this accommodating and i)]iable pedagog may still 
be found in schools and collegers iu the ])erson of the teacher who, 
mindful of continued salary and promotion, kecips his finger on the 
pulse of public opinion, ctmceals his views and blows hot or cold as 
safety and interest may seem to dictate. Whether jnst now we are 
really moving toward or away from freedom of utterance ou scien- 
tific subjects may V)e a n)atter for questi>n. In the hi(>logi(tal fields, 
it is true, hberty has gj'eatly increased within a decade or two; in 
theology thesajne is tru<' in New England and in a few of our chief 
citi(;s; but in the sociological, economic and financial fields we are in 
doubt whether the present movement is toward »>i- away from free- 
dom of teaching. When governing boai'ds declare in terms that the 
professor must express not the results of his inv(?stigalions and the 
conclusicms reached V)y his unbiased judgment, but the "tlominant 
sentiment of the community;" when they declare that the })rofessor 
who dissents from this "dominant sentiment " Mill be "hauled up 
before the board" and com i)el led to "walk the [)lank"we may well 
feel the indignation voiced by Professor Fox well, of Cambridge, Eng- 
land, when he exclaims: 

It is diftii-uit for lks to niiderHtaud lljo situatiou in ilu' ITm'ted States in regard 
to university professors.. The disrdosures recently made as to the tyranny 
of the money power in the luiiversities caused a great sensation here. 
Our people <;ann()t understand how you can sit down quietly under this poison- 
ing of The springs of national life. 'Phere is no heritage we prize more highly, 
or guard more jealously . than English freedom of thought and speech. We 
tolerat*^ at our universities any caprujt!. any etjcentricity. even some decree of 
incompetency, rather than tamper with the libei-ty of i)rofessor8. 'Phey are in 
fact absolutely inde|>endent. f.ikeour judges they liohl their chairs for life and 
good conduct. 

I musthonestly say that in the face of such ])r<jcee(iings as the censure of these 
professors by the moneyed inti-rest. and one oi- two sinnlar pie»?es of news 
which have reached me. I begin to think that your boasted freedom is some- 
thing of an impt>sture. Such things could not be done in despotic Cxermany or 
Russia. 



fj^^^^ 



April, '99.] 



EVOLUTION OP EDUCATION. 



217 



But despotism cannot permanently flourish on the soil of free 
America. With the growth of knowledge and the diffusion of light 
on other lines the people will learn that any science, so-called, which 
may not be freely pursued, is a farce and that any teaching that is 
done under dictation is unworthy and degrading; and then will come 
the demand, too strong to be resisted, that the gags be removed 
from the mouths of professors and teachers of economics and civics, 
and that instruction in lines of such vital moment become genuine 
and sincere. 

Education, again, moves toward the development not of the intel- 
lect alone, as tho man were but a cerebrum, but of the whole man, 
head, hand, and heart. True education seeks not to destroy, but to 
maintain, the equilibrium among all the departments of man's com- 
plex nature; it looks, like the training of the Greek, towards symmetry 
and proportion. Education in the past, however, has been largely 
one-sided. At one time it crams the head with facts and rules, and 
threatens congestion of the brain; at another it runs to the other ex- 
treme, assumes that its object is to create gladiators and athletes, 
and turns out giants in physique who are pigmies in intellect, objects 
of pity and contempt. But neither the abnormal brain nor the ab- 
normal biceps is desirable. If the time now spent in our eastern 
universities in developing mere muscle were spent in developing 
technical skill in the use of tools, and capacity to perform some use- 
ful work, the scorn with which the Latin diploma is now regarded by 
the practical business man might give place to admiration. 

But our educational conceptions must rise to a still higher plane if 
our education is to become truly worthy. We have to do largely 
with the world of matter and physical forces, and our education, 
when it ceases to be scholastic, pedantic, and medieval, deals pri- 
marily with matter and physical forces. It is of the earth, earthy. 
It teaches us to handle things, make things, buy, sell, and get things; 
to apply gravity, steam and electricity to the production and handling 
of things; and to apply forces equally material to the handling and 
government of men. A new era is slowly unfolding before us. We 
shall learn that back of matter is spirit; that higher than head is 
heart; that more powerful than steam or electricity is sentiment; and 
that nobler and more blessed than getting are being and giving. 
Some day we shall learn that the dead fly in every precious vial of 
ointment, the gravity that drags men down, the poison that infects 
our politics, that makes our fashionable society at times a nest of ad- 



218 THE INDUSTRIALIST. [April, '99 

ders, and that makes our system of wealth distribution a struggle as 
of swine about a trough, is selfishness. Our sociologists will dis- 
cover that no economic or political reforms, no reorganization of so- 
cial groups, no readjustments of economic machinery, no money 
systems sound or unsound, no tariffs, income taxes, public owner- 
ship, or referendums, alone can make a happy and prosperous so- 
ciety of a peopleon whom is the slime of the serpent of selfishness. We 
shall learn that selfishness pulls us apart and compels us to compete, 
each for himself, like the ignoble sailors on La Bourgogne, tho they 
thereby drown themselves and those whom they might have saved; 
while unselfishness draws us together, imrjels us to sink our individ- 
ual interests, and to work for each other and the well-being of the 
whole, thereby cursing none but blessing all. 

And when this great lesson is learned, our educational movement 
will take another forward and upward stride, and the efforts of 
teachers will be turned primarily, not toward training minds or 
hands, but toward filling the mind with noble ideals, firing the im- 
agination with tales of heroism shown not in the spilling of blood and 
scaling of breastworks, but in the saving of hves, the sacrificing of 
self for the wellbeing of others, and the making of this world a fit hab- 
itation for men. And when this stage is reached in the evolution of 
education, we shall learn that the Prince of Teachers was not Pesta- 
lozzi nor Froebel, not Bacon nor Spencer, but he who without salary 
or school walked by Galilee and uttered the simple truths, too long 
hidden by dogmas and ceremonies, that to-day slowly yet surely are 
leavening and one day will save the world. 




mm 



April, '99.] 



219 



RffiNTQEN RADIOGRAPHY. 

BY E. R. NICHOLS. 

AT the close of the nineteenth century, one is justified in believing 
everything or nothing. Scientific progress has been so rapid 
and wonderful that nothing is too strange for belief. On the other 
hand, the newspapers and even some scientific journals are taking 
advantage of this condition and publishing accounts of wonderful 
discoveries that are going to revolutionize existing things— dis 
coveries that began and ended in the fertile brain of some reporter 
The great advancement in the generation and application of electric 
ity in the past few years has made this a favorite field for the imag 
ination. Any transformation of energy and perhaps even of matter 
is possible so long as no creation of energy or matter is assumed 
and any reported discovery consistent with this statement is credible 

About three years ago, papers reported a new light generated by 
electricity and capable of penetrating all organic substances. The 
first mention of the X-rays in. the scientific journals occurred about 
the middle of January, 1896. These reports, however, were very 
cautious, and mentioned the new light as a reported discovery. 
Professor Miinsterburg of Harvard, in a letter to Science, January 31, 
1896, written from Freiberg, Germany, says: 

'*It is well known that the discharges of a large Ruhmkorff induc- 
tion coil produce in a vacuum tube, such as Crookes's or Hittorf 's, 
colored rays which go in strajght lines from the cathode to the glass 
of the tube. These cathode rays, which have been much studied, are 
visible to the eye and are well characterized by the fact that the mag- 
net changes their direction; they do not pass thick cardboard, wood, 
etc. The place where these cathode rays reach the glass of the tube 
is the center of Rcentgen's X-rays. They are not visible and are not 
turned aside by a magnet; in short, they are not cathode rays, but 
are produced by them. If in a dark room we cover the tube by thin, 
black cardboard, nothing can be seen at all, even if we bring the eye 
in the direct neighborhood of the.tube during the electric discharges. 
But if we now bring a card covered with barium platinocyanide near 
it the paper flashes up with every discharge, and this fluorescent 
effect is visible even if the paper is distant two meters [79 inches] 
from the tube, and it does not matter whether the varnished or the 



220 THE INDUSTRIALIST. [April, '99 

other side of the paper is directed towards the tube. The X-rays 
thus go thru the black cardboard which is opaque to sunhght, and 
the same effect follows when a bound volume of a thousand printed 
pages is put between the tube and the fluorescent paper. We can 
measure the perviousness of the different substances to the new rays 
by the intensity of the light on the paper, comparing the effect with 
and without objects between the tube and the fluorescent surface. 
But there is also an objective way possible to study the perviousness, 
as the rays produce an effect upon photographic dry plates, which, 
of course, remains and allows us to control the subjective compari- 
sons. Both methods show that wood is not much less pervious than 
paper; boards 3 cm. [1.2 inches] thick absorb very little. Hard rub- 
ber disks several centimeters thick do not stop the rays, and even 
aluminum plates 15 mm. [0. 6 inch] thick do not make the fluores- 
cence entirely disappear. Glass plates vary with the lead in them, 
those containing lead being less pervious. Platinum is slightly per- 
vious, if the plate is not thicker than 0.2 mm., silver and copper can 
be a little thicker; lead plates 1.5 mm. thick are no longer pervious. 
All substances become less pervious with increasing thickness, a 
fact which is nicely demonstrated by photographs taken thru tinfoils 
of gradually increasing number. The perviousness of substances of ^ 
equal thickness seems chiefly dependent on the density, but special 
experiments showed that different metals are not equally pervious if 
the product of thickness and density is equal; the perviousness of 
platinum 0.018 mm. thick and a density of 21.5 equals that of lead 
0.05 mm. thick, density 11.3 and that of tin 0.1 mm. thick, density 7.1, 
and that of aluminum 3.5 mm. thick and a density of 2.6. Aluminum 
may thus be 200 times thicker than platinum, while its density is 0.1. 
"The fluorescent effect of the new rays is not confined to barium 
platinocyanide, but it occurs also on glass, calc-spar, rock-salt, etc. 
Prisms and lenses do not diffract the rays, nor do prisms of hard 
rubber or aluminum. With regard to reflection and diffraction the 
following experiment is interesting. It is well known that pulver- 
ized substances do not let pass much light owing to refraction and 
reflection. Roentgen found with pulverized salt, calc-spar, zinc and 
other substances that the ray passes thru the powder with exactly 
the same intensity as thru the solid substance. Objects with rough 
surface let it pass exactly like polished ones. The shadow of a 
round stick is in the middle darker than at the edges; the shadow of 
a metal tube is in the middle lighter than at the edges. 



April, '99.] 



RCENTGEN RADIOGRAPHY. 



221 



"With regard to the effect on photographic plates, it must not be 
forgotten that lenses do not refract the rays and therefore ordinary- 
photography is not possible; the pictures of the objects are only 
shadows. But these shadow-pictures can be taken in the closed 
wooden box of the camera in a light room, as the sunlight of course 
does not pass thru the wood, while the X-rays do. In this way 
Roentgen took photographs of a set of metal weights in a wooden box, 
and of a thick wire wound as a spiral around a wooden stick; the 
wood was pervious, the metal of that thickness not, and so the 
shadows of the weights and of the wire are seen in the photo^irraph, 
those of the wood scarcely at all. In the same manner he took the 
picture of a compass needle in the closed box. The door between 
two rooms did not hinder the chemical effect. 

"With regard to the nature of the X-rays it seems too early to say 
anything definite. Roentgen emphasizes the fact that they show no 
refraction and probably therefore move in all substances with equal 
velocity and are transmitted by a medium which exists everywhere 
and in which are the molecules of the substances. That is, they are 
ether rays, but not transverse ether waves like the visible or the 
ultra red or ultra violet invisible light; Roentgen supposes that they 
are longitudinal ether waves, the existence of which has for a long 
time been suspected by physicists. Researches regarding many 
other qualities of the new rays are in progress, and their results 
may clear up the theoretical interpretation." 

In the same issue of Science the following occurs: "While Hertz 
and Lenard hold that the cathode rays are vibrations in the ether or 
even hght of short wave length, Crookes and J. J. Thomson have 
urged that the rays are negatively charged matter traveling with 
great velocity. M. Perrin reported to the Paris Academy, on 
December 30, experiments which tend to show that the latter view 
is correct, and some relation will probably be found between cathode 
rays and the X-rays." 

The above prediction is interesting, coming so early and yet 
pointing the way to the best explanation of X-rays. 

Figure 1 is a vertical and horizontal view of a self- regulating 
X-ray tube. It consists of a spherical portion with arms nearly 
exhausted of air. The two portions of the figure are lettered to 
correspond. The electric current from a static machine or induction 
coil enters at B and passes to A by means of the platinum wire. It 
leaps from A to K and leaves at C. A current of high potential 



222 



THE INDUSTRIALIST. 



[April, '99 



passing thru a so-called vacuum tube drives the remaining air out 
and tends to reduce the vacuum to such a rare state that the current 
passes with difficulty. To keep the vacuum constant, some substance 
is placed in the bulb E that is volatilized by the current. When the 
vacuum becom.es low, part of the current passes by the path B H P 
L D R to C. This volatilizes some of the substance in E which is in 




Fig. 1. 



communication with the main bulb thru the chamber J. This per- 
mits all the current to again, pass along the path B A K C. The air 
gap between R and C can be adjusted to any distance by swinging 
arm R on the axis at D. A is the anode and K the cathode. The 
anode is the rectangular piece of platinum hung obliquely as shown 
in the upper part of figure 1 at A. 

The cathode is a spherical concave reflector with its focus at A. 
It would seem that the negatively charged matter leaves K witlj a 
high velocity and striking A is reflected downward to X. These are 
the cathode rays, visible, capable of being deflected by a magnet, and 
do not pass thru organic substance of any considerable thickness. 

Outside of the bulb at X these cathode rays become X-rays, invis- 
ible, incapable of reflection or refraction and pass more or less 
readily thru all organic substance and some others. The best theory 
of these X-rays is probably the following from an article by J. J. 
Thomson in the Philosophical Magazine for February, 1898: 

"A moving electrified particle is surrounded by a magnetic field, 
the lines of magnetic force being circles having the Une of motion of 



_,_ 



April, '99.] 



RCENTGEN RADIOGRAPHY. 



223 



the particle for axis. If the particle be suddenly stopped, there wiU, 
in consequence of electromagnetic induction, be no instantaneous 
change in the magnetic field; the induction gives rise to a magnetic 
field, which for a moment compensates for that destroyed by the 
stopping of the particle. The new field thus introduced is not, how- 
ever, in equilibrium, but moves off thru the dielectric as an electric 
pulse. In this paper we calculate the magnetic force and electric in- 
tensity carried by the pulse to any point in the dielectric. 

"The distribution of magnetic force and electric intensity around 
the moving particle depends greatly on the^^elocity of the particle. 
If this velocity is so small that the squ.are of its ratio to the velocity 
of light can be neglected, then the electric intensity is symmetrically 
distributed around the particle, and at a distance r from it is equal to 
-^, where e is the charge on the particle; the lines of magnetic force 
are circles with the line of motion of the particle for axis; the magni- 
tude of the magnetic force at a point P is ive sin-y, where iv is the 
velocity of the particle, and A the angle a radius from the particle to 
P makes with the direction of motion. 

"When, however, the velocity of the particle is so great that we 
can no longer neglect the square of its ratio to the velocity of light, 
the distribution of electric intensity is no longer uniform; the elec- 
tric intensity, along with the magnetic force, tends to concentrate in 
the equatorial pl?.ne, that is, the plane thru the center of the particle 
at right angles to its direction of motion; this tendency increases 
with the velocity of the particle until, when thi? is equal to the veloc- 
ity of light, both the magnetic force and the electric intensity vanish 
at all parts of the field except the equatorial plane, and in this plane 
they are infinite. 

"The pulses started by the stopping of the charged particle are, 
as might be expected, different when the ratio of the velocity of the 
particle to that of light is smaU, and when it is nearly unity. But 
even when the velocity is small, the pulse started by stopping the 
particle carries -to ;;an external point a disturbance in which the 
magnetic force is enormously greater than it was at the same point 
before the particle was stopped. The time the pulse takes to pass 
over a point P is, if the charged particle be spherical, equal to the 
time light takes to pass- over a distance equal to the diameter of this 
sphere; the thickness of this pulse is excessively small compared 
with the wave-length of visible light. When the velocity of the 



224 



THE INDUSTRIALIST. 



[April, '99 



particle approaches that of light two pulses are started when it is 
stopped. One of these is a thin plane sheet whose thickness is equal 
to the diameter of the charged particle; this wave is propagated in 
the direction in which the particle was moving; there is no corre- 
sponding wave propagated backward : the other is a spherical pulse 
spreading outward in all directions, whose thickness is again equal 
to the diameter of the charged particle, and thus, if this particle is 
of molecular dimensions, or perhaps even smaller, very small 
compared with the wave-length of ordinary light. The theory I 
wish to put forward is tjiat the Roentgen rays are these thin pulses 
of electric and magnetic disturbance which are started when the 
small negatively charged particles which constitute the cathode rays 
are stopped. . . . 

"Thus we see that the stoppage of a charged particle will give 
rise to very thin pulses of intense magnetic force and electric in- 
tensity; when the velocity of the particle is small there will be 
one spherical pulse; when the velocity is nearly equal to that of light 
there will, in addition to the spherical pulse, be a plane one propaga- 
ted only in the direction in which the particle was originally moving. 
It is these pulses which I believe constitute the Roentgen rays. As 
they consist of electric and magnetic disturbances, they might be 
expected to produce some effects analogous to those of light. If 
they were so thin that the time taken by them to pass over a mole- 
cule of a substance were small compared with the time of vibration 
of the molecule, there would be no refraction, and the thinness of 
the pulse would also account for the absence of diffraction. 

'' In the preceding investigation we have supposed that the stop- 
page of the particle is instantaneous; if the impact lasts for a finite 
time T the negative pulse will be broadened cm t, so that its thickness, 
instead of being 2a,* will be 2a+VT, where Vis the velocity of light. 
The intensity of the magnetic force in the pulse will vary inversely 
as the thickness of the pulse, so that when the collision lasts for the 

time T, the magnetic force in the negative pulse will bo 

(2a+VT) 
of the value given above. The more sudden the collision, the thin- 
ner the pulse and the greater the magnetic force and the energy in 
the pulse; the pulse will, however, possess the properties of the Roent- 
gen rays until T is comparable to one of the times of vibration of a 
substance thru which it has to pass. In the case of the cathode rays 

*2a being the diameter of tlie electritted particle. 




FiaaL 




WUi.i. 



^^_ 




Fl0.b. 





FiaO 



i 




siJA^it^».i>^»^'£i^Eaeiis^T.:^.:aJi. ■ 



Fig. 7. 




Pig. 8. 




FlQ.9 



April, '99.] 



RCENTGEN RADIOGRAPHY. 



225 



all the circumstances seem favorable to a very sudden collision, as 
the mass of the moving particles is very small and their velocity ex- 
ceedingly great. In some experiments which I described in the 
Philosophical Magazine for October, 1897, on cathode rays, the velo- 
city of the negative particles was about one-third of that of light, 
and in some more recent experiments made on the Lenard rays, with 
the appariatus described by Des Coudres, considerably higher veloci- 
ties were found. A change in the time of the collision will alter the 
thickness of the pulse and so change the nature of the ray." 

Professors Failyer and Willard and the writer began experiment- 
ing with such apparatus as the College possessed in the spring of 
1896, using a Toepler-Holtz static machine and various vacuum tubes, 
including incandescent lamps. After several failures we succeeded 
in getting some fair pictures of flat objects placed on the negatives. 
A focusing tube purchased in June enabled us to get good pictures 
of small objects such as the hand, snakes, frogs, etc. With the static 
machine (eigh teen-inch, single revolving plate) and ordinarj'^ dry 
plates the action was slow, requiring from half an hour to one hour 
to get a good picture of the human hand. With an induction 
coU capable of giving an eight-inch spark and the self-regulating 
X-ra,y tube already described and X-ray dry plates, a picture of a 
a human hand may be taken in from ten to fifteen seconds. The 
time must be considerably increased as the object to be radiographed 
increases in thickness, both on account of the greater thickness to 
be penetrated and the greater distance of the tube from the plate. 

Figure 2 shows some small objects taken on a 4 by 5 plate and re- 
duced to one-fourth area. These objects could be laid flat on the 
black, light-proof paper covering the negative and therefore give a 
. rfiarp outline. 

Figure 3 shows some of the difficulties of radiography. The 
objects were seven wire shingle nails about one inch long. Two of 
them were laid on the negative, the other five were driven into the 
edge of a half inch pine strip. This strip with the nails was placed 
obliquely above the negative so that the nail at the right of the fig- 
ure nearly touched the plate, the next was about one inch from the 
plate, thus bringing the nail at the left four inches from the plate. 
This indistinctness of objects at some distance from the negative 
can be partly overcome by placing the X-ray tube at considerable 
distance from the object. This however increases the time very 
much, and for living objects, especially if suffering from afresh 



226 



THE INDUSTRIALIST. 



[April, '99 



wound, becomes impracticable. Before leaving figure 3, we might- 
call attention to the shadow of the pine strip at the bottom of the 
picture. 

The following illustrations show some of the practical applications 
, of radiography that we have been making at the College. Figure 4 
is a front view of a man's ankle showing a bullet just above the ankle 
joint. Figure 5 is a side view of the same. Several attempts had 
been made to find the bullet in the foot. A radiograph at the time 
of the accident would have saved much pain and expense. Figure 6- 
shows a bullet just below the elbow joint. Figure 7 is a side view of 
the same. Figures 8 and 9 are top and side views respectively of & 
girl's foot. This is a peculiar case. The girl at about twelve years 
of age hurt her foot while running barefoot. The foot swelled and 
was very painful for a time. The radiographs were taken about six 
years after the accident and neither the parents nor the girl were 
certain as to which foot was injured. The girl was sjifEering from 
nervousness and the doctor suggested the X-rays to determine 
whether or not anything had entered the foot at the time of the ac- 
cident, with the result as shown. It seems strange that a needle 3- 
inches long could have been driven entirely into the foot, eye first, 
as is evident from the position of the needle as shown by the 
radiographs. 

The possibilities of the X-rays have probably been overestimated,, 
but they are certain to have a large us§ in detecting foreign sub- 
stances in the body, such as metals, glass and calcareous deposits;; 
and in determining the condition of the bones as to fracture or dis- 
ease. 









mm 



mmmmm 



April, '99.] 



227 



CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE KNOWLEDGE OF THE COCCID/E. 

BY T. D. A. COCKERELL AKD P. J. PARROTT. 

(Concluded from last month.) 

V. The specieb of Lecanium belonging to the group Paralecanium. 

Paralecanium, Ckll., subg. no v., is proposed for the flat or flattish 
species, allied to Galymnatus, but having the marginal hairs modified 
into fan-shaped scales. Type L. frenchii, Maskell, N. Z. Trans., 
xxm, 17. 
Antennae 8-segmented. (Australia, on Banksia) frenchii, Mask. 

( Var. macrozamice. Fuller, oa Macrozamia, is more elongated than the type.) 

Antennae 6-segmented (obscurely so in expansum) 1 

1. Flat, broad, subtriangular, pointed in front. (Ceylon.) 

planum, Green 

Like the last but smaller and lacking the dermal cells. (Cey- 
lon.) maritimum, Green 

Flattish, subcircular, median dorsal area with concentric se- 
ries of polygonal depressed spaces. (Ceylon. )geometricum, Gveen 

Oval, pointed in front; pale fulvous to castaneous, a submar- 
ginal zone almost colorless. (Ceylon.) marginatum, Green 

Very large, flattish, longest diameter about 8 mm. (Ceylon. ) 
expansum. Green 

The above particulars are derived from the original descriptions. 
The following data are from authentic specimens, the L. frenchii 
from Mr. Maskell, the others from Mr. Green. 

Lecanium frenchii, Maskell. The scale remains opaque and very 
dark chestnut after prolonged boiling. There are two circular for- 
amina at the cephalic end, in the position of the eyes; these are 265 
micromilhmeters from the margin, and 793 micromillimeters apart. 
Anal plates 150 micromillimeters long; anal cleft to tips of the plates, 
348 micromillimeters. The three pairs of legs are practically alike, 
except that the anterior tibiae and tarsi seem somewhat smaller. 
The measurements are: coxa, 91-104; femur with trochanter, 107-124; 
tibia, 76-83; tarsus with claw 76-99 micromillimeters. 

Lecanium marginatum, Green. Scale after boiling brownish, but 
very pale. Marginal scales transversely oval, like a palm-leaf fan, 
overlapping, 35-45 micromillimeters broad. Stigmatic spines in 
threes; the middle one 50, the lateral ones 33 micromillimeterSw 



228 



THE INDUSTOIALIST. 



[April, '99 



Anal plates 124 micromillimeters long; coxa, 66; femur with tro- 
chanter, 110; tibia, 66; tarsus with claw 83 micromillimeters. 

Lecanium planum, Green. Scale after boiling remains a deep se- 
pia brown, with numerous hyaUne gland spots, especially at the 
sides. The margin is broadly hyaline, more or less striated with 
brown. Anal area hyaline; and plates about 140 micromillimeters 
long. The marginal fringe consists of broad, closely-set scales 
shaped like human incisors, and densely ciliate along their strait 
outer margins. 

Lecanium maritimum, Green. Described ( Ind. Mus. Notes, J896) 
as a variety of L. planum, but evidently a very good species. Scale 
after boiling lighter colored than planum the two anterior foramina 
present as in frenchii, 497 micromillimeters apart. Anal plates 149 
micromillimeters long. Marginal scales very pale, very broad, 
transversely oval, with rounded margins, overlapping, not ciliate. 
With a high power they are seen to be delicately radiately striate. 
Coxa, 90; femur with trochanter, 116; tibia, 66; tarsus with claw, 74 
micromillimeters- 

VI. The species of Lecanium, belonging to or resembling the subgenus 

Calymnatus. 

The following table includes some specie^, such as L. strachani, 
which really belong to no recognized subgenus, but are 
flat or flattish, and more or less resemble Calymnatus. 

Outline pyriform, marginal hairs branched. (Ceylon, West In- 
dies) mangiferce, Green, 1889 

Not so I 

1. Scalegreen when alive 2 

Scale brownish or grayish 4 

2. Scale -about 6 mm. long, 3 wide and 3 high. (Mexico) 

.-. ..schini, Licht. MS., CkU., 1893* 

Scale 2 to 3^ mm. long, oval 3 

3. Antennas 7-segmented. (Ceylon, Brazil.) viride, Green, 1896 

Antennae 8-segmented. {lja.gos.)viride var. africanum, Newst., 1898 

4. Scale distinctly tessellate 5 

Scale not tessellate 

5. The tessellation microscopical, only seen after mounting 

The tessellation large, the scale divided into plates easily seen 

with a lens 7 



8 
6 



narto?th^^^Si®i^? Identlflcation of i.«cAtm, the foUowinff measurements were taken from 
?^ L» *?® *^P® ™*^fj'?i, AntenncE-[\) 47 56, (2) 82-67, (3) 90-101, (4) 47-87, (5) 47-56 (6) 47 m 31 
(8) 66. Leg» - coxa. 149-198; femur with trochanter. 265-298; tibia, 165- 98; tar^us:9fl^l5; claW a)-ao: 



April, '99.] 



THE COCCID^, 



229 



6. Scale 6^ mm. long, 3^ broad, 1 high... (On Cattleya in hot- 

house, Ottawa. ) pseudJiesperidum, Ckll., 1895 

Scale not over 2^ mm. long, and 1 broad. (On hothouse 
plants in England ) minimum, Newst., 1892 

7. Antennae 7-segmented. (On hothouse palms in France).. .. 

tessellatum, Sign., 1873 

Antennae 8-segraented. (On hothouse palms, Eng. and U. S.) 

perforatum, Newst, 1894 

Note.— These two are apparently forms of one species; they are very flat 
and dark colored, 3i to 4 mm. long. The var. suoainsono', Ckll., of tessellatum 
is found .in Jamaica on lig-num-vitge; it is larger, 4i to 5 mm. long, and the 
margin is not divided into so many plates. 

8. Scale elongate, longer than oval, 4 to 5 mm. long, about 2 wide 9 

Scale oval 10 

Scale broad oval or almost circular 15 

9. Very flat; antennae 7-segmented. (On (Jyperus) 

angustaturn, Sign., 1873 

Fairly convex; antennae 8-segmented (longulum, Dougl., 1887 

J (On various plants ih the tropics > 

I . . . ..fleas, Mask., 1898 

I (On Ficus, China.) 

Note.— i. Jicus must be very near to Imigulum, but it is " darkish-brown;" 
while Icrityulum is dark-grayish when alive, pale reddish-brown when dead 
and dry. 

10. Scale not very small, about 4 mm. long 11 

Scale very small, not over 3 mm. long; rarely over 2i 13 

11. Antennae 8-segmented; mature scales with a waxy or cot- 

tony material scattered over the surface. (Brazil, on Bac- 

charis) bacQharidis, Ckll., 1895 

Antennae 7-segmented; scale naked 12 

12. Trochanter with a very long hair; tarsal digitules very long 

hesperidum (L) 

Trochanter with a short hair; tarsal digitules short and stout 
hesperidum var lauri (Boisd. ) 

13. Antennae 8-segmented; scale yellow; dorsal ridge marked by 

an irregular longitudinal series of polygonal cells, which 
are not visible in mounted specimens. (Japan, on Pitto- 

sporum and tea.) notatum, Mask., 1898 

Antennae 7-segmented 14: 

14. Scale brownish-crimson or madder; skin crowded with 

gland spots; claw digitules very stout. (Jamaica.) 

rubellum, Ckll., 1894 



230 



THE INDUSTRIALIST. 



[April, '99 



Scale reddish-brown or yellowish; skin with scattered gland- 
spots; claw digitules fairly slender. (Trinidad.) 

nanum, Ckll., 1896 

Scale light yellow; skin not crowded with gland spots as in 
rubellum, and claw digitules not or hardly bulbous at base; 
fourth antennal segment much longer than in nanum, and 
the marginal spines quite large. (New Mexico and Colo- 
rado, in hot houses, on Pilea.).. Jtaveolum, Ckll., 1897 

Scale yellowish- brown; resembles minimum, but skin not 

tessellate. (South Africa, on Pinus insignis.) . 

■• pinicola (Mask., 1897) 

Scale much like a small hesperidum, but having a mediodor- 
sal series of nine or ten spots; third and fourth antennal 
segments almost equal. (France, on ivy.) 
maculatum, Sign., 1873 

15. Very large but flat; length 7, breadth 7 mm. ; chestnut color, 

shiny; antennas 8-segmented. ( A2;ores, on orange.) 

perlatum, Ckll., 1898 

Not over 5 mm. long 16 

16. Dorsal surface covered with glassy secretion, which in the 

middle of the back is broken up into small oval plates; 
perfectly flat, 5 mm. long; antennae 8 segmented. (Lagos, 

on Anona.) strachani, Ckll., 1898 

Not so; length not over 4^ mm 17 

17. Antennae 8-segmented; scale 3 mm. long, 2^ broad, 1 high, 

soft, pale ochreous; skin after boiling colorless, with very 

large roun^ gland-pits. (Antigua, on sweet potato tubers) 

batatce, Ckll., 1895 

Antennae 7-segmented 18 

Antennae 6-segmented; dark brown or reddish-brown flat 
species, resembling tesseaatum 20 

18. Outline circular or almost so, color black or nearly so. (Ari- 

zona, on Phoradendron. ) phoradendri, Ckll., 1894 

Outline broad oval, insect resembling hesperidum 19 

19. Tarsus hardly half as long as tibia. (Paris, in hothouses, on 

orchids. ) acuminatum, Sign., 1873 

Tarsus longer, 68-74 micromilli- f ventrale, Ehrh., 1898 

meters . •{ '*^*'^'o™'*;PerhapslntroducedfromJapan.) 

terminalice, Ckll., 1893 

*■ Jamaica, Mexico 

-Note.— These two species are extremely close, but I think separable. L. term- 

i greenish, rayed and reticulate finely with 



tnaiicE when alive is more or 



April, '99.] THE COCCID^. 231 

dark gray or black. Placed in caustic soda, portions of the body give a purple 
or magenta substance into solution. The following measurements of terminalioe 
(in micromillimeters) were taken from part of the type lot from Kingston, 
Jamaica: Antennal segments— (1) 34, (2)36-39, (3) 56, (4)59-62, (5) 20, (6) 14-20, 
<7) 34-50. Coxa, 99; femur with trochanter, 132-157; tibia, 99-105; tarsus, 68-74. 

20. Symmetrical, or almost so. (Australia on Melaleuca. ) 

' melaleucoi. Mask., 1898 

Asymmetrical 21 

21. Scale 3^ mm. tong, 3 broad; submarginal area with many 

large brownish glands, arranged more or less in radiating 

rows. (Brazil on mangrove.) 7'hizophorai,C\d[., 1899 

Scale 2i mm. long, 1^ broad; marginal area with rather large 
hyaline spaces. (Mexico.) impar, Ckll., 1898 

VII. A neiv Eriococcus. 

Eriococcus larreoe, Parrott & Ckll., n. sp. Female 2.4 mm. long, 2 
wide, 1 high, suboval, plump, practically naked, resting on a rather 
thick film of yellowish- white cottony secretion; segmentation con- 
spicuous; color dark purple to dull black, the surface rather shiny, 
caudal area pale reddish, ventral surface of thorax dull red; legs and 
antennsB pale reddish fulvous. Some specimens have a median longi- 
tudinal row of three or four cream-colored spots on the anterior half 
of the back. Boiled in KHO, the females give a brilliant crimson 
color. Half-grown examples are flattish, often quite reddish, and 
frequently show a broken dorsal pale yellow stripe. Their dorsal 
bristles are comparatively few and very small, whereas E. tiusleyi of 
the same age is densely bristly. The microscopical characters of the 
adult females are as follows, aU measurements in micromilli meters: 
Antennce— segments (1) 43-47, (2) 25-31, (3) 50-59, (4) 62, (5) 20-29, (6) 
20-28, (7) 34-36; formula, 4317256, varying to 43172(56). Legs- 
coxa, 149-166; femur with troch'antey, 182-199; tibia, 90-116; tarsus, 
130-149; claw, 33-36. Spines. — Several spines measured were as 
foUows (micromillimeters): 8, 8, 14, 8, 14, 15, 16. The spines are not 
numerous, some individuals appearing nearly spineless. Taking the 
spiny (mainly lateral) areas, the distances between a number of 
spines, taken at random, were as follows, in micromillimeters: 47, 
28, 70, 50, 47, 47, 19, 22, 39, 42, 33, 19, 36, 112, 42, 50, 16, 25, 56, 45, 70. 
jffab. — Underground on crowns of Larrea tridentata, behind the 
Agricultural College, Mesilla Valley, N. M., Jan. 23, 1899. (P. J. 
Parrott.) This insect, being naked, would go in BMzococcus, but it is 
closely allied to Eriococcus tinsleyi, and we presume it will later form 



232 



THE INDUSTRIALIST. 



[April, '99 



a complete sac. It cannot very well be separated from E. tinsleyi 
by the antennae or legs, but it differs greatly from that species in be- 
ing much less bristly or spiny, and in having smaller spines. A 
number of spines of adult E. tinsleyi, taken at random, measured as 
follows in micromillimeters: 34, 31, 19, 30, 36, 28, 31. The distances be- 
tween the spines of adult E. tinsleyi, measured in a number of cases, 
were as follows in micromillimeters; 42, 45, 28, 33, 49, 16, 33, 30, 18, 20, 

17, 20, 20, 16, 22, 50, 60, 14, 18, 33, 49, 52, 16, 32, 48. 16, 30, 8, 16, 12, 8, 

18, 20, 16. 

VIII. The subgenus Eulecanium of Lecanium. 

(All measurements of antennae and legs are In micromillimeters.) 

Lecanium quercitronis, Fitch. 

(a) Specimens on Quercus from Walnut Creek Canon, near Flagstaff, 

Arizona, (E. M. Ehrhorn), have the antennae thus: (2) 33, (3) 
58, (4) 58, (5) 22, (6) 20, (7) 50; formula (34)7256. 

(b) Specimens on Quercus undulata from Arizona ( Koebele, 1633; Div. 

Ent. 7925) are unusually globose, and the antennal segments 

measure: (1) 48-53, (2) 3142, (3) 48-53, (4) 37-48, (5) 20, (6) 20-28, 

(7) 23-42. The formulae observed are (13)742(56), (13)47265, 
and 8(14)2675. 

(c) Specimens on Gastanea pumila, Mariposa county, California, (A. 

Craw) are S-k mm. long, 2^ broad, 2 high. The newly-hatched 
larva is very pale pinkish, without marks. Antennal form- 
ulae 31(74)256 or 31(742)(56). 

(d) Specimens on elm from Du Bois, Ills. (Chas. C. Adams), are 4^ 

mm. long, 3i broad, 2ihigh, and are not so rounded as typical 
quercitroniH. The antennal formula is 34(71)256, and the seg- 
ments measure. (1) 39, (2) 34, (3) 59, (4) 46, (5) 25, (6) about 25, 
(7) about 40. The digitules are long, those of the claw unequal, 
one being thicker than the other. 
Lecanium canadense, ( CkD. ) On reexamining the form from Orono, 
Maine, on elm (F. L. Harvey), we found 7-segmented antennae, the 
segments measuring: (1) 42, (2) 32-39, (3) 62-98, (4)54, (5) 20-22, 
(6) 20-22, (7) 40-47. The legs had the coxa 132, femur with tro- 
chanter 182, tibia 132. This form is hardly different from quer- 
citronis, and whUe the scale i& rather large and the third antennal 
segment quite long, the form on elm from Illinois, referred above to 
querdtronis, is a fair intermediate. In one antenna, 4 appeared to be 
only 19 micromillimeters, but this must be abnormal. It is possible 
that the Maine insect should be referred to querdtronis; or even 
that the Maine and Illinois elm forms should together form a new 



April, '99.] 



THE COCCID^. 



233 



species; but the only way to settle this will be by the examination of 
much larger series than we now possess, and the comparison of the 
immature stages. There is apparently still another elm Eulecanium 
in this country. A form found by Mr. W. Newell, at Ames, Iowa,, 
on Ulmusfulva, is like eanadense in the scale, but shorter, and propor- 
tionately higher. The antennae are like those of L. antennatum, with ^ 
a very long third segment; formula 327(45)6. Not enough of this 
species has been seen to determine the constancy of its characters^ 

Lecanium cynosbati, Pitch. What we refer to this species was- 
found by Mr. G. B. King at Methuen, Mass., on Gleditschia triacan' 
thos. The identification may be doubtful, as we find 7-segmented 
antennae measuring: (1) 28, (2) 34, (3) 53, (4) 45, (5) 22-25, (6) 19-22, 
(7)43. The 6-segmented form would have 3 and 4 of this antenna 
united. The coxa is 66, femur with trochanter 165, tibia 107, tarsus- 
with claw 107-115. In having the third antennal segment distinctly 
longer than the fourth, this agrees with caryarum, quercitronis, etc.,, 
but it is distinguished from these by having 3 less than^ 65 micro- 
millimeters, and at the same time 1 shorter than 2. 

Lecanium caryarum, Ckll. Distinguished, by having 7.-segmentect 
antennae; with 3 distinctly longer than 4, and over 80 micromilli- 
meters. In these particulars it agrees with some of the Miaine ean- 
adense, but the femur and trochanter together are shorter than ia 
the Maine species. These measurements are from the types: An- 
fenna— (1)48-56, (2)42-51, (3)90-106, (4) 20-25, (5)20-23, (6)20-22, (7> 
45-53. It will be seen that while 3 is very long, 4 is much shorter 
than in quercitronis. Legs — coxa, 83-99; femur with trochanter, 165;. 
tibia; 115; tarsus with claw, 99. 

Lecanium bituberculatum, Targ. MS., Sign. Our specimens were 
found on apple at Salem, Oregon. (C. A. Dailey, 1896.)' They were 
sent by Mr. Cordley who at first stated, in error, that they were 
from plum. The antennae measure— (1) 42, (2) 31, (3) 45-47, (4> 
70-73, (5)28-33, (6) 17-26, (7)34-42. Legs— coxa, 87; femur with tro- 
chanter, 154; tibia, 112; tarsus, 78; claw, 23. This species is easily 
known by its scale, "and the fourth antennal segment distinctly longer 
than 8. In the latter feature, and in having 4 over 60 micromilli- 
meters, it agrees with craivii, pubescens and armeniacum. 

Lecanium armeniacum. Craw. Our material is from prune trees 
at Mountain View, California (Ehrhorn). Antennce—{1) 47, (2) 28, (3> 
45, (4) 59-62, (5) 18-19, (6) 20, (7) 45. One antenna appeared to have 
only six segments, 6 measuring 42 micromillimeters.. The legs were 



284 



THE INDUSTRIALIST. 



[April, '99 



not obtained in good condition, but the coxa is 90, the femur with 
trochanter 145 micromillimeters. This has a much larger coxa than 
tarsale. The third antennal segment is shorter than in pubescens. 

Lecanium tarsale, Sign. Our material is from Cornus alternifolia 
at Andover, Mass. (King) The antennae vary from 6 to 7 segments, 
measuring, 6-segmented— (1) 34, (2) 31, (3) 104, (4) 21, (5) 19, (6) 
40; 7-segmented— (1) 28, (2) 39, (3) 48, (4) 56, (5) 20, (6) 19, (7) 30. 
Coxa, 47-49; femur with trochanter, 150-157; tibia, 90-92; tarsus with 
claw, 57-58. The 6-segmented form will be recognized by having a 
femur with trochanter over 140, combined with a coxa under 55, and 
a tarsus and claw under 65 micromillimeters. The 7-segmented 
form will be recognized by having 4 distinctly longer than 3, but less 
than 60 micromillimeters, while the coxa is hardly 50 micromilli- 
meters. The tarsal digitules are very long. Scale 4 mm. long, 2^ 
broad, 2 high, light brown. 

Lecanium nigro/asciatum, Pergande. This is a very distinct little 
species, and hardly belongs to Eulecanium. The specimens measured 
are from Ruma, Ills., on plum, sent by Dr. S. A. Forbes. The 
species was described as new from these specimens some years ago, 
but the description was suppressed on learning that Mr. Pergande 
had the species in MS. Antennce—{1) 15-31, (2) 42-45, (3) 90-98, (4) 
17-20, (5) 16-21, (6) 40-47. Legs—coKSL, 99-115; femur with tro- 
chanter, 149; tibia, 115; tarsus with claw, 82. Sometimes the an- 
tennae appear to be 7-segmented, with a formula 4273156. This 
species was also received from Mr. G. B. King, found on Acer rubrum 
at Methuen, Mass. Apart from the scale characters, and the trans- 
parent derm after boiling, this species will be known by the 6- 
segmented antennae, with -the femur with trochanter over 140 
micromilHmeters, coxa over 75 micromillimeters, tarsus with claw 
under 85 micromillimeters, and tibia over 110 micromillimeters. 

Lecanium ribis. Fitch. In Canad. Entom., 1895, p. 255, are some 
notes on a species presumed to be Fitch's ribis. Mr. Pergande; we 
understand, doubts this indentification; but we are not yet informed 
precisely on what grounds. Fitch's description is quite inadequate, 
and it may be impossible to say with certainty what he had before 
him, unless his types can be examined. Even so there may be doubt, 
as Fitch certainly sent to Signoret as caryce a scale very different 
from the original insect of that name, and it may well be that other 
species in his collection were confounded. The following measure- 
ments are from the form found on mulberry in Ohio by Professor 



April, '99.] 



THE COCCIDiE. 



235 



Webster: Antenn(B (1) 42, (2) 32, (3) 99, (4) 18, (5) 15, (6) 33. Legs- 
coxa, 99-115; femur '.with trochanter, 145-149; tibia 99; tarsus, 54; 
claw 20. This insect, whatever it is, may be known by the small 
scale, and 6- segmented antennae, with the femur and trochanter over 
140 micromilhmeters (this separates it from pallidior and kingii,) 
coxa over 75 micromillimeters (this separates it from tarsale,) tarsus 
and claw under 85 micromillimeters and tibia not over 100 micromil- 
limeters. 

Lecanium quercifex, Fitch. What we regard as a variety of this 
species was found by Mr. G. B. King at Methuen, Mass., on an or- 
namental shrub. It is smaller than the form described by Signoret, 
being only 5 mm. long,, 3 broad, 2^ high. The antennae seem vari-' 
able; sometimes they appear 7-segmented, and exactly as Signoret 
describes for quercifex. Antennce—{1) 28, (2) 34, (3)92, (4)43, (5) 
29, (6) 33. Le.^s— coxa, 82; femur with trochanter, 165; tibia, 115; 
tarsus with claw, 90. This may be recognized among forms with 6 
antennal segments by having the femur and trochanter over 140 
micromillimeters, coxa over 75 micromillimeters, tarsus and claw 
over 85 micromillimeters, and tibia over 110 micromillimeters. 

Lecanium kvngii, Ckll. Antennce-{1) 26-28, (2)32-34, (3) 89-93, 
{4) 23, (5) 20-22, (6) 39-42. Legs— coxa, 66; femur with trochanter, 
115; tibia, 99; tarsus with claw, 83. These measurements are from 
the type slide. The species will be known by the 6-segmented anten- 
nae, with the femur and trochanter less than 120 micromillimeters, 
and tarsus and claw over 80 micromHli meters. By the antennae and 
legs, it falls close to pallidior, but the scales of the two are very 

different. 

Lecanium variegatum, Goethe. The measurements are from 
material found on plum and sent from Germany by Mr. Goethe. Un- 
fortunately no perfect antenna was found, but the first four seg- 
ments measure: (1) 42, (2) 33, (3) 47, (4) 56. Legs-ooxa, 90-108; femur 
with trochanter, 157-165; tibia, 107-112; tarsus, 88-90; claw 28-32. 
This resembles L. armeniacum in having the fourth antennal seg- 
ment distinctly longer than 3, but less than 60 micromillimeters, 
and the coxa 90 micromiUimeters or over. It differs at once from 
armeniamm in the scale. Mr. Goethe says that the gay coloration 
of the scales lasts only for a short time, and soon gives place to a 
cofEee-brown tint. He adds that Lichtenstein wrote him that he 
thought the species was identical with L. vagabundum, Fftrster. 
This, however, ishardiyhkely. 



236 



THE INDUSTRIALIST. 



[April, '99 



Lecanium fitchii, Sign. The material measured is from Medina 
county, Ohio, on wild blackberry. (Webster.) Jw^emite— (1) -SM?, 
(2) 36-42, (3) 42-64,(4) 53-64, (5) 17-21, (6) 17-22, (7) 39-42. Legs— coxa, 
102-115; femur with trochanter, 132-165; tibia 99; tarsus -with claw, 
100-103; (tarsus, 82-86; claw, 17.) This differs from L. armeniacu'm 
by the longer coxa, but the antennae are practically the same. 

Lecanium perornatuin, Ckll. & Parrott, n. sp. Female scale nearly 
globular, 4 mm. long, 3^ wide, 3^ high, smooth but only moderately 
shiny, transversely banded with alternate bands of yellow and dark 
brown, the bands of about equal width, but narrower and less dis- 
tinct on the hind part of the scale. There are three of the brown 
bands especially large and conspicuous, and also a longitudinal me- 
dian dorsal brown stripe. These markings are fully retained in the 
dead and dry scales, after producing young. Antenmc 7-segmented— 
(1) 50-56, (2) 47, (3) 31-47, (4) 16-25, (5) 22-28, (6) 16-22, (7) 22-39. 
One antenna appeared to be only 6-segmented, 6 being 33 micromil- 
hmeters. In this 2 and 3 were of the same length, 47 micromilli- 
meters. A noticeable feature is the short 4. Zegrs— coxa, 49; femur 
with trochanter, 115; tibia, 94; tarsus with claw, 66. /Taft.— Moravia, 
Austria, June 26, 1897, on stems of liosacanma; sent by K. L. Kafka, 
as L. rosarum. It differs entirely too much from the descriptions of 
L. rosarvm to be that species, and it does not agree with anything 
else; so, as it is a very pretty species, we call it perornatum. 

Lecanium maclurarum, Ckll. The following measurements are from 
the type lot: Antenna — (1) 42-62,(2)31-33, (3)101-112,(4)14-19,(5)16-17, 
(6) 19, (7) 28-33; formula 31(27)(64)5. Legs-coxa, 99-115; femur with 
trochanter, 133-157; tibia, 104-115; tarsus 83-90; claw, 20. In hav- 
ing 7-segmented antennae, with 3 distinctly longer than 4, and over 
80 micromilhmeters, and the trochanter plus femur, less than 170 
micromiUimeters, this falls with caryarum. It differs from caryarum 
in it^ smaller scale and shorter antennae. 

Lecanium magnoliarum, CkU. The following measurements are 
from topotypes: Antennai—{1) 70, (2) 47, (3) 94, (4) 76, (5)45, (6) 62, 
(7) 83, (8) 47. Legs— coxa, 132; femur with trochanter 231; tibia, 198; 
tarsus, 115; claw, 33. In April, 1898, Mr. Ehrhorn sent some imma- 
ture specimens on Japanese Magnolia and DajjJme, and adults on 
Viriginia creeper, aU from San Jose, California. The immature 
scales have much the shape of L. hesperidum, but are longer, and 
there is a well-marked longitudinal keel. In color they are light lemon 
yellow, marbled with black or blackish, in a subreticulate pattern. 



April, '99.] 



THE COCCIDiE. 



237 



General Remarks. It is not thought advisable to give a synoptical 
table of Eulecanium until the species are better known. The an- 
tennae, when 6-segmented, are very uniform, with a long 3; but the 7- 
segmented antennae separate into two groups, one with 3 longer 
than 4 (as maclurarrcm, caryarnm, cynosbati, etc.), the other with 4 
longer than 3 (as tarsale, armeniacum, craivii, bituberculatum and 
pubescens). Sometimes 3 and 4 are about equal (some fletcheri and 
quercitronis). Unfortunately there is a constant tendency for the 6- 
segmented antennae to vary to 7-segments, or vice versa. It is 
probable that no species has indiscriminately 6 or 7 segments, but it 
requires a larger series of most than we have yet examined, to de- 
termine which is the normal type. The species with 8-segmented 
antennae are comparatively few (e. g. magnolianim, douglasi, berber- 
idis) and easily determined, except when a normally 7-segmented 
form varies to 8, as may occasionally happen. Valuable characters 
are found in the color and appearance of the subadult females (as in 
juglandis and rribi), and in the color and markings of the newly- 
hatched larvae, but these characters are as yet known in only a few 
species. 






A PERSPECTIVOQRAPH. 

BY ARNOLD EMCH. 

PANTOGRAPHS are instruments by which figures may be drawn 
similar to given figures. They consist of linkages whose 
geometrical principle is based upon the similarity of figures. As a 
special case every pantograph can produce a figure equal to a given 
figure. Thus, the pantograph is the mechanical contrivance whose 
functions correspond to the geometry of similar and equal plane 
figures. The question naturally rises whether it is not possible to 
invent an apparatus which produces a perspective figure of a given 
plane figure. Provided this can be done, the problem will then 
practically be solved to produce collineations in a plane by the move- 
ment of a machine. 

2. The following lines contain a short theory and description of a 
mechanism by which a perspective of any plane figure may be drawn, 
and which, consequently, may be called a persi)tctivograph. 



J 



238 ' THE INDUSTRIALIST. [Aprij., '99 ^ 

The geometrical principle of this mechanism is expressed by a 
theorem which the author has proved in No. 5, vol. xi of the Annals 
of Mathematics * It may be stated as follows: 

Two conies K. and K' in a plane, tangent to the same straight line L, 
determine a projective transformation. To find the corresponding point 
to a point P, draw from P the two tangents to the conic K, and from the 
points where they intersect the line I tioo tangents to the conic K^ . Where 
thtse intersect each other is the required point P^. The two conies K and 
K' may be considered as the intersections of tioo osculating planes with 
the developable surface of a carve of the Sd order in space. 

From this point of view the project! vity of the points P and P' is im- 
mediately apparent. 

As a special case the corollary is obtained: 

Any two conies tangent to each other determine a perspective collinea- 
tion with the common tangent at their point of tangeney as the axis and 
the point of intersection of the other tiuo common tangents as the center 
of collineation. 

3. Prom this fact it is easy to explain the construction and work- 
ing of the perspectivograph as it is illustrated in the accompanying 
figure. It consists of five principal parts : 

(1) A frame G which carries the other parts. 

(2) Two elliptical plates Ei E,. 

(3) A rod SW to fix the perspective center S. 

(4) A linkage composed of the bars SR, AC and BC. 

(5) Two rubber bands m and n which keep the bars AC and BC 

in every position tangent to the ellipses E, and E,. 
Connected with the frame G are the slide V in which the joint C of 
the bars AC and BC is compelled to move and a fixed screw D to 
which the rubber band n is atta<5hed. The tendency of n is to move 
the pomt C towards D. The two elliptical plates E, and E. must be 
made tangent to each other, so that the common tangent at their 
pomt of tangeney coincides with the axis of the slide V. By means 
of the clamp screws F. and P, the elliptical plates and the rod SW 
may be clamped to the frame G. Rectangular openings in the plates 
and the rod make it possible to change the mutual position of the 
plates according to the desired ratio of the perspective. The joint S 
iiust always be plax;ed at the point of intersection of the two tan- 

.y ^oV]^«E°"^eTs"orir»|is^ Sr?X' °-»>- of articles on this subject 



April, '99.] A PERSPECTIVOGRAPH. 



289 




240 



THE INDUSTRIALIST. 



[April, '99 



gents T and V common to both eUipses. To find the correct position 
of S, these tangents may be drawn by a ruler; or two rulers turning 
about S may be attached to the pivot at S. These* rulers are not 
shown in the figure. 

The crossing points of the bars AC and BC with the bar SR are 
relatively fixed by two double joints P and P^ At a crossing point 
ea«h bar can slide thru a small rectangular block, and the two blocks 
can turn about the same vertical axis, as it wiU appear from a de- 
tailed isometric sketch of such a double joint. This arrangement 
gives the crossing points two degrees of freedom. The rubber band 
epulis the joint P' towards S and. in this manner, keeps the bar 
BC tangent to the ellipse E,. 

The point P now describes a given plane figure. If during this 
movement the bar AC is always kept tangent to the elliptical plate E. 
then the point P/ describes a figure which, according to the funda^ 
mentel theorem, is a perspective of the given figure with regard to 
S as a center and the slide V as an axis of the perspective. The an- 
harmonic ratio which characterizes the perspective is evidently 



or also 



A = (S QPPO = ?? . QP 



A = 



SX OX 
SY • OY' 



The perspectivograph may be modified in a number of ways, altho 
the geometrical principle always remains the same 

For further information on the theoretical part of this subject the 
reader may consult Cremona^s Projective Geometry and the author's 
Perspective CoUineation in the Plane* f^ ct u me auinor s 

*No. 1, vol. V of Kansas University Quarterly. 




April, '99.] 



241 



CIVICS ANALYSES. 

MADE tTNDER THE DIRECTION OF PROFESSOR PARSONS. 

rThls matter appears In its present form for the convenience of the Civics Department; 
■capitals being used in some cases for emphasis, abbreviations and ditto marks for rapidity and 
■condensation, and indention for analytic effect.] 

Kansas III. Cities. 

TBIERE are three classes of cities in Kansas: 
1st cl.=cities over 15,000 population. 
2d cl.= " " 2000 and not exceeding 15,000. 
3d cl.= " " 250 " " " 2000. 

The executive power is in the hands of the Mayor. 
The legislative power is vested ia the Mayor and Council. 
The judicial power is in the Police Courts and Justices of the Peace. 

TABLE OP OFFICERS. 



Wards. 



■Councilmen. 



Mayor 

■City Clerk 

City Treasurer.. 
•City Attorney... 
City Assessor — 



•City Engineer.. . 

Street Comss'r.. 
Fire and Police 

Comss'rs(3) 

Police Judge 



CUy Marshal. 



Assistant " — 

Policemen 

.F'fr* Marshal — 
•Constables* — 
Justices of Peace* 



Board of Educa- 
tion 



1st Cu Cities. 



4 to 6 



I 2 from each ward hold- 
■' ing 2 years. 

I I elected each year. 
Elected for 2 years 

■• 2 years 



" " 2 years 

" '■ 2 years 

( App't'd by Mayor with 
I consent of Council .... 

J • - 



in 



\ Elected (for 3 yrs. 

■( cities over 40.000 

) Elected {for 2 yrs.) or 
■( apptd by Police Comrs 
\ App't'd by Mayor and C. 
( or by Police Comssrs. 
1 



Elected for 2 years 

•• 2 .years 

f If there are 4 wards. 3 
members are elected 
from each wai-d (one 
eachyr.) to hold 3 yrs. 

If there are more than 
4 wards, 2 members 
are elected from each 
ward (one each year) 
to hold 2 ye-irs. 

If the city hasa^.OOO pop. 
or over. the Brd. of Ed. 
consists of B members 
elected at large (two 
each yr.) to hold 3 yrs. 



2d Ci.. Citieh. 



At least 4 if pop. ex- 
ceeds 4000. 

Not more than 4 unless 
pop. exceeds 8000. 



' Same as 1st class. 



Same as 1st class. . . 
Elected for 1 year.. 

" 2 years. 

" " lyear.. 

•• 1 year.. 



i App't'd by Mayor with 
( consent of Council. 
Elected for 1 year 



Elected for 2 years. 



1 year. 



App't'd by Mayor with 
consent of Council. 



Elected for 2 years. . . . 
•' 2 years 

In cities of the 2d class 
under 10.000 the Brd. of 
Ed. has two members 
from each ward (one 
elected eachyr.) hold- 
ing 2 years. 

In cities of 2d cl. over 
10,000 pop. the Board 
consists of 6 members 
elected at large (two 
each year) to hold 3 
years. 



3d Cl. Cities. 



I No division into wards. 

I f) councilmen elected 
■I at large to hold one 
f year. 
Elected for 1 year. 
••1 year. 
( App't'd by Mayor with 
I consent of Council. 



Elected for 1 year. 



Elected for 1 year. 

"1 year. 

t App't'd by Mayor with 
) consent of Council. 



♦ Elected for 2 years. 

* "2 years. 



For school purposes the 
third class city is a 
school district. 






to hold 



242 



THE INDUSTRIALIST. 



[April, '99 



THE MAYOR. 

The Mayor is the chief executive officer of a city. His powers and 
duties in a city of the 1st class include all that are stated in the fol- 
lowing provisions except the 7th. In cities of the 2d and 3d classes, 
the powers and duties of the Mayor include all the following provis- 
ions except those in italics. 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF THE MAYOR. 

1. To preside at meetings of the council. ( The council may elect one of its num- 
ber to be President of Council to preside when the Mayor is absent ) 

2. General superintendence of city officers and affairs. The Mayor may at any 
time require any officer to exhibit his accounts. 

3. To see that the city ordinances are complied with, and to preserve the peace. 
He may call on all male inhabitants over 18 and under, 50 to aid in enforo- 
mg the laws and ordinances. May appoint ^cial police to act till the next 

_ rrmttn^ of cmndl. May call on the miUtia to keep order and enforce ordinances. 
To communicate to the council, from time to time, information concerning 

the finances, police, health, security, ornamentation, comfort and general 

prosperity of the city, and recommend measures he deems advisable 
&. lo veto ordinances and contracts of which he disapproves. (Council may 

pass them over his veto by a three-fourth vote.) 
Tosign ordinances and contracts heapproves, also commissionsof officers.etc. 
lo sign all orders or drafts on the city treasurer. 
May with consent of council, remit fines and penalties, and grant pardons 

for offen ses against city ordinances. 

election of 2 Justices of the peace and Vconstable^'^toh^Vi^L purposes, and for the 

(Gen. Stats. 1897, p. 450.) Citiesof tS cCfheinw r^Zc^^}l^^ ^iP''® regular city elections, 
they happen to be in, and have a Xrfln e^fctlnl^rh^ tnfn«hl"?'°f,'* form Hp«r« of the township 
c tv elections but at the generieUatominthliM 27fh^ f^^"?"^^ *"=^ constables not at the 
cities and one division of M class cities a?eeholpn >v^ti,« v**"^ Justices in the 1st and 2d clam 
strictly city officers, but rather townshfo and conn?vnffl^!,I^'*K"\* ""^^^ elections, they are not 
the constitution and havinK a jurCidiction coextensive wi^Hh^.t'll *"'°^?° ^^^ townships under 
reason a statute giving women the right to vote for eitvofno^«7f»P^^ counties. For this 
. Justices of the peace. (State v. Parry 50 kIs 1 8 1^^ oncers does not give them a vote upon 

m^^J^^s^p^^tor^clf gS. *^t1,'''^IS^rac°er^t^"'r^^^^ ^ market-master, weigh- 

deemed necessary. But iii SmaU o\&o^^ H\<^rZ^I *^ appomted in cities below the 1st grade If 
example, the city clerk teay act as wlfgh-^Pster ""^'"^ *^^ ^""^'^ **^ "«^«'-''l o«ce'^; 'o^ 

addi\^ntrthicitTa«orer''^""""*''^ "^^^^'^^^^^^^"^ appoint a city counselor In 

yea| t|^aEas?oThe'?^,ist«t?o"n"o?^^^^^ ?' Sections to hold for 4 

undpfh^alS:rura«s?h\-t(-«h£HH^^^^ -- --^t 

day. According to Gen. Stats^^^ol 1 Sn S57 ^^T^tU*'^*'*'"^^* commissioner) $i.50 for each 
'inder 20010 population may require 2 days wo^rk of mh^u^.f^^^"^ \"o^ *'^",'^«" '° '«» class cities 
over 10,000 the Mayor and council mE^yrequTre 2 daVswoXof^^^^^^ *^' "'"I'" «L"«8 "^ ^be 2d class 
This^ seems curious not only as breaking in upon the H^ar^,nifi^°"7' ^^'^ <"" ^ 1° "«" thereof, 
of ite Inconsistency with the princinle that rhmfr.f'l*'^,,""''"'!?.™^^ 

employments which is set forth^ln th^lamfvolSTe oHaws n°78i*"** * ^^-^'^ ^**'°'" *" «*" P'^»'"«' 
r^o^V-lt^^^l^J^^^^X^^it^^^^^ in vol. 1 we are 

|»ioTa^"d"t»^ 

^^^ w»if In^^oVcrai^Et^E^^?^"^ 



6. 
7. 
8. 




chaptef on ,sV class cities which i""theTeb?rSred7nr^*'',°? ^° ^ -d omitted fr^^thS 
cases of confusion and inaccuraov oonw hl^i. ^ S*^ mcomplete and misleading. Manv other 
j;tT^«4on needs revision No one however can funv^"L*,?,t««,H'°*^ H^ sufficient ?o show that tto 
cation of the Laws untU he tries to hniirtahrio^ iil.^.^^"'^^ ^^^ seriousness of Webb's Como^ 
fitjitutes that bear upon his points.) ^'^** ^^^ *'*«^'" **«* *«<* ^^^^ ^^^- Inde* to locatTfhe 



April, '99.] 



CIVICS ANALYSES. 



24S 



POWERS AND DUTIES OF aTIES. 
A. Under sweeping laws applying to all classes of cities at a stroke. 
The Mayor and Council of any city have power — 

1. To grant local franchises to gas, electric light or power,, heat or water 

companies and collect rentals from them for the use of the streets, fran- 
chises not to exceed 20 years and to be terminable after 10 years. 

2. To regulate such compiinies, fix their charges, and contract with them for 

service. 

3. To build or buy, own and operate gas works, electric light or power plants^ 

heating plants, or water works, and supply the city and its citizens with 
water, light, gas, power or heat for domestic and all other purposes. 
,(Law8 of 1897.) 

4. To apply to the county commissioners to lay off cemetery grounds or 

additions thereto. 

5. To change the frontage of lots. 

6. To pay damages for injury to property, life or limb, by mobs within the 

city limits. 

7. To establish public libraries upon a referendum voU to that effect initiated by a 

petition of 50 taxpayers. 

8. To consolidate two adjacent cities into one by joint ordinance passed m 

joint session of the mayors and councils of the two cities, two-thirds of the 
councilmen of each city voting in'the affirmative. 

9. To subscribe for stock of companies organized for mining or boring for 

coal or natural gas, or boring artesian wells, but a majonty vote of the 
council and of the citizens at the polls is necessary, and the subscription 
to any one company must not exceed $3000 in 3d class cities, $5000 in 2d 
class cities and $10,000 in 1st class cities. 
10 To levy taxes, borrow money and issue bonds under conditions prescribed 
in the statutes, (generally including the referendum when a bond issue is- 
in question) and subject to the limits placed by the legislature upon city 
taxation and indebtedness. 
Many other functions are common to cities of all classes, e. g. the 
election of- officers, preservation of order, safety and health, pre- 
vention of fire, administration of justice, establishment and manage- 
ment of schools, opening improving and caring foi- streets, regulating 
various occupations, granting franchises and performing various 
services. But these depend, for their legislative authorization, upoB 
special enactments and the separate charter acts, one for each class- 
of cities, instead of being conferred on aU classes at once by a single 
sweeping law. A number of the subjects above tabulated from the 
broad laws are also dealt with in the class statutes. 

The administration of justice is in the hands of the courts. The 
building of school houses and management of the whole school 
system is in the hands of the school boards. The rest of the f un<> 
tions with which we are dealing are exercised by the Mayor and 
Council with the occasional help of the referendum. 




244 



THE INDUSTRIALIST. 



[April, '99 



B. 



8. 

9. 
10 

11, 
12. 



13 
14 

15. 

16. 
17. 

18. 
19. 

20. 



The Functions of Mayor and Council in Ist class Cities. ■ 

(Cities over 15,000 population.) 
. The care and managrement of the city, 'its property and finances. 
. To enact alter or repeal ordinances (not repugnant to the constitution and 
isllture **'^^*''''^'"''^''°"**^^^''"''"''°^''°'^®''^ conferred by the leg- 

To appropriate money for authorized purposes, and provide for current 
expenses. 

'^fi ^17 *°^if °!.^^n *^f ^' ^'^ P'^'P^'"'^ ^^^^^ ^""^ personal) not to exceed 
b mills on the dollar m any one year for general revenue, and 6 mills 

Tdlnr'T^rT^f ^"^'^"'^^' ^^ '"^"^^^«' a««e««able improvements 
and interest on bonds ). 

To levy and collect license taxes on trades and occupations, and authorize 
and regulate the issue of licenses. au^norize 

To open, grade, and pave streets and cause sidewalks to be constructed 
and repair the same, and assess the cost of the improvements on abutters 
subject to majority consent and petition of abutting owners in case oi 

flU.r? ^^^'''^: ^""^ '° P'^^"^'' ^^ 2^ taxpayers of the ward locus in 
case o the laying of new sidewalk (Gen. Stats. 1897, vol. 1, pp. 368-379) 
To regulate the police, make regulations to preserve order and prevent in- 
^terference with property, impose fines for violating ordinances and Tn de- 
fault^ of payment to. provide for confinement in the city prison or at hard 

To prohibit and suppress saloons, gambling houses, disreputable houses 
indecent and disorderly practises, disturblnces of Jhe peace a auU ani 
battery, and petit larceny, and provide for punishment 

To provide for punishment of persons wrongfully interfering with railways 
p pes, lamps, etc , or wasting or appropriating gas, water, s^am, hot ^, e't^'. 

teano"'''/ ^^' T'''^'' *'' ''"^^^^'^^ «^ ^'^^'^^ o^ Other dan.e;ous 
weapons (concealed or not) and cause to be arrested and imprisoned fined 

saif it: :^'ouf -^ir'^' *^^"P^' ^^^^^^^^^ ^^^ -•^ persons foJndt 
said city without visible means of support or legitimate business. 

. To establish fire departments, and fire limits and prohibit wooden build- 
ings within said limits. To regulate and prevent dangerous or obnoxious 
manufactures or materials, etc. oonoxious 

• To regulate the storage of powder, turpentine, hav, cotton, lumber or other 
combustibles-regulate deposit oi ashes, 'construction of fi" plats 
chimneys, buildings, etc. piaces, 

. To regulate and order the cleaning of chimneys 

^"puwfctadin;."'"" "' ^"'™"' '° ='■"' '^'' '""- churches and 

To establish and regulate a night watch. 

To provide for lighting the streets . 

To compel the erection and maintenance of railings along dangerous ways 



April, '99.] 



CIVICS ANALYSES. 



245 



21, 



22. 



23. 

24. 
25. 

26. 

27. 
28. 
29. 
30, 



31, 
32 
33 

34 



35 
36 



37 



38 



39 



40. 



To make quarantine laws and enforce the same within 5 miles of the city 
and adopt measures to prevent the introduction and spread of contagious 
diseases . 

To make regulations to secure the g(?neral health, and prevent or remove 
nuisances, regulate cesspools, sewers, hogpens, slaughter houses, stock- 
yards, etc., or suppress the same, and enforce the cleaning of stables^ 
yards, outhouses, places where garbage is kept, etc. 

To erect, establish, and regulate hospitals, pest houses, work houses,, 
houses of correction, etc. 

To provide for election of city officers and regulate the same. 

To provide for removing city officers for misconduct. 

To regulate the duties and compensation of officers and servants not pro- 
vided for in the statutes. 

To require bonds and oaths from officers and agents. 

To regulate the division of land into lots. 

To close or vacate any street or alley or any portion thereof. 

To regulate and require the planting of trees, building of cellar ways, 
doorways, awnings, lamp-posts, hitching-posts— regulate or prohibit 
awnings and structures projecting over or adjoining the streets or side- 
walks, and excavations thru or under the sidewalks. 

To regulate parks, public grounds, depots, and places of storage of freight 

and goods. 
To regulate or prevent the running at large of dogs, cattle, etc., provide 

pounds and keepers, and tax the owners and harborers of dogs. 
To establish or change the channels of streams and bridge the same; (but 

if the cost of the improvement is more than $2,000 it must be ratiikd by a 

majonty of tlie legal voters of tlw city). 
To prescribe rules for weighing and measuring every commodity sold in the 

city, provide for inspection of grain, and weighing of hay, grain and coal 

and -measuring wood and fuel, regulate places .for seUing 4my, coal and 

wood, and provide for the inspection and condemnation of coal oilr 

gasoline, naphtha and all other inflammable oils, fluids or gasses used for 

heating or lighting. 
. To regulate markets and meat shops. 
To regulate, establish and maintain markets, libraries, cemeteries, etc., 

and build or buy and operate gas, electric or other light works, etc. ( See 

"Powers of Cities," above. ) 
To grant the use of streets (not to exceed 20 years) for water, gas, heat, or 

electric systems and flx charges (see "Powers of Cities," above) also to fix 

rates of cartage and transportation of persons and property except by 

steam railroads. . , ^ • 

To grant rights of way in the streets for telegraph, telephone and electric 

light lines and to have exclusive power to license and regulate ferries. 

But no franchise, right of way or privilege of any kind can be granted by 

the mayor and council for more than 20 years. 
To grant the right to construct railroads or street railways in the streets, 

but in cities of more than 40,000 people the mayor and council cannot 

grant such rights in any street without the wrilMn coment of a majoiity of 

the wjoners of real estate fronting on said street. 
Private property may be taken by the city by right of eminent domain for 

parks, streets, market places, depot grounds, quarries, bridges, buildings 

or other public improvements. 



246 



THE INDUSTRIALIST. 



[April, '99 



1. 
2. 



6. 
6. 

7. 

6. 
9. 

10. 

11. 
12. 

13. 
U. 

15. 

16. 
17. 

18. 
19. 



C. Functions of Mayor and Council in 2d class Cities. 

-Care and management of city, prop. etc. (See B, 1, above.) 
. To enact, alter or repeal such ordinances (not repugnant to the laws and 
const.) as they deem expedient for the good government of the city, the 
preservation of peace and order, suppression of vice and immorality, 
benefit of trade and commerce, and the health of the inhabitants, and en- 
force the same by fine not exceeding $100 and costs, or imprisonment not 
exceeding 3 months, or both. One who cannot pay fine and costs may be 
required to work it out on the streets. 

To levy taxes on real and pers. prop, (not to exceed 10 mills on the dollar 
for general revenue) and appropriate or borrow money by ordinance on 
vote of a majority of all the councilmen-elect. Statements of receipts, 
expenditures and indebtedness, must be published quarterly. 

To levy and collect license taxes on auctioneers, corporations, concerts, 
hotels, newspapers, omnibuses, etc. Also to tax the owners and harborers 
of dogs . 

To impose a poll-tax not exceeding $1 on all able-bodied males between 21 
and 50. (For Road Work Tax see above notes to City Table. ) 

To open or vacate streets, and to build sidewalks, provide sewers or pave 
and improve streets, and assess the cost on abutters; subject, in case of 
paving or improving atreets, to the assent or absence of protest of a ma- 
jority of abutting owners. 

May regulate the planting of shade trees, prohibit encroachments into or 
upon the streets and sidewalks and regulaie the building of cellar ways, 
stairways, railways, doorways, posts, rails, etc., and structures projecting 
into or adjoining the streets, etc. ( See B, 30. ) 

May prohibit the carrying of firearms, arrest, imprison, fine or set to work 
all vagrants, etc. ( See A, -10.) 

May suppress saloons, gambling houses, billiard tables, bowling alleys, 
disorderly houses, desecrations of the Sabbath, and all kinds of public in- 
decencies. 

May prohibit riots, assaults, petit larceny, immoral shows— prevent or 
punish discharge of firearms, powder, etc., in public streets or grounds. 

May prevent and punish horse racing, fast driving, etc. 

May prohibit the running at large of hogs, cattle, etc., establish a pound 
and tax dogs. (See B, 32. ) f » 

May regulate crossings, running of cars, speed, tracks, depots, levees, etc. 

May buy fire engines, etc., organize fire companies, establish fire limits 
and regulate the construction and maintenance of chimneys, fireplaces' 
ovens, boilers, etc. ( Compare B, 11 to 15. ) *' » 

May make regulations to secure the health of the city, remove nuisances 
prevent introduction of contagious diseases, and make quarantine laws 
and enforce the same within 5 miles of the city. (See B, 21, 22. ) 

May erect and regulate markets and public buildings ir contract for the 
erection and regulation of them. 

May establish or change water courses, establish and regulate public 

wells, cisterns and reservoirs. 
May erect and regulate poor houses, work houses, hospitals, water-works. 

( See also general "Powers of Cities," above. ) 
May provide by contract for lighting the streets. (See larger power above 

vmder "Powers of Cities.") 



April, '99.] CIVICS ANALYSES. 247 

20. May purchase land for cemeteries and lay out and control the same. 

21. May establish and maintain public libraries and reading rooms. 

22. May exercise the power of Eminent Domain for any necessary purpose. 

23. May adopt a method of numbering the buildings. 

24. May encourage manufactures by appropriations or bonds, provided that no 

more than $1000 is appropriated for any one purpose unless more is 
authorized by the people on a referendum vote. 

25. May regulate the weighing and measuring of every commodity sold in the 

city, and the inspection of hay, grain, coal, etc. ( See B, 34, above.) 

In addition to the general charter for cities of the 2d class, there 
is a special act relating to 2d class cities over 10,000 population, to 
which we have already referred in speaking of road districts. This 
act confers further powers on said cities which bring them closer to 
1st class cities than the other cities of the 2d class, and in some 
respects carry them even beyond the privileges expressed in the 
charter of 1st class cities. The main peculiarities of the said special 
act are as follows : 

1. Cities of the 2d class over 10,000 pop. may levy taxes on prop, (without 
the 10-mill limit). 

2. May levy license taxes and regulate all callings and occupations in the city. 

3. May compel owners to erect railings, etc., on dangerous ways. ( See B, 18.) 

4. May take down and remove dangerous or insecure buildings. (See B, 14.) 

5. May grant the use of streets for water, gas, steam and electric conduits, 
pipes, etc., under such restrictions as will protect the public and secure proper 
remuneration for the grant; provided that no franchise, right of way, or privi- 
lege of any kind shall be granted by the mayor and council for a longer period 
than 20 years. (Compare B, 37. ) 

6. General health, nuisances, cesspools, etc.— a full and specific provision 
like that condensed in B, 22, above. 

7. May compel owners to keep sidewalks and gutters clean and free of ice, 

snow, etc. 

8. May regulate the means of entrance to and egress from public halls, 

churches, and buildings. (See B, 15.) 

9. To change the boundaries of wards and reduce their number to not less 

than four. 

10. To abolish the office of city treasurer and treasurer of the school board 
and confer their powers on the city clerk. 

The act declares furthur that these cities (2d class of more than 10,000 people) 
ahall not be be liable for defective sidewalks or streets or obstructions thereon 
unless written notice of the defect is filed with the city clerk at least 30 days 
before any accident by reason thereof. 

D. Functions of Mayor and Council in Srd class cities. 
The charter act for 3d class cities confers upon them substantially the same 
powers as those above cited from the general charter for all 2d class cities, with 
the exception of the last two of the said powers. The 24th power is not given to 
3d class cities and the 25th is modified to a power to provide for inspection and 
weighing of hay, grain, coal, cattle and hogs, measuring wood for fuel, re- 
gulating places for sale hay, coal and wood, etc.— no specific power is given to 




248 



THE industrialist: 



[April, '99 



make rules for weighing and measuring every commodity as in Ist and 2d 
class cities. 

A 3d class city may dissolve and abandon its corporate existence upon a. 
referendum vote at the polls initiated by petition of a majority of its legal 
voters. 

E. General Bemarks. 

In the statutes dealing with cities there is a great deal of repeti- 
.tion. Provisions substantially the same and in many cases verbally 
identical are repeated two, three and even four times. A condensa- 
tion and simplification of the law relating to municipalities would 
seem to be very desirable. Indeed there is reason to believe that 
clearness, economy, liberty, good government and local public spirit 
and development would be aided by reducing municipal law to a 
brief statement of the principle that any city or town shall be free to 
take any action it may deem best in respect to its local affairs so- 
long as it does not do anything th&tis forbidden iyy constitution or 
statutes, subject only to reasonable provisions in respect to debt 
limit, civil service rules and popular initiative and referendum upon 
aU ordinances and amendments to any local constitution or charter 
the people might see fit to adopt. These are substantially the 
principles at the core of the California Charter Law and the new 
Freehold Charter of San Francisco, and seem calculated to afford 
cities a fuller self-government in purely local affairs, while greatly 
relieving the pressure upon the legislature by confining its. action 
to state interests. 




April, '99.] 



249 



THE COLLEGE APPROPRIATION. 

BY THOS. E. WILL. 

FRIENDS of the College are naturally interested to know how the 
institution fared at the hands of the legislature in the session 
just closed. 

Regents and faculty have fully appreciated that the increase in 
numbers of students, the multiplication of courses, and the branching- 
out upon new lines of work, demanded by the needs of the agri- 
cultural and industrial classes, necessitated largely increased appro- 
priations. Classes must be housed and taught, and laboratory 
facilities must be provided, if the institution is to serve the people 
as it should. The problem was, How shall we compress our wants- 
into a compass that shall not seem to the powers that sit in judg- 
ment upon the many institutions and interests of the state wildly- 
unreasonable in the light of previous appropriations of $10, 000, 
$15,000, and $18,000 per annum to the Agricultural College? A sum 
slightly less than $200,000 was agreed upon, from which were omit- 
ted such highly desirable items as a president's house to replace 
that destroyed by fire four years ago, a dormitory to accommodate 
the increasing number of students for which the slow growth of 
Manhattan does not provide, additional room for the department of 
Veterinary Science, one of the most valuable institutions in the st ate- 
to the farmers and stockmen, and other important items. 

The senate ways and means committee, however, insisted on cut- 
ting the bill in half, excluding among other things the greatly needed 
building for physics and chemistry and allowing the College but a^ 
round hundred thousand dollars. After earnest effort the committee 
was induced to allow the bill to stand at $125,000, which was later 
raised to $128,000 in the committee, at which figure it passed the 

senate. 

Meanwhile the house ways and means committee had considered 
appropriation bills for the State Normal School and State Univer- 
sity, and allowed the Normal School between $90,000 and $100,000, a, 
considerable reduction from the amount asked; and the University 
$330,000, a reduction of $101,000 from the amount asked by that insti- 
tution. The Normal bill passed the senate with a slight additional 
reduction, while the University bills passed the senate unmodified 
except by an increase of $65,000 for a natural history museum. 



250 THE INDUSTRIALIST. [April, '99 

On the same night on which the University bill, thus increased, 
passed the senate, the College bill was reduced in the house commit- 
tee by $26,900. In this form it passed the house. An earnest effort 
was made on the floor of the house to secure an amendment allowing 
$2500 per annum for experimental work in the improvement of seed 
by breeding. This effort failing, an attempt was next made to re- 
store the items rejected by the house committee, including $3000 for 
equipment of Agricultural and Dairy department; $2500 for pur- 
chase of a dairy herd and provision for shelter; $3000 for additional 
building for Mechanical department; $2000 for equipment of same 
department; $7400 for enlargement of library building, in which it 
was hoped to secure adequate quarters for the Veterinary department 
and an additional class room; $1000 annually for books and other 
literature; $1500 annually for general repairs of buildings, walks and 
drives and maintenance of grounds, and $3000 for establishing a busi- 
ness course. This attempt also failed, and the bill passed the house 
as recommended by the committee. 

Next followed a c inference committae, in which something less 
than 40 per cent of the lost ground was recovered, and the total 
appropriation for the two years brought up to $111,600, in which 
form the bill became a law. 

Naturally the friends of the College regret that the original College 
bill, omitting as it did items that could but ill be spared, should 
have suffered severe reductions in both houses. They do not forget, 
however, that there are other institutions and interests in the state 
which cannot be overlooked, that the legislature just adjourned has 
been unusually liberal, and that the College itself has fared far better 
absolutely than ever before— the legislature of 1897 allowing it but 
a trifle over $50,000, of which $10,000 went to meet a deficiency of 
some years' standing, and $16,000 more to erect and equip the Domes- 
tic Science Hall, leaving but about $24,000 for aU other purposes for 
the biennium, the income from endowment and federal government 
not counted. Nevertheless, with the continuation of the unprec- 
edented growth of the institution, severe economies will be necessary 
to carry it thru the biennium. 

To its many friends in both houses the College feels especially 
grateful. Among these should be mentioned the senator from RUey 
county. Hon. John E. Hessin, and the representative from the same 
county, Hon. George T. Poison; the chairman of the senate ways and 
naeans committee. Senator A. G. Forney, who twice visited the Col- 




April, '99.] THE COLLEGE APPROPRIATION. 251 

lege during the legislative sessions; Senators Stocks and Field, who 
on both the ways and means and conference committees rendered 
the College yeoman service; Senators Anderson, Coleman, Titus, 
Pritchard, Young, Householder, King, Hanna and Hart; Representa- 
tive Rees of Ottawa, class of '85 of K. S. A. C, who on both ways 
and means and conference committees stood by his alma mater; and 
Representatives Gillispie, Sweet, Keifer, Scott of Elk, Brooke, Coy, 
Wheeler, Mendenhall, Godshalk, Loomis, Babb, Pairchild, Jaquins, 
Wright of Lyon, McClaren, Martin, Marks, Ravenscraft and many 
others in both houses. Regents Hoffman, Hudson and Vrooman 
also contributed of their time and service. Former regent Daugh- 
ters rendered valuable aid at a critical moment, while Messrs. E. B. 
Cowgill, Col. T. W. Harrison, Guilford Dudley, John R. Mulvane and 
G. C. Clemens contributed their good will and influence. Among the 
newspapers which have aided the College, especial mention should be 
made of the Topeka CapitaJ, which in season and out of season, by 
editorials, interviews, and in other ways, has pressed upon the atten- 
tion of the people and the legislature the fact that the College 
established to serve the agricultural and industrial classes must be 
given opportunity to do its work. The Advocate and News and the 
Kansas Farmer also worked loyally for the institution. 

The College bill, as finally passed, is as follows: 
.An act making appropriations for the erection and equipment of certain build- 
ings, for repairs and current expenses of the Kansas State Agricultural Col- 
lege, for apparatus and equipment, and the enlargement of the library and 
other buildings, for the construction of a sewer and certain other improve- 
ments herein named, for keeping in repair buildings already erected or to be 
erected, and for the maintenance of said College for the fiscal years ending 
June 30, 1900, and June 30, 1901. 
Be it enacted by tlie Legislature of the State of Kansas: 

Section 1. The following sums, or so much thereof as may be necessary, 
are hereby appropriated out of any money in the state treasury not otherwise 
appropriated, to the Kansas State Agricultural College for the fiscal year end- 
ing June 30, 1900, and for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1901, for the purposes 
hereinafter mentioned. 

for the fiscal year ending JUNE 30, 1900. 

Fob Agrtcultubk, Dairy and Physical Science: 

Building for Agricultural department 

Equipmentof Agricultural and Dairy department 

Purchase of Dairy herd, and provision of shelter 

Equipment of Chemical department 

Equipment of Physics department 

For Mechanical and Civil Engineering Departments: 

Buildings, additional 

Equipment — mechanical, $7000; civil engineering »500 

Additional boilers, fireproof boiler-house and engine 



125.000 00 
6.000 00 
3,000 00 
1,000 00 
1,000 00 

$9. 900 00 
7.. "500 00 
5,000 00 



252 THE INDUSTRIALIST. [April, '99 

For Library: 

Completion of room and book stacks M, 200 00 

Books and other literature 1,600 00 

For furnishing, heating and lighting addition to library . 1,000 00 

For microscopes and other equipment of Veterinary department 950 00 

For sewing machines 340 00 

For greenhouse enlargement, and horticultural equipment and appliances 1.000 CO 

For bath-rooms and water closets .500 00 

For current expenses, additional teaching, assistants and student labor. 10,000 00 

For equipment of gymnasium 250 00 

For general repairs of buildings, walks and drives, and maintenance of grounds 3,000 00 

For freight and hauling coal , 1,65000 

For water supply 600 00 

For salary of loan commis-sloner 300 00 

For incidental expenses in care of funds 150 OO 

For state veterinarian's salary and traveling expenses 1,800 OO 

For accrued and accurlng rent for president's residence .560 00 

For farmers' institutes 2,000 00 

For the construction of a sewer for the use of the Kansas State Agricultural 
College there is hereby appropriated the sum of three thousand dollars, or so 
much thereof as may be necessary, and the board of regents of said College 
are hereby authorized to construct said sewer from said College to the river by 
the most practicable route, or form a junction with the sewer of the city of Man- 
hattan at a point to be designated by said board, providing the conjunction of 
the said city and College sewers is for the best interest of the state. 

FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1801. 

For general repairs of buildings, walks and drives, and maintenance of grounds $3,000 00 

For books and other literature for library 1 , 500 00 

For freight and hauling coal 1.650 00 

For water supply 600 00 

For salary of loan commis.sioner .' 300 00 

For incidental expenses in care of funds '. 150 00 

For state veterinarian's salary and traveling expenses 1 ,800 00 

For rent of president's house 300 00 

For current expenses, additional teaching force, a.s.sistants and student labor 10,000 00 

For farmers' Institutes 2. 000 00 

Sec. 2. In case there shall not be sufficient funds to complete the buildings 
and improvements herein mentioned or any of them, or in case said buildings 
or improvements or any of them shall not be begun or completed during the 
fiscal year ending June 30, 1900, the foregoing appropriations or each of them 
shall be available for the purposes named and payable by the state treasurer 
during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1901; and if by proper management and 
legitimate economy the board of regents of said College finds that it is not nec- 
essary to expend the full amount appropriated for the various items named in 
section 1 of this act, the amount remaining to the credit of said funds may be 
used by them for the payment of current expenses of said Agricultural College, 
and the auditor of state is hereby authorized to issue his warrants in accordance 
with the provisions of this section. 

Sec. 3. The auditor is hereby authorized to draw his warrants on the treas- 
urer of state for the purposes and amounts specified in this act, or so much 
thereof as may be necessary to liquidate all such claims as may be presented to 
him out of such appropriations: Provided, That no account shall be audited 
unless an itemized statement is furnished, verified by affidavit, showing that 
said appropriations are to be applied to the specific purposes only for which 
they were appropriated. 

Sec. 4. In all cases in which, by the provisions of this act, appropriations 
are made for specific purposes named or causes stated, the officer or person 



April, '99.] MAKERS OF K. S. A. C. 253 

having charge of auch appropriations shall in no case, by any contract, act, or 
proceeding, obligate the state of Kansas at any time to pay a larger sum than 
is herein specifically appropriated. 

Sec. 5. The erection of the buildings provided for by this act shall be by 
and under the direction of the board of regents of the Kansas State Agricultural 

College. 

Sec. 6. This act shall take effect and be in force from and after its publica- 
tion in the official state paper. 

Against the $111,600 received by the College, the University 
received $330,000, including a 155,000 chemistry building and a 
$30,000 mechanical building; and the Normal School received $90, 500. 

^ * * 



MAKERS OF THE KANSAS STATE AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE. 

BY JOHN D. WALTERS. 

IX. Hon. Eduard Secrest. 

DURING the thirty-eight years of its existence the Kansas State 
Agricultural College has had about a hundred regents. The 
majority of the members of the governing board have been men of 
no particular attainments or ideals— successful farmers, perhaps, 
or business men, but often densely ignorant of the mission and 
work of a college of practical science. Others were merely poU- 
ticians— men who had assisted their party in managing a town 
or county election and on the strength of their political manipula- 
tions "expected something" in return— a regency of a state institu- 
tion if nothing richer. Still others were men who had read much 
and thought much— men who had had but little experience, perhaps, 
in the realms of higher educations, but who had high ideals, com- 
mon sense, and progressive ideas— men who believed in a better 
future for mankind and were willing to contribute their mite toward 
bringing it nearer. The subject of this biographical sketch is a type 

of the latter class. 

Hon. Eduard Secrest was born in 1838 near Winterthur, canton 
of Zurich, Switzerland, and spent his boyhood in that country. 
From a letter which he lately wrote to a friend in Manhattan, we 
quote the following concerning his school days: 

"I had just got a glimpse of the excellent school system of the land 
of Pestalozzi, and had entered the county high school at the age of 14, 



f 



254 THE INDUSTRIALIST. [April, '9^ 

when my father, a poor but well-read linen weaver with decidedly 
socialistic leanings, desirous of a larger arena in which his children 
might carry on the struggle for an existence, sadly bid adieu to the 
land of his ancestors who fought kingcraft and priestcraft one hun- 
dred years before Christopher Columbus was born." The family- 
settled in the backwoods of southern Indiana, where Eduard had a. 
chance to top out his education with some English reading and 
writing in a country log school house. He became an expert with the 
ax and rifle and learned to love the freedom of the Hoosier farmer boy. 

After helping his father hew out a home in the primeval forest he 
started for Kansas in the spring of '55. Landing in Kansas City,. 
Mo., then a rough-and-tumble frontier town of 500 or 600 people, he 
taught school in the triangular bottomland formed by the junction 
of the Kaw with the Big Muddy, right in the center of what is now 
covered by the packing houses and great stock yards and their thou- 
sands of humming and buzzing appendages and auxiliaries. In '56 h& 
came to Riley county and founded a prairie home on Fancy creek^ 
now one of the finest farms in Kansas. 

When the war broke out Mr. Secrest enlisted in the Union army^ 
and carried "Old Glory" at the head of the 13th Kansas volunteers- 
over the Boston mountains into Arkansas and thru the Indian 
Territory. On his return to the farm on Fancy creek he was elected 
representative of Riley county and had a chance in '69 and '70 to- 
assist the Agricultural College in the legislature. 

Tho living over twenty miles from the county seat, and far from 
the railroad, Mr. Secrest never neglected his self- improvement. 
He bought books and magazines, attended educational meet- 
ings and became a man of advanced ideas in sociology, politics and 
religion, as well as in farming. He became a color bearer in peace as 
he had been in war, and tho he wanted no office of any kind, his- 
many friends, without his knowledge, petitioned Governor Lewelling 
in '93 to appoint him a regent of the Agricultural College. It is an 
interesting fact that the petition was written and circulated 
by Manhattan republicans, tho it was well known that Mr. 
Secrest was a populist. 

At the time of his appointment Mr. Secrest had already attested 
his belief in the practical education given at the State Agricultural 
College, by building near the gate a cottage for the accommodation 
of his children while in College. Two of his daughters had gradu- 
ated with high honors, his oldest son was a student, and another son. 



April, '99.] 



MAKERS OF K. S. A. C. 



255 



was about to enter the course. From this time on Mr. Secrest came 
to Manhattan often and made it a rule to stay at the College for a 
day to attend the lectures and laboratory work of the different de- 
partments. Everybody was glad when he came, for it was a joy to 
see the bright black dyes of the plain, old farmer gleam as points 
of special interest were brought out in the discussions of the class 
rooms. He gradually became a warm friend and advisor of the fac- 
ulty, as well as their trusted regent, and aU regretted that two years 
later the ever revolving political wheel of the state rotated him out 
of the position for which he was so eminently fitted. 

The writer must ask pardon for divulging the following character- 
istic act of Mr. Secrest. Fewof the friends of the College and, perhaps, 
none of the faculty know that Mr. Secrest turned every cent of his 
regent's salary, as soon as the quarterly pay checks arrived, over to 
Pres. Geo. T. Fairchild to be distributed among the most needy 
students; and that the only condition which he exacted of the pres- 
ident was that the name of the donor should not be made public. 

Several years have passed since then and Mr. Secrest has grown 
old and gray; one of his daughters became a professor at Leiand Stan- 
ford university and died as a member of the faculty of that institution; 
his oldest son is managing the handsome farm near Randolph; while 
the sturdy veteran is still a frequent visitor at the Kansas State Ag- 
ricultural College, and everyone — students as well as professors — 
welcome him as one of the "Makers of the largest agricultural school 
in the world." 





256 



[April, '99 






HARDY ORNAHENTAL SHRUBS. 

[Press Bulletin No. 17, Department of Horticulture and Entojnology. Experiment Station 

Manhattan, Kansas.] 

' I "HE person who is expecting to add any new features of beauty 
J- to his home grounds in the coming spring should begin now, if 
he has not begun already, to perfect the plan by which he is to pro- 
ceed. If one does not plan he is sure not to execute or to execute 
improperly. The ornamentation of the home, above all things else, 
should be done with forethought and mature consideration. If you 
-would be satisfied with your home and contented in it, then, in 
planting, sowing and pruning, adopt a plan and follow it. 

It is not enough to adopt a plan in time. It is essential also to 
order in due time the stock you wish to plant. Nurserymen cannot, 
and most of them do not claim to guarantee their late shipments as 
they do their early ones. It is in late orders that substitutions of 
variety and quality are made. Order in time. Decide on what you 
^ant and order from the nearest reliable nurseryman. If he does 
not have it he will procure it for you or give you the addresses of 
those who do have it. This department is always ready to furnish 
the addresses of reliable firms to those who ask. 

The question of soils is scarcely to be considered, since almost any 
soil to be found in the state is capable of supporting the best of our 
handsome bloomers. However, the physical condition of the soil 
may be such as to require some treatment before committing a 
valuable shrub to it. If the subsoil is hard and tenacious it should 
be broken up so that the roots of the plants and moisture can pen- 
etrate it. For large plots a subsoil plow is best, but for single 
plants, or for a small number, a spade is eflfective. Dig a hole wide 
enough and deep enough for the roots to grow uncramped for a year 
or two. Pill in the bottom of the hole with surface soil and tramp it 
until it is firm. It is best to set the plant a little deeper than it grew 
in the nursery. Before placing it in the ground see that the broken 
and torn roots are all cut away. If the ends of the roots are injured 
they should be pruned off, leaving a smooth cut. Further than this, 
root-pruning is of very doubtful efficacy. 

The tops may, perhaps, be shortened advantageously, but if the 
top is of good shape severe pruning Is not desirable. The soil should 
be packed firmly around and over the roots to the level of the 



April, '99.] HARDY ORNAMENTAL SHRUBS. 



257 



ground, but if dry weather is expected, leave the soil around the 
plant lower than the surrounding surface. This method has been 
found of great advantage in the drier portions of the state. 

The following shrubs, arranged in the order of their blossoming 
period, have been found perfectly hardy at the College and have, be- 
sides, the highest attributes of beauty, dignity and grace: 

Pyrus Japonica (Japan Quince). — An upright bush bearing scarlet 
flowers very early in the spring before the leaves are out. 

Spirwa Pnm,/o??a (Bridal wreath). — A small spreading shrub, five 
feet high, bearing small white double flowers in great profusion. 

Spircea Van Houtii.—A very graceful] shrub, six feet high, spread- 
ing, bearing a wealth of white blossoms in early spring, about a week 
later than S. prunifolia. 

Lonicera Tatar ica (Bush Honeysuckle).— An upright shrub, eight 
feet to ten feet high, bearing handsome pink or white flowers in 
rather early spring. 

Pfdladelplius (Joronarim {Mock Orange).— An upright shrub, re- 
sembling in habit the one described next above. 

Viburnum Opnlis Sterilis (Snowball).— Well known; excelled by 
none in its grand white clusters in rather late spring. 

Caragana Arborescens (Siberian Pea).— A legume of beautiful up- 
right habit, and dense, soft foliage, bearing small yellow flowers in 
late spring. 

Tamarix Jumper inns.— A tall, graceful ^hrub, with foliage re- 
sembling the cedar. Bears small pinkj-blossoms in spikes in late 
spring and early summer. 

Spirceu Bumalda. —Small, one to one and one-half feet high . Bears 
pink blossoms in corymbs in June and July. 

Hibiscus %riacws(Althea). — SmaU shrub, four to five feet high, 
bearing brilliant white flowers in July. 

Hydrangea Paniculata Grand ijlor a. —This .shrub opens its grand 
clusters of blossoms in July and holds them till August. Unsur- 
passed in beauty. 




258 THE INDUSTRIALIST. [April, '99- 

BOARD OP INSTRUCTION. 
Faculty. 

Thomas Elmbr W ill, a. M. (Harvard), President Comer Fifth and Pierre street* 

Professor of Economics and Philosophy. 

HUNRY M. CoTTBBLL, M. S. (Kansas State Affricultural College) CoUege Campus 

Professor of Agriculture, Superintendent of Farm. 
Albbrt S. Hitchcock, M. S. (Iowa Agricultural CoUege) . CoUege HUl, 2 mUes N. W. of CoUege 

Professor of Botany. 

J0l.lir8 T. WiLiABD, M. S. (Kansas State Agricultural College) Moro street, near Tenth. 

Professor of Applied Chemistry. 

Gbobgk F. Wbida, Ph. D. (Johns Hopkins) Comer Manhattan avenue and Moro street 

Professor of Pure Chemistry. 

Edward W. Bbmis, Ph. D. (Johns Hopkins) Comer Juliette avenue and Houston street 

Professor of Economic Science. 

DUBBN J. H. Ward, Ph. D. (Lelpsic) 830 Houston strieet, corner Eighth. 

Professor of English Language and Literature. 
Arnold Emch, Ph. D. (University of Kansas) Comer Fourth and Moro streets- 
Professor of Graphic Mathematics. 

Frank Parsons, B. C. E. (CorneU University) Corner Fifth and Pierre streets 

Professor of History and Political Science. 



Prof essor of Horticulture and Entomology, Superintendent of Orchards and Gardens 

**™ pi^?if=^- ^^"^I^J^^^i"" ^- ^- °^J^- A>' ^- S- (S. D. A. C.) M. E. Parsonage, Poyntz ave- 
Professor of Household Economics, Superintendent of Domestic Science Department. 

John D. Walters, M. S. (Kansas State Agricultural College) North end of Sixth street 

Professor of Industrial Art and Designing. 

MIS8 Mary F. Winston, Ph. D. (Gcettingen) ,2n Moro street. 

Professor of Mathematics. 
JosBPH D. HARPER M. S (Rose Polytechnic Institute) . ..Houston st., between Fifth and JuUette- 
Professor of Mechanics and Engmeering, Superintendent of Workshops. 

Professor of Military Science and Tactics. 

ALBXANDER B. Bhown, (Boston Music School), A. M.(01ivet) Corner Juliette avenue and 

Professor of Music. [Houston street 

Fredric Augustus Mgtcalf, O. M (Emereon College of Oratory) Corner Poyntz avenue 

Professor of Oratory. [and Sixth street 

ERNEST R. NiCHOUS, D. B. (lowa Normal) B. S., A. M. (University of Iowa). . . .512 Houston street 

Professor of Physics. 

CHARLES S. DAVIS, (Kansas State Normal School) j^ mile west of CoUege 

Superintendent of Printing. 
PATJL Fischer, B. Agr., M, V. D (Ohio State University). ..JuUette avenue and Humboldt street 

Professor of Veterinary Science. 
MISS HARBiBi- HOWELL, (Pratt Institute) Superintendent of Sewing. . . Moro street, near Tentb. ' 
MISS ALICE RUPP, (Indiana State Normal), Instructor in EngUsh.... Poyntz avenue, cor. Seventh- 

Miss JosBPHiNK C. Harper, Instructor in Mathematics Comer Sixth and Pierre streets 

MISS HELEN J. WBSCOTT, Librarian JuUette avenue near Leavenworth street 

Assistants and Poremen. 
K"w"ciom.TB' STi?"« °a n'r^S^f.^"."," ;;^ ■ Corner Sl,u, a„a Co1oh«10 

iLifJi -M.,!, t'tT' ' \ ,- <^)- Assistant in Horticulture Seventh and Bertrand sfrpcta 

Ch"tte^ j'^S^horfSi S^Ik 's *A 0?^^^^^' "Tt^^i^ EconomL's'"*Domi'?fc ScL VuUdlng 
SnaVroid Foreman of Irfn siiS'^^ ' *" "''"'^*'°^ m^XT'*'^' Leavenworth near JuliettI 
Margaret J. Minis,Tsti!stant L^bSn. :: •.•.::: .' Manhattan ^^enue south of Moro street 

R. H. Brown, M. T (Kan. Con of Music) BS , k « a ,; {^■pA\j^^J '«? ^usic CoUege HiU 

J: a Ri'cSA.'i^emaf of^'i^-^tin? O^ce^' Preparatory Dept. . . .Moro .street bet. 8th and 9th 

Cha8.WPape,"S'.i;y.l«A.1;\,^iss^ttTel^icSe"lnd^ ,) 

Assistants in Experiment Station. 

?a-Ha"p|eKnd Field Wo'ir^*"'""' ^°"^??>' ''^^T^'l 8" Houston street 

G.L.C?oTJer'^a'l:irans^ai'staYe''AgriculturalC 

( . o. «.. kj.,, noriicuiture Manhattan avenue and Fremont street 

OTHER 0PPICER5. 

pen^aT^'fe^^^s.^B.I. %'Tl^'if'f!tgTs^J^^ir. ^°"^^? ™- \^' ^'^ "' ^°"«^« 

Eugene Emrick, Jakltor ^""^ °""- ^•'' Actmg secretary Corner Fourth and Laramie 

Jacob Lund, M. S. (K. S.' A.C.V.iingineer;:: '. i::. ! i.: ! !. • i. ! ; :; :: :^®^?".''.''sou\*rg\\e''ofc^l?eS 



THE INDUSTRIALIST. 



BOARD OF REGENTS. 



Publiahed ten times per year by the PrintinK 
Department. 

KANSAS STATE 
AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE. 

rianhattan, Kansas. 
O O O 

Pbis. Thos. E. Will, Managing Editor. 
Prof. John D. Walters, Local Editor. 



Hon. J. N. LiMBOCKBB, President, Manhattan ' 
Mrs. Scsan J. St. John, Vice President, 

Olathe. 
Hon. C. B. Hoffman, Treasurer, Enterprise. 

Hon. Wm. Hunter, Blue Rapids 

Hon. E. T. Fairchild Eaisworth 

Hon. J. M. Satterthwaitk Douglass 

Hon. Carl Vrooman Parsons 

Prrs. Thos. E. Will, Secretary, ex-offido. 



LOCAL NOTES. 

Mrs. Emma (Spohr) Huggins, of Emporia, was among the visitors 
in chapel, March 4. 

Fred Zimmerman, '£8, is now the foreman of Doctor Still's famous 
dairy herd at Kirksville, Missouri. 

W. B. Chase, '97, is now a partner in his father's mercantile busi- 
ness, having purchased the interest of his father's previous partner. 

Mr. P. J. Parrott returned, March 13, from New Mexico where he 
has been for the past two months studying a number of injurious 

insects. 

« 

The Webster Annual, Saturday, March 11, was a complete success 
in every respect. The attendance was large in spite of the very 
ugly weather. 

Hubert C. Avery, captain-elect of the Kansas Uaiversity football 
team, and Miss Nellie V. Criss of Lawrence were married February 
19. Mr. Avery was a second year student here in '96-7. 

I. D. Gardiner, brother-in-law of Prof . J. T. Willard, diedat Wakefield, 
of erysipelas. Mr. Gardiner graduated from the Agricultural College 
in '84. The wife who now mourns his death was Miss Ida Quinby, 
who also graduated in '86. 

Mr-. J. E. Nissley dehvered a stereopticon lecture on the "Growth 
and Development of the Dairy Industry in Kansas," in the College 
chapel, March 3. There were about 250 students present and the 
lecture was well received, 

E. M. S. Curtis, '93, is now located in the office of the Missouri 
Pacific railway at St. Louis. An appreciative increase in recom^^pense 
induced him to accept the present place in preference to a similar- 
one he has held in Detroit for several yesirs,— Students' Herald. 

Everybody is much pleased that Mr. W. H. Phipps, '95. has been 
chosen secretary of the College. Since graduation, Mr. Phipps 
has had a varied business experience, which together with his ser- 
vice as regent will undoubtedly enable him to fill this position in a, 
very acceptable manner. 

The faculty are considering the question of adding a commercial 
science course and a short course for farmers to the present courses 
of instruction. The former is to be a four-year's course that will 

(259) 



260 THE INDUSTRIALIST. [April, '99 

rank with the other courses. The latter, if organized, will cover the 
winter terms of two consecutive years. The question of lengthening 
the present four-year courses is also under consideration. 

On Wednesday, Feb. 22, Miss Stoner and the advanced class in do- 
mestic science gave a formal reception to the student body, receiv- 
ing from two till six o'clock, p. m. The students were received in 
divisions according to classes, each having special hours to call. 
The day was a stormy one, yet the attendance was good. 

It is expected that the dairy number of The Industrialist this 
summer will, as last summer, be made a special commencement 
number. The addresses delivered by distinguished speakers at 
commencement will furnish highly entertaining articles. It is hoped 
that it may be sufficiently attractive to receive a wide sale. 

The Agricultural department succeeded in getting Secretary 
Ooburn to ship by freight a number of the eleventh biennial report 
of the State Board of Agriculture. By having them sent this way 
the books cost one cent apiece, saving twenty-eight cents on each 
one — twenty-one dollars on the number of books secured. 

Asst. R. W. Clothier returned on the first of March from a two 
days' institute at Castleton, in Reno county. He reports great en- 
thusiasm: seats, window sills, and platform all full. Among other 
features they had him give two talks on the advantages of attendance 
at the Agricultural College, for which purpose the pupils of three 
schools were assembled. 

The legislative 'committee who visited the College on March 1 
was received at chapel by the student body and faculty. Thruout 
the morning they were shown the crowded class rooms and labora- 
tories. Representatives Gillispie, of Butler county, and Keifer, of 
Neosho, spoke for a few minutes, Thursday morning, in chapel. They 
were surprised at the large attendance and the general maturity of 
the student body. 

The navy of the United States is well known for its recent deeds, 
iDutits make-up is not familiar to most people so far inland as Kansas. 
A letter was recently received from a young man who wants to enter 
the navy, and as preparation therefor was thinking of entering the 
College Mechanical department. He was advised that this would 
probably be a satisfactory means of acquiring the mechaiiical skill 
and intelligence which is required of even enlisted men in the naval 
service. 

A subcommission on agriculture and agricultural labor, working 
under the industrial commission recently appointed by act of con- 
gress, called upon the office of experiment stations at Washington to 
show them the relation of the work of the agricultural colleges and 
experiment stations to practical agriculture. The Kansas station as 
well as others has been called upon to furnish information. The 
report is exceedingly interesting, and shows that the experimental 
work and scattering of information has been and is in the highest 
degree useful to the state. 



April, '99.] LOCAL NOTES. 261 

Mr. Fred Wilkinson, of Yates Center, makes an inquiry which 
comes to the station many times every day of late. He writes: "I 
have just received your press bulletin No. 24, and am very much 
interested in the soy bean, and I desire to get seed of the same. Do 
you know where I can get some, and at what price'? Please reply at 
once. I am a dairy farmer and am interested in 'protein,' Please 
continue to send me all publications. I value them very highly, and I 
think the Kansas Experiment Station is doing a grand work not only 
for Kansas but for the whole United States. " 

The second year horticulture in the winter term of 1898-9 was de- 
ferred because of the leaving of Professor Faville. It is found prac- 
tically impossible to give both the horticulture and the second year 
spring entomology in the spring term of 1898-99. Therefore the fol- 
lowing adjustment has been made: The second year winter term 
horticulture takes the place of the second year spring term ento- 
mology, and will be made a five-hour instead of a three-hour study. 
The entomology thus displaced will be added to the work laid out 
for the spring term of the third year, but be reduced for that term 
from a live hour to a three-hour study. 

Mr. Henry E. Alvord, formerly president of the Association of 
American Agricultural Colleges and now chief of the dairy division 
iu the bureau of animal industry at Washington, writes to the College 
on a matter of business, and says in closing: "Let me add that I 
am interested in your College thru early acquaintance with it, and 
because I have had a number of good friends in its service. I knew 
its first president well, and used to ride over from Fort Riley, when 
I was in command there, more than thirty years ago, to watch with 
interest the.early development of your institution. The College and 
your administration of it have my most cordial good wishes." 

Professor Walters is working on the plans and specifications of 
the new agricultural building. It is intended to have everything 
ready for bidders within two or three weeks. The proposed loca- 
tion of the buildings is upon the site of the ruins of the president's 
residence destroyed by lightingin 1895. The building will measurel04 
by 100 feet, two stories high. There will be a 12- foot basement, built 
of heavy ashlar rock. The interior will be lined with glazed brick laid 
in cement. The structure will contain a large creamery room, a 
cheese room, three class rooms, a laboratory, a library, several offices^ 
a boiler room, an engine room, a cold storage room, and several cloak 
rooms and lavatories. 

A circular has been issued containing the names of persons from 
whom soy bean seed may be obtained; and it is sent to those asking 
for it. A large number of inquiries have come for this information 
since the bulletin on soy beans was issued from the Experiment 
Station. The College cannot furnish soy beans, either free or for 
pay. Formerly samples of the seed were issued in packages of one 
quart, but this was found unsatisfactory, as so small a patch of bean 
plants is likely to be eaten up by rabbits. Some seedsmen list the 
seed as soja beans and some as coffee beans. The price ranges from 




'262 



THE INDUSTRIALIST. 



[April, '99 



:$2.50 to $6.00 per bushel. Half a bushel of seed per acre is the 
proper amount. Copies of press bulletin No. 24, describing the uses 
and culture of soy beans, may be obtained by addressing Kansas Ex- 
periment Station, Manhattan, Kansas. 

Prof. E. M. Shelton, formerly of this College, but lately president 
of the agricultural college at Queensland, Australia, visited his old 
home last summer. The following is an extract from an interview 
by an Australian paper, which gives his impressions about agricul- 
tural colleges and their influence in this country: "While in the 
states I visited several of the largest agricultural colleges and of 
course found much to interest me there. At Manhattan, Kansas, 
the site of my old-time labors, the students'- roll has reached over 
700. I also spent a couple of days pleasantly at Berkeley, California, 
looking into the splendid equipment of that great university. One 
fact I wish to bear testimony to, and that is the great influence of 
these industrial educational institutions. I found the students and 
graduates engaged in all occupations, for no pretense is made there 
that the graduates of the agricultural colleges will be farmers alto- 
gether. Some are lawyers, some are business men, some teachers, 
and a good many go directly to the farm. But whatever their occu- 
pation, I found these men and women thoroly in earnest in respect 
to the development of the resources of the states and districts in 
which they happen to live. For instance, the state of Kansas pro- 
duced this year something like 22,000,000 bushels of wheat, and over 
200,000,000 bushels of maize. These great facts of production 
sustain an intimate connection with the 700-odd students at work at 
the Agricultural College. 

The Press 
The Manhattan Industrialist for March is a valuable number 
for students. It contains a very complete chart and article on 
-"Civics Analyses. ''—Anthony Republican. # 

The articles in the February number of The Industrialist indi- 
-cate thoughtfulness and thoroness in educational work as repre- 
sented by this leading Kansas 'mstitViiion.— Philadelphia Oitv and 
State. I y 

This College is a promoter of the state's interests and advance- 
ment rather than a charge upon its resoures. It is returning for the 
money invested not only men and women so educated as to be able to 
-accompUsh much in the field of industry, especially the industry of 
farming, but it is also discovering and making applicable better 
methods of utilizing the great resources of the state.— Kansas 
Farmer. 

In speaking of the pending appropriation bills during the session 

- of the legislature, the Topeka Capital had many a kind word for the 

Agricultural College. It pleaded with the committees on ways and 

means to be "as considerate of its pressing needs as it showed itself 

toward the university." It impressed the members of the le^^isla- 

ture with the fact that "This College is close to the heart of the'pro- 

ducmg class of the state. " And it assured them that "The money 

• asked for the purposes named will come back to the taxpayers with 

.100 per cent interest every year. " 



April, '99.] LOCAL NOTES. 263 

Roster of the New Board. 

President Will has received the following information from the 

governor's office regarding the personnel ot the Board of Regents of 

the Agricultural College at this time: 

Members holding^ over — 

C. B. Hoffman, Enterprise term ending April 1, 1901 

Susan J. St. John, Olathe term ending April 1, 1901 

.T. N. LiMBOCKER, Manhattan term ending- April 1, 1901 

Carl Vkooman, Parsons term ending April 1, 1901 

New members api)ointed — 

William Hunter, Blue Rapids, vice E. B.C'owgill, term ending April 1, 1903 
,J. M. Satterthwaite, Douglass, vice W. H. Phipps, term ending April 1, 1903 
E. T. Fairchild. Ellsworth, term ending April 1, 1903. to succeed T. .] . Hudson 

A Sound Mind in A Sound Body. 

At the entertainment given by the college athletic association on 
the evening of February 27, President Will spoke in substance as fol- 
lows, on the topic "A Sound Mind in a Sound Body:" 

"Athletics found its golden age in ancient Greece. In no land was 
it ever held in higher honoi-. The Isthmian, Nemean, Pythian, and 
-especially the Olympian games were national events. Wars ceased 
during the games. Time was reckoned by the Olympiads. The best 
energies of the Greeks were taxed in preparing for the quadrennial 
<jontests in honor of the Olympian Zeus. The events consisted of 
running, leaping, throwing the discus and spear, and the like. The 
victor, crowned with a simple wreath of wild olive, returned as acon- 
querer to his native village, where almost the entire population turned 
out to meet him and where substantial honors and rewards awaited 
him. 

"The Greek games contributed much toward the development of 
the finest, most perfect human being known to antiquity, if not to 
modern times. The reason lay, however, not simply in the fact of 
physical exercises but in the ideal striven for. The Greek abhorred 
excess. He sought harmony, symmetry, balance, perfection; one 
organ or faculty was never highly cultivated at the expense of an- 
other. Mental training accompanied physical. Everything was 
subordinate to the ideal of perfect poise, and all-round, manly 
beauty. 

"In war-like, cruel Rome and even more in the chaos that fol- 
lowed the breakdown of the Roman civilization the Greek ideal was 
lost sight of. The type of the middle ages was the ascetic ; weighed 
down by the sense of sin which he conceived as residing in the flesh, 
his entire thought was occupied with the warfare between flesh and 
spirit. That the soul might be exalted, the body, he believed, must 
be debased; hence his fastings and cruel scourgings and the many 
exercises whereby he sought to degrade and subdue the body. 
With such a people athletics could have no place. The result of 
asceticism was an unsound mind in a dwarfed, diseased and 
wretched habitation. 

"In recent times the pendulum has swung again. Medieval ideas 
of sin and separation have been in a measure forgotten. The body 
is again esteemed and athletics has revived. In Eton and Rugby 
and the other English preparatory schools, as well as in English 



i 



264 THE INDUSTRIALIST. [April, '99 

colleges and universities, along with the national games of cricket 
and football the amateur athletic sports are much in vogue ; running, 
the high leap, the wide leap or broad jump, vaulting, steeple chasing, 
hurdle racing, throwing the hammer and putting the weight stand- 
ing as the leading events. 

"From England, interest in athletic sports has spread to eastern 
American colleges; and, later, to western, till our own now feels the 
impulse. As is usual, the pendulum which swung so far toward 
other worldhness and physical degradation has in modern times 
swung entirely past the golden mean marked by Greek athletics, to 
the extreme of undue physical exaltation. In some eastern colleges 
it is hardly an exaggeration to say that the body is made everything 
and the mind practically nothing. Beef supplants brain; muscle 
is canonized; the mere athlete is worshipped, the scholar ignored. 
Such mental unsoundness is accompanied by a corresponding phys- 
ical unsoundness. Athletics or physical development made an end 
in itself misses its purpose with the result that the mere athlete 
often breaks down physically at an early age. 

"Need we fear such an exaggeration of athletic interest in our 
own College? Hardly. Our young people have been trained and 
toughened on the farms before coming to College. The use of the 
muscles fails to intoxicate them as it does the untrained striplings 
from the city. Again, the blending of physical and mental exercises 
in our College course aids greatly in maintaining an equilibrium. 
Yet the splendid Greek ideal needs to be held up before the students 
in K. S. A. C. as well as elsewhere. It should never be forgotten 
that the object of all our work in class room, laboratory, shop, and on 
athletic field is the development of the all-round balanced man or 
woman; and we may even go beyond the Greek and seek this sym- 
metrical development, not primarily for beauty in itself nor for 
personal enjoyment, but for service of ourselves in striving toward 
the attainment of 'our highest ideals and in service of our fellowmen 
and of our common country. Thus the sound mind and sound body 
combine to produce the higher civilization." 



How often you hear this: "Oh, Yes, I The Diploma and Gold Medal 

Esterbrook's; why, that is the pen I ! Were awarded to the Chicago Scale 

used when a boy at school." And the Company of Chicago, 111., at the 

rejoinder: " You will never regret it. " Omaha exposition for the best stock 

Owtmo for March is a seasonable and ' and hay scales over all first-class 

satisfying number, which carries manv makes, no cheap scales were consid- 

fine illustrations. Walrus hunting, ered. This company sells more scales 

fishing, snow shoeing, shooting, arti- than any other, and their prices are 

cles upon terriers and spaniels, wolf lower than those of any reliable scale, 

hunting, bicycling and vachting, afford They also handle hundreds of usefuJ 

a pleasing variety, " specialtirs . They send catalogue tree. 

The Greater America Exposition 
agrees to place at the disposal of the 
State Board of Agriculture whatever 

space may be found necessary for a \ l^^l^^iS'd^'^l'^roUipM. tlorifSn^ 

creditable exhibit in the Agricultural, j ^^^^■■jft varieties, $i6. ischojceFruu trees. «» 

Horticultural, Dairy and Apiary build- |^^Mfc¥'r"2lWauioy;:'e'Sfd"*pri<^W 

ings, and to afford proper accommo- ^^^^^HwSS'J;*^!*^*" '''.'^.■■••T JFREB. 

dations for all the live stock that may n Hill ^^^T^'^^Annd^m 

be placed on exhibition. Iri IIILlii Specialist, IrllllllCCi III* 




EVERGREENS 




DOUBLEPEED 
FOUNTAIN 

Is the best pen made. 
The saving of time 
will soon repay any 
student. 

PRICE $a TO $5, according to style. 
F. O WOESTEMEYER agent for 

Kansas State Agricultural College. 
Ask him to show you styles and prices. 
Century Pen Co., Whitewater, Wis. 




BO YEARS' 
EXPERIENCE 



»»>>>>>>»♦»♦ 



(Parfter 

fountain , 

(Pen 

is tf e Hat anb 

cpta}pt»tin tfe 

maxttt. 

Examine it at 

t^t CottiQt 

l^ooftftore. 



i 



-.>a 




Trade Marks 

Designs 
Copyrights &c. 

AiiTone fieiKlIng a nketrh and description msy 
qiitcklT nsccrtniii our opinion freo wlictlicr an 
iuTentinn 18 prohnbly pjilentablo. Conimunlpn- 
tlonsBtrlctlycoiitliloiitlal. Handbook on Patents 
sent free. Oldest nueiicy for securinR patents. 

Patents taken thftiuirh Munn & Co. receive 
tpeeial notice, without c harg e, in the 

Scientific Jlincilcan. 

A handsomely iUnstntted weekly. I.nrcest cir- 
culation of any scientific journal. Terms, 93 a 
year ; four months, 91. Sold by all newsdealers. 

MUNN S Co^«'«-4-i New York 

Branch Office. 626 F Bt. Washington. D. C. 



■ ■».il«.«<>>*l». i>. ■>....■. *».>t.*.>**> n **>«>****i 




ttSMNIM 

ZIICfttHil* Skdimm 

HAlflONe BUS. 



«»»««I H III HH »»« "" ««»««« 



iiiii uM ii m 



Diploma 



and 



Awarded Chle«a;e Scale Co. for bm 
Stock and HajSealoa at Oaahu Eipo- 
■itlon. Offlcial SoaleaSlock PutiJIod, 
World'aFaIr, Chicago, 189 J. Bequlra 
no pit. Stiel Kramen. Irons for Stofk 



M-U UaJIaI «*«><•• Scales for ill purpnsea. Best 
llOlU H6|I3I <)<>o"1T> l^"**^ Prlcrs. Harraatcd. 

Atcel Frame & iiuy si Scale Rack 




Alaoat Wholnal* Prleeai Sewing laehlnra. Safes, Blefela*.. 
Blackialika* Tool«,re«d Hllla,Cora ■fcellem, Kaglnn. Bollera, 
P'.owa, Scraper*, Wire Fence, Slotea, Saddlea, HarncH, Ban!**. 
SlelitlnaadlinndredB of n.ef«l article., falaloiffree. Addrnt 
'lUCiflO 8CALI CO.. KM JaekMB BoBlafUd, GklMf*, Ilk 



i 



^tnertfon CottMit of Ovatov^ 



Largest School of Elocution 



and Oratory In America. 

Hat a thoro and systematic course of study, including a complete system of Pbyslc-al Tiuiii 
iag and Voice Culture, Natural Rendering and the principles of the Philosophy of Expression 
Soientlflc and practical work in every department. Chartered by the State. Address for Uius 
trated catalog 

CHARLE5 WESLEY EMERSON, Pres., 

Corner Treaiont and Berkeley Streets. Boston. Mass. 



5AVE TIME 
SAVE MONEY 



AinUKTtC 

onLocue 
nu 



' hil^<DS6N0BLES 

coVper. institute 



TION TMS 
AOVCRTnCMCNT 



**■ " " — 1 1 1 1 i.. 



n < n i n t n 



BIG WAGES . . . 
FOR HONEST WORK. 

^ 'THE best Harness Rlv. 
I eter on the market- 
Every machine guaran- 
teed. An absolute neces. 
slty to every one owning 
a set of harness. Will 
more than pay for itself 
in a very short time. 
Sample outfit 75 cents. 
We have pleasant em- 
ployment for the ladies, 
selling our new Dexter 
Dust Pan. No more break- 
ing of backs stooping. A 
very fast selling article, 
especially adapted for 
the ladies. Retail price 
25 cents. Sample outfit 
including express charges 
40 cents. We want good 
live agents only. 

THE DEXTER MFG. CO., 
DEPT. F- SALEM. OHIO. 




HUSH mEDlCAli COliliEGE 

—\ .Ux affiliation uiitb th« Unlvavsity of Chicago. 

T^«o!iri?^,)J^*f ***®,?*'*^°**i°' ™e?lo»ne requires a proper preliminanr education, and three 
tton.^iiBd t^mftS5Ji^rS?i{S£^U*l?7°*®** to laboratory, didactic and cllnicaf instruction, to recita- 
tions and to manual training in the use of instruments and appliances. 

ia«i?lEi?^iSfJL'1-®«».'.V^° capacious weU-lighted edifices. The new building contains five 
large laboratories, in which are conducted the practical laboratory coureea In 

AMtony. Physiology and Htotoloty. ChemUtry, Materia Mcdica, 
Pathology and Bacteriology. 

i^JSit-^'lJZlJfllll"? *" devoted to instruction by cUnics, didactic lectures, and by numerous 
ter«™„iS^*lS'i^'^"T* ^ """""^ training In manipulations, and In the use of thelStrJ^ 
ments employed In medical science, surgery, obstetrics and the specialties. , , 

(fflftmiaf groini ng in aU departments of medicine is a special feature of the Instruction la 

_.-,»„..„ ,, this coUege. Systematic recitations, conducted in five commodious 

recitation rooms, are regarded as a most i^iportant means of teaching! commomous 

.hi JTi*?.,2!ii®v 1? processors and in8tructo)|p and with ample room and appUanoes this school is 
able to furnish its classes with the most app^ved systemaUo education to memctae 

•duKiSlffppti^anc^stf'lLTcffiV''* '*^*** *° "^** ^^'^ >*boratories and to.insp^t jg. 

SwJtMxf^*' **'*®™****»'^ •">* for annouvsements apply to the College Clerk or~'to thia 

•I. H. BTHBf^lOOH, IW. t>. 

S3 1Mwi1iiii§to«LS«ywft, OUiWftt. 




THE COIL 

In the Horizontal Wires in tlie 



PAGE FEHCES 



Provides for the "Give and Take" required to adapt a wire 
fence to the varying temperatures. 



UOOK HT THIS FARM SCHflHI 

Doesn't it seem as tho Page Pence, besides affording per- 
fect securitjr for the stock, is quite ornamental? 




not sag. ^^ 



PAGE FENCES 



Are used to enclose some of the handsomest suburban resi- 
dences in the United Slates. 



PAGE FENCES 



Are acknowledcred to be standards all over the world, and 
Standards do not cost_^more than many of their imitations. 

Isn't It Safe 

To buy standard articles made by standard manufacturers. 



Let us make you a price on 
your next job of fencing... 



PAGE WOVEN WIRE FBHCE CO., purian, pcnigan. 




prnpipi 



800 STUDENTS. 



f' ■ ' ' 



)S§0,000 EllBtWPIEIiL 



40 mSTRUCTORS. 



K FRee EDUCATION 



....IN, 



TUB . Largest • flgrlcuitural • Ooliege • in . tne • Woiia. 



SIX COURSES 
OF STUDY: . , . 



Tl^ioultural, 

T^robiteotural, 

Domestic goienoe, 

General, 

TVleabanioal 6n|{ineerind, and 

Gi»|l Grt^ineerinjg. 




Bea.tifd (iro^9d8. i^i,^e Sabstaptial Storje Baildir^^s 

Admission on examination direct from the District Schools. 
Funds derived chiefly from federal government 

EnroUment largest in the history of the College. 
S?."ii?°'^^VI'''' ?«°iestic Science unsurpassed in the West 

The Laboratories and Shops are splendidl/eauinDed 



Spring term now in progress 
lars or catalog, address 



HRES. THOS. E. WILL, Manhatton, Kansas. 



May, i809. 



j Vol. as. No. 5. 
I Whole No. loaa. 






^al Society 



IINDUSTRIALIST. 

Issued ko times per year by the ^ 

KflN5fl5 STflTC flQRICULTUR/IL COLLCQC. 



e6, 1875. 







(5 

for t9e 

of 
(gLgtficuf* 

3n^u0ttiaf 
and 

05ueation- 










SkinqU 
I 10 Unit, i 

! i 



tDlTCD BY THC FACULTY. WBLISHCDBV 

Uuukging Bditor, - - PRJS. TH08. H. Will. THE PRINTING MPiRTMHT, 

loMl Bditor, - - - PEOF.J.D.WALTIRS. CH18. S. DATU, Supt. 



CONT©NTS. 

Some Miniature Views Frontispiece. 

Municipal Liberty. II 267, 

frank parsons. 

Contributions to the Knowledge of the 
Coccm^ (THIRD paper) 276 

T. D, a. COCKERELL AND P. J. PARROTT. 

Riley County Real Estate Mortgages 285 

r. s. kellogg. 
Farming and Stock Raising in Australia.. . 291 

e. m. shelton. 

A New Crop for Kansas Farmers 299 

PRESS BULLETIN NUMBER TWENTY- FOUR. 

Tendencies of the K. S. A. C: 301 

thomas elmer will. 

Alfalfa Hay for Fattening Hogs 318 

PRESS bulletin- NUMBER TWENTY-FIVE. 

BOARD OF Instruction 320 

Milking Scrub Cows. 321 

press bulletin number twenty-nine. 

Local Notes 324 

Books and Periodicals 331 



SiUredat the Postofice at VanhatUn. Kansas, for transmission as seoond-elass mail matUr. 

Subscription Price .... 

One Year, • . - • • - $i-oo 

Special Club Rate to Students and Alumni - - .50 

/T\aol?attai7, KaiJSas: 9oIle<jc Jype apd pr(?88. 
Chicago address: 77 Clark street, Room 23. 



GGRTeRTS OF PReceDIRG RUmB€^R8. 



JULY. 

The Problem of Social Duty.— Baccalau- 
reate Sermon before the Class of 1806, 

by Thomas Elmer WiU 441 

• The Romance of a Masterpiece.— Address 
before the Literary Societies, Delivered 

June 6. by C. B. McAfee 457 

The Social System and the Christian Con- 
science.— A Commencement Oration, 
Given at the Kansas State Agricultural 
College, June 9, 1898, bvaeo. D. Herron, 470 
Foreign City Marltets, by E. E. FaviUe. . 495 
Proceedings of the Board of Regents... 499 

Seed Breeding, Dy Ueorge L. Clothier. 508 

Professor Parsons's Alma Address 505 

One Year, byThomasE Will 511 

Local Notes 513 



OCTOBER. 
Outlines of U. S. Financial History: VL De- 
monetization of Silver, Part 1 , by Thomsis 

Ehner WiU 528 

Student Labor and College Income, by Ed- 
ward W. Bemis 541 

ManhattanWater-Works, by S. J. Adams . .. 549 
Makers of the K. S. A. C: VL Hon. Stephen 
M. Wood, Regent, {.Frontispiece Illuttra- 

Hon) by John D. Walters 556 

College Quiz— Questions and Answers con- 
cerning the Kansas State Agricultural 

CoUege ».. 558 

The Higher Education and the State, by 

Thomas Elmer Will 568 

Personal and Explanatory 571 

New Ideas in Farm Machinery 571 

Books and Periodicals 572 

Local Notes 575 



NOVEMBER 



Parties and the People, by Frank Parsons 589 

Dairy School, K S. A. C 596 

The Value of Academic Opinions on Eco- 
nomic Ouestlons. bv Thomas Elmer Will 600 
Tabular View of "Mint Bill" (To face) 604 
Outlines of U. S . Financial History: VI. 
Demonetization of Silver, Part 2, by 

Thomas Elmer WiU 607 

Fall Preparation for Alfalfa Seeding 620 

Production and Care of Milk for House- 
hold Use, by H. M. CottreU 622 

Some Applications of Modem Geometry 
In Mechanics: I. The Statics of Peau- 

celller's Cell, by Arnold Emch 616 

Camping in Florida, by A. S.Hitchcock.... 632 
Keeping Milk In Summer, by H. M. CottreU 637 
Editorials -Thos. E. WUl: 

Why Workers Want 648 

"Politics in State Schools." 644 

Note on the History of Demonetization 645 

Loca* Notes 647 

Books and Periodicals 653 



DECEMBER. 

Postgraduate Work 'n Pure Science: 
IL An American University.- ^ro»<i«- 

piece Illustration.) 657 

III. A Summer in Europe, by George F. 
Weida 661 

Outlines of U. S. Financial History: Vn. 
From Demonetization to Partial Restor- 
ation of Silver, by Thomas Ehner Will.. 666 

Growth of Alfalfa In Northwestern Kansas, 
by George L. Clothier 676 

The Sand Pliim 684 

The National As.sociatlon of Household 
Economics, by Harriet Howell 687 

Latent Fertility in the Soil: Its Utilization 
and Conservation, by R. W. Clothier. ... 689 

The Municipal League 702 

Kaffir Corn for Fattening Pigs, Press Bulle- 
tin Number Seven 709 

Local Notes 711 

Books and Periodicals 7ie 



JANUARY. 

Municipal Liberty, by Frank Parsons 3 

Topeka Electric Light Plant, by Henry M. 

Thomas n 

Prevention of Blackleg in Cattle, by Paul 

Fischer 19 

Alfalfa Investigations in Central Kansas, 

by J. B. Norton 24 

My Christmas Gifts, by Frank Parsons 30 

College Sewage and Manhattan Water 

Supply, by J. T. Willard 35 

Prairie Fires and their Prevention, by 

George L. Clothier. 38 

Needs of the State Agricultural College. . . 43 
Makers of the K. S. A. C: VU. James 
Hervey Lee, A. M. {Frontispiece Illus- 
tration.) \iy 3. 'D.Vf&XtQvs 47 

"Equality Colony No. 1, B. 0. C." by Helen 

J. We-scott 49 

Board of Regents 53 

Local Notes 64 

Books and Periodicals 66 

FEBRUARY. 
A Study of Creamery Patrons. D. H. Otis 69 
Harvard as a State Institution, Thos. E Will 75 
John Wlcllf (FlrstPaper),DurenJ. H.Ward 82 
Business Results of the College Herd, F. C. 

Burtis 91 

Celery (Press Bulletin No. 11), Agricultural 

Experiment. Station ^ 

Board of Instruction 100 

Some Applications of Modem Geometry in 

Mechanics: II. Pole and Polar Plane, 

Arnold Emch 101 

StatLstics by the State Temperance Union, 

WUllam Canfleld Lee 110 

Dedication of Domestic Science Hall 1 13 

Proceedings of the Board of Regents 125 

Local Not es.. ....■.■. .126 

MARCH. 
John Wlcllf (2d paper). Duren J. H.Ward. 185 
Whv the Farmer Should Study Economics, 

Thomas Elmer Will 144 

A Frosty Morning on the Campus, Helen J. 

Wescott 150 

Soldiers In the Spanish War 151 

A Plea for Opportunity, Thomas E. Will . 153 
The Admirable Record of Regent Vrooman 157 
Contributions to the Knowledge of the 

Coccidffi. Cockerell & Parrott 159 

The Oat Crop, F. C. Burtis 166 

Some Applications of Modem Geometry In 

Mechanics: III. Polygon of Forces 

and Funicular Polygon, Arnold Emch. 169 
Makers of the K. S. A C: VIU. Hon. F. 

D. Cobura. {Frontispiece Illustration), J. 

D. Walters 178 

Views of One Millionaire Economist, Thos. 

Elmer Will 180 

The White Man's Burden. ( Kipling) 183 

Civics Analyses, Frank Parsons .. 184 

Local Notes 189 

Books and Periodicals ... 197 

APRIL. 

Outline of U. S. Financial History: VHL 

From Hayes to Garfield, Thos. E. Will, 201 
The Evolution of Education, Thos. E. Will, 210 
Roentgen Radiography, Illustrated, E. R. 

Nichols 219 

Contributions to the knowledge of the Coc- 

cldBB, (second paper), T. D. A. Cockerell 

and P. J. Parrott 227 

A Perspectivograpb, Illustrated, Arnold 

Emch 287 

Civics Analyses: Kansas m. Cities, Frank 

Parsons 241 

The CoUege Appropriation. Thos. E. WiU, 249 
Makers of the K. S. A. C. : IX. Hon. Ed. Se- 

crest. (Frontispiece IUustration.)tJ. D. 

Walters 253 

Hardy Ornamental Shrubs. Press BuUetIn 

Number Seventeen 256 

Board of Instruction 258 

Local Notes 259 



■Mi 



. 



(For publication in newspapers if found worthy.) 

TENDENCIES OP THE KANSAS STATE AQRICULTURAL COLLEQE. 

TECE question has been asked as to the present tendencies of this 
institution. What should be its tendencies? The laws of 
congress endowing the land-grant colleges provide for a liberal and 
practical education for the industrial classes and specify instruction 
in agriculture, the Eaglish language, the mechanic arts, military tac- 
tics, and mathematical, physical, natural and economic science. 
Within two years the College has risen from one of the lowest to one 
of the highest rank in amount of agricultural instruction offered and 
received. It has established a dairy school, engaged in valuable ex- 
perimental work, published pamphlet bulletins which have won the 
highest praise, and inaugurated a .system of weekly press bulletins 
which have been widely copied. It has trebled the number of farm- 
ers' institutes, and divided their cost by three, and has received an 
institute appropriation which will enable it to visit every county in 
the state twice annually or more frequently. It has fired the stu- 
dents with an interest, hitherto unk;nown, in agriculture, and has so 
won the good will of the state as to secure for the agricultural depart- 
iient a legislative appropriation of $34,000, against a biennial average 
since 1890 of one-seventieth of this amount. The Horticultural de- 
partment, like the Agricultural and other departments, has per- 
formed experiments a singly one of which would, if utilized, pay 
for the total cost of the College since its foundation in 1859. 

The Veterinary department has established a laboratory, experi- 
mented widely on practical lines, produced and distributed blackleg 
vaccine, whereby cattle raisers have saved many thousands of dol- 
lars; and, despite greatly increased coDege duties, has attended to the 
work of the state veterinarian. 

The Mechanical department has risen from a mere manual train- 
ing, school to a high-grade department of mechanical engineering, 
has increased its attendance over 30 per cent and has then been com- 
pelled to turn students away; it has adopted an apprentice system 
popular with students and valuable educationally and' pecuniarily to 
th« dejmrtment and College, and has received legislative appropria 
tions eleven times greater thaft the average allowed t^is department 
since 1889-00. 

The Domestic Science department has secured a budding and 
earned a foremost place among similar departments west of the 
All^hanies. 

Tke depattments of Agriculture, Mechanics and Domestic Sci 
ence have each been given a special four years' course of study. 
These departments and the Horticultural department are prepared 
to offer short, highly practical courses next year to students able to 
attend but three nionths annually for two successive years. 

The College has also increased the opportunity for study in his- 
tory »nd economics with the view to preparing the student to per- 
form intelligently the duties of citizenship. The attendance during 
the present year has surpassed that of all preceding years, as have 
the legislative appropriations. 






■:^v 



THE INDaSTRIAl2lST. 

(»of. 25, dto. 5. (Wa^, 1899. -W^ofe (Uo. 1022 



II. nUNIClPAL LIBERTY.* 

HY FKANK PARSONS. 

A FRANCHISE granted by the legislature to a city or town is not> 
a contract. A franchise to establish, own and operate ferries,, 
water-works, gas works, electric plants, street railways, etc., /.s a con- 
tract, if granted to an association of stockholders constituting a com- 
pany, and is protected by the United States constitution: but is not a, 
contract if granted to an association of individuals constituting a city,. 
and is not protected by the federal constitution or anything else, but 
may be taken without compensation at the pleasure of the legisla- 
ture, as was done in the case of the Hartford ferry. [See East Hart- 
ford V. Hartford Bridge Co., 10 How. (U. S.) 511, sustaining the legis- 
lature on the broad ground that the grant of a ferry franchise to a 
municipality is not a contract. See also 77 Va. 214; but see contra. 
10 Barb. N. Y. 223.] 

Not only are franchise grants to municipalities outside the pro- 
tection afforded to contracts, but the whole city charter is denied 

such protection. 

The charter of a private corporation is held to be a contract, and 
the legislature cannot alter it or repeal it, nor divide the company or 
consolidate it with another company without its assent, unless power 
to do it was expressly reserved. But, the powers and privileges of 
a city may be altered, abridged or annulled, and the city itself divided, 
annexed or abohshed at the will of the legislature; (102 U. S. 511; 
Dillon §§ 54, 64, 85, 89). Imagine congress passing an' act to annex 
Rhode Island to Connecticut, or to divide New York, or to declare 
that Illinois shall no longer be a state. Yet such an act enforced 
without assent of the states affected would be an act parallel with the 
arbitrary power possessed by many of our legislatures to divide a 
city or annex it to another, or declare its corporate existence at an end. 

John Stuart Mill wrote on the Subjection of Women, and it is time 
some one wrote a book about the Subjection of Cities. The case is. 

♦ Continuation of the article under this title In the January Inuuhthialist. 

(267) 



268 



THE INDUSTRIALIST. 



[May, '99 



■worse in some respects with the cities than with the women — it has 
been some time since the law gave any person or persons the power 
to marry off a woman without her consent, much less divide her up, 
or discontinue her corporate existence. 

THE REASONS FOR ALL THIS. 

The reason sometimes given for the legislative power of stran- 
gling a municipality is that it was created by the legislature, and as 
the breath of life was breathed into it by the state authorities they 
have the right to withdraw the said breath at their pleasure. On 
similar grounds a parent would have a right to murder his child, 
and we should go back to the Roman plan of placing the power of life 
and death in the head of the family. Moreover private corporations 
as well as public are created by the legislature, and if creation con- 
fers a right of 'limitless modification even to dissolution in the one 
case, why not in the other? Finally, cities and towns are not created 
by the legislature. They may exist and frequently have existed 
without any legislature, and before there was any legislature. And 
their existence gives them the right of local self-government. People 
living together in the same locality have a right to associate them- 
selves for the accomplishment of common purposes and to control 
their local affairs without dictation from distant cities and without 
permission from any legislature. The legislature may use cities and 
towns to accomplish state purposes and in that relation may prop- 
erly mold their governments and functions, but has no more right to 
deprive them of freedom and self-control in local matters, than con- 
gress has to deprive a state of its freedom and self-control in in- 
ternal concerns. 

The real reason for the present state of municipal law appears to 
be the failure of the law, so far, to embody in its philosophy, with 
sufficient fulness and precision, the fundamental distinction between 
the functions of cities and towns as state agencies for enforcing state 
laws, and their functions as local business concerns. In England 
when the principles of the common law were crystallizing, the 
functions of municipalities were almost entirely confined to the first 
class, and the doctrine naturally grew up that municipalities were 
merely creatures of the state, doing a part of the state's work, and 
subject entirely to the state's orders— a doctrine fairly reasonable 
as long as municipal functions were confined to keeping order, at- 
tending to education and other state interests, but wholly inappro- 



May, '99.] 



MUNICIPAL LIBERTY. 



269 



priate in reference to the ownership and management of water-works, 
gas works, electric hght works, street railway systems, lodging 
houses, wharves, ferries, printing establishments, telephone ex- 
changes, baths, and other local business enterprises that have crept 
into the municipal field, while the precedent-loving law has clung to 
the rule of former times, bending a Uttle in the strong hands of two 
or three liberal courts, but with no due regard, as a rule, for the 
modifications required by the changes of modern life. 

SOME LIMITATIONS ON THE LEGISLATURE. 

In spite of the law's rigidity, however, and the powerful trend 
towards legislative absolutism in municipal affairs, some notches 
have been cut in this legislative omnipotence. (1) It is agreed that 
taxation must be for a public purpose, and the purpose must pertain 
to the district taxed; the legislature cannot tax even a city except 
within this rule. (2) The legislature cannot deprive a city of the use 
of its private property, such as water works, gas plants, etc., nor 
compel it to convey such property, or part with the ownership of it, 
except upon due compensation. One of the best cases is Mount Hope 
Cemetery v. Boston, 158 Mass. 509, especially valuable because it 
was decided in a court that favors the doctrine of municipal depend- 
ence. The legislature ordered Boston to convey its cemetery prop- 
erty to the Mount Hope Cemetery Company, land, implements, 
everything. The court said: 

The legislative power of control is not universal and does not extend to 
property acquired by a city or town for special purposes not deemed strictly 
and exclusively public and political, but in respect to which the city or town is 
deemed rather to have a right of private ownership of which it cannot be de- 
prived against its will save by the right of eminent domain with compensation. 

After commenting on the double character of the municipality, 
Judge Allen continues: 

The cemetery falls within the class of property which the city owns in its 
private or proprietary character as a private corporation might own it, and its 
ownership is protected under the constitution of Massachusetts and of the 
United States so that the legislature has no power to require its transfer with- 
out compensation. 

If ^he city has the right to own as private property why not the 
right to manage and control as private property. If the legislature 
cannot take the ownership, why should it be permitted to take the 
management and control of city property away from the city? 
Control is the very essence of ownership and often the only means 



t^mmmgait 



270 



THE INDUSTRIALIST. 



[May, '99 



of obtaining any real benefit from the ownership. The judge goes 
on to speak of other property held by the city of Boston as private 
property: 

Its system of water-works, its system of parks, its markets, its hospital, and 
its library. In establishing all these, the city has not acted strictly as an a^ent 
of the state government for the accomplishment of general pul)lic or political 
purposes, but with special reference to the benefit of its own inhabitants. 

Even if a city or town is abolished, such property rights are not 
destroyed, but go to the state in trust for the inhabitants of the 
municipal area. Some cases go so far as to protect all property of 
municipal corporations, whether used for private or local purposes, 
or for public or state purposes, such as school, military, political, or 
government uses. See 22 Wis. 660; 54 N. H. 38, 56; 54 Tex. 153. 
But the general doctrine is that the public property of municipal 
corporations, city halls, court houses, school buildings, police and 
military property, etc., is absolutely at the disposal of the legislature 
(Dillon, chaps, iv and v). And, so high an authority as Chief Jus- 
tice Denio has been quoted in support of the doctrine that municipal 
corporations are altogether public, mere agencies of the state, sub- 
ject to absolute and unlimited control by the legislature* and their 
property, tho held for income or sale, and not connected with any 
governmental use, is not within the provisions of the constitution 
protecting private property, and may be taken by the legislature 
without compensation. (Darlington v. Mayor, 31 N. Y., 164.) When 
the facts of this case are examined, however, the remarks of the chief 
justice in this connection appear to be mere dicta. The act under 
consideration simply made city property liable for claims against the 
city for not keeping the peace, which it is its duty to do. The legis- 
lature can make the private property of individuals liable for claims 
on account of non-fulfilment of any duty due from those individuals. 

INHERENT RIGHT TO. SELF-GOVERNMENT. 

A few cases hold that municipalities cannot be deprived of the 
7nanagemenf of their property held for income or local business— that 
upon the fundamental principles involved in free institutions, cities 
and towns have an mherent right to control such private property, 
and manage their local affairs, and that the legislature cannot de- 
prive them of the right to s€t,lect the officials who are to control and 
manage said property and affairs. 

In People v. Hurlbut, 24 Mich. 44 to 114 (1871) the.court decided 
that the legislature could not appoint a board of public works to 



May, '99.] 



MUNICIPAL LIBERTY. 



271 



control the public buildings, pavements, sewers, water-works, en- 
gine houses, etc., in the city of Detroit, altho no express provision of 
the constitution negatived the act. Chief Justice Campbell and 
Justices Cooley and Christiancy gave the matter great consideration 
and rendered separate opinions all based upon the principle that lo- 
cal self-government of local affairs is an essential part of our system. 

The hi8torv of the "country, and the nature of our institutions" show "the 
vitaMmportance which in all the states has so longl.^.en f^^^^^^^ZfZ 
Tictpal governments by the people of such localities, and their rights of self- 
government." 

Chief Justice Campbell distinguishes (People v. Mahaney, 13 
Mich 492,) where the validity of an act establishing state control of 
city police is sustained, saying the question was "whether the po- 
lice board is a state or municipal agency," and added: 

I think it is clearly an agency of the state government. . • The^^ j« J 

clear distinction in principle between what -^^^ ^/^f^^^^ font^^^^^ 
does not concern more than one locality. . • • ihere is no aisi 
fug the character of the public works act. Its purposes ai-e directly and evL 
dently local and municipal. 

He decided that the municipality could not be deprived of the 
right to choose the men who should manage its public works. He 

eminent but al»o for purposes of stat«. (Pp. 81. M. 8«.l ^ 

Judge Cooley made an extensive review of the pertinent liistono 
factrand general principles, and concluded against the "legislafve 
power to appoint tor municipalities the officers who are to ,„anage 
Tproperty interests and rights in which their own people are 
alone concerned." He further said: 

The niunlcipaUt,. a, an a,ent o. ^"7— ^^ ^J^^^^^tn^^Se"" 
a an owner of ''^ZZ^^i:^^:::^^^^^^^-'^-'-'^'"'- 
:lt:na.e;nentr r„tr„> o, - .-— .we. an^^ .riTat iat^e 
public building, «. the -'.'^-* *!„ttLr r tht a1>d prompt discharge 
pay have an interest m an »<«' '«''"'^j'';Xh;orhood grounds, rather than po- 
of them, but this Is on commercial and neignijornoo , 

•"Tn Bla:d* ^rcomn^issioners v. Detroit, 2« Mich. 22S ,1878, 
„here r irgis^:ure appointed state officers to buy .and and .m- 



272 



THE INDUSTRIALIST. 



[May, '99 



prove it for a park for, and .at the expense of, the city of Detroit 
Judge Cooley said: ' 

We a^rm that the city of Detroit has the right to decide for itself ur,on the 
purchase of a public park. . . . It is as easy to justify, onHnciple a 
aw which permits the rest of the community to dictate to an dividual what' he 
shal eat, and what he shall drink, and what he shall wear, as to show any con 
8t tutional basis for one under which the people of other parts of the state die 
tate to the city of Detroit what fountains shall be erected at its expense for the" 
IZl f ,f r"'' 'r "' "'"* «"^' '' «^^" P-«^--' -d how it- shal improve 

9A\rrT. ^"'"'^ *^^ ''^^'''' ^^ *^^ ^^"^^ j"^^« i° the former case, 
24 Mich. 97, IS interesting in connection with the last quotation, 
oays the learned judge: 

stiflnnn 'J?""^ *^l' '!'*^''' ^""^ ^^''^'•^^ ^'•*°* «^ legislative power bv the con- 
stitution there can be found authority thus to take from the people the manage 
ment of their local concerns, and the choice directly or indirectlv Of thHr w! 

l^7ai:^:TT'\' ^"^^^•'' "°"^^ ^ --ewhatLrtlL7to?ur p^t^^^^^^ 
would be likely to lead hereafter to a more careful scrutinv of the charters of 

fhev Thf^irr?" '^'" '''' ««"^^*^'°«' ^y - inadvertent use of words 
they m ght be found to have conferred upon some agency of their own the wl'i 
authority to take away their liberties altogether. ^^*^ 

The Michigan constitution says. Art. xv, §14: 

Judicial officers of citi^ and villages shall be elected, and all other officers 
l; dttr' '' ^^^^^""^' " ^""^ ''-^ -^ '- -«^ — er, as the lekllTe 

But the Michigan judges hold that in the light of history, and fun- 
damental pnnciple, the election or appointment of municipal officers 
proper must be by local authority in such time and manner as the leg- 
islature may direct. ^ 

In State V. Denny, 118 Ind. 882 (1888) an act creating a board of 
pnbhc works to be appointed by the legislature, and to have coltro 

air/r"' *;'7^'.'r"''' ™*«'-™'^'^^. ""><> %hts, was held invalid 
^ mfrmgrngthenghtof locaJ self-government inherent in munici- 
paJ orporations nnder our system of free institutions. The ri^ht of 
loca^ sel. government antedated the constitution, and was not sur 

CLttionT 'L T'' '"''' '^"''' •"""^ "^'^y - «orstUuti nL 
ijimitations, 5th ed. page 208: 

Which ha, beei dllgaM V lTT"'T ■T'^ ''«""' '■"'"""°- 

lieen granted by the soverel™ L »'. ' ^ au'l>or.t, to do an act has not 

prohibit i.. beinrdoneTS, 3^957"^" ™' " °""°'" '^ '^'"^^ '» ' 

The court continues: 



May, '99.] 



MUNICIPAL LIBERTY. 



27S 



The constitution must be considered in the light of the local and state gov- 
ernments existing at the time of its adoption. ... The principles of local 
self-government constitute a prominent feature in both the federal and state 
governments. ... It existed before the creation of any of our constitutions, 
national or state, and all of them must be deemed to have been formed in re- 
ference to it, whether expressly recognized in them or not. . . . The object 
of granting to the people of a city municipal powers is to give them additional 
rights and powers to better enable them to govern themselves, and not to take 
away any rights they possessed before such grant was made. It may be true 
that as to such matters as the state has a peculiar interest in, not differing from 
that relating to other communities, it may, by proper legislative action take 
control of such interests, but as to such matters as are purely local, and con- 
cern only the people of that community, they have the right to control them, sub- 
ject only to the general laws of the state which affect all the people of the state 
alike The construction of sewers in a city, the supply of gas, water, fire pro- 
tection, and many other matters that might be mentioned are matters in which 
the lokl community alone are concerned, and in which the state has no- 
special interest more than it has in the health and prosperity of «^« P««P « S^^" 
erally, and thev are matters over which the people affected thereby have the ex- 
clusi"; control; and it cannot, in our opinion, be taken away from them by the 
legislature. 

In EvansviUe v. State, 118 Ind. 426 (1888) it was held that an act 
placing the police and tire departments of certain cities, and the 
property connected therewith, together with the purchase of sup- 
plies, under the exclusive control of commissioners to be selected by 
the legislature, was void, as being a denial of the right of local self- 
government. The court says that securing an efficient police de- 
partment is a state purpose, but the remainder of the act dealt with 
purely local purposes. (P. 437.) 

These rulings as to the inherent right of local election of officers: 
and management of property .guarantee self-government within the, 
sphere of local business permitted by the charter, but the char- 
ter itself is subject to limitation or repeal at the will of the legis- 
lature, and there is at best no power of initiating a business or policy 
beyond the foreordained enumeration of the charter. Moreover, the 
courts that take such a position are few. The maprity ^o^ with 7 
Houston 44, and 44 Oh. st. 343 that the legislature may take city 
water-work , etc., out of the hands of the cities and put them under 
The control of state officers and boards. ^^^ reasoning by wh^^^^^^ 
this course is sustained is well expressed m 148 Mass. 3... at 383 6. 

It is suggested, tho not much insisted on that ^J^^^^ j^ 
unconstitutional, because it takes from ^^^^.^^\^^^^^^^^^ .Uh which 

matters of internal policy. We find "« P^^Y^'^i ..i^t^re invalid because it. 
it conflicts, and we cannot declare an act of the legislature in 



274 



THE INDUSTRIALIST. 



[May, '99 



abridges the exercise of the privilege of local self-government in a particular 
in regard to which such privilege is not guaranteed by any provision of the 
constitution. 

The court then referred to constitutional provisions to make 
"wholesome regulations," to "erect municipalities, " "grant powers, " 
etc. The constitution did not say the legislature could take away 
powers once granted but this was held to be the case by the court 
which continued as follows: 

Under these provisions, as is said by C. J. Chapman: -There can be no 
doubt that the power to create, change and destroy municipal corporations is 
in the legislature. This power has been so hny and'so frequently exercised upon 
counties, towns and school districts, in dividing them, altering their boundary 
lines, increasing and diminishing their powers, and in abolishing some of 
them that no authorities need be cited on this point. The constitution does not 
establish these corporations, but vests in the legislature a general jurisdiction 
over the subject by its grant of power to make wholesome laws, as it shall 
judge to be for the general good and welfare of the commonwealth. " It " may 
amend these charters, enlarge or diminish their powers, extend or limit their 
boundaries consolidate two or more into one, and abolish them altcether 
at its own discretion." " ' 

We have no doubt that the legislature has the right in its discretion to 
change the powers and duties created by itself, and to vest such powers and 
duties in officers appointed by the governor . . . instead of leaving 
such officers to be elected by the people, or appointed by the municipal author- 

The law under consideration in this case established a state police 
for Boston, and so was not within the limits of the Michigan and In- 
diana decisions, but the reason covered the whole field and is often 
referred to as authority against the Michigan doctrine. 

THE GENERAL SITUATION. 

In some states, constitutional provisions have been adopted secur- 
ing more or less municipal freedom as a right, and as a matter of 
fact our legislatures accord municipalities a considerable de-ree of 
self-control, tlio only as a courtesy liable to recall at the pleasure 
of the legislature, except where the Michigan doctrine obtains, or the 
constitutional provisions just mentioned interfere with state absolu- 
tism. Upon the whole, the situation appears to be this: 

1. Cities have no independent initiative of their own. They be- 
long to the defective and dependent classes. They are creatures of 
enumerated powers, which are for the most part strictly construed.* 
If they want to go out of doors they must ask the legislature. 

womtrn"iSaKr7r^^ra%".l"^^^^ ^^-nted to it in express 

the decluieU objects and purp"?es of the cornor^^^^^^^^ °'" 'nd'^Pensable to 

the existence of the power is reso^lved brthe oo^.r*}- a^'.?„"^ .v.*"^ 'easonable doubt concerning 
power is denied.- V^n Schmidt vwidber i(S Cai 15M-7 """"'^'P"! corporation, and thi 



May, '99.] 



MUNICIPAL LIBERTY. 



275 



2. They have as a rule no recognized right to choose their own 

officers. 

3. They have as a rule no recognized right to control and manage 

their property. 

4. They have no recognized right to continue in existence— no 
recognized right to life, hberty or the pursuit of happiness. I say 
no recognized right, because I believe they have a right to life and 
property and self-government, but it is not generally recognized as 

yet. 

5 Neither a franchise grant, nor the charter as a whole is re- 
regarded as a contract or within the protection of the federal consti- 

tution. , ... 

6. Even cities, however, cannot be taxed except for a public 

purpose, and one that pertains to the district taxed. 

7 The people in the municipal area have a right to the use of the 
business property of the municipality and perhaps of itspubhc prop- 

erty also. . , .... .^ 

8. Some courts recognize an inherent right in municipalities to 
control their business property and manage their local affairs, and 
elect their own officers to exercise such control and management. 

9. As a matter of fact, considerable local self-control exists by 
\egis\sitive permission. . . 

10 In some states the prevailing rules of law as to municipal sub- 
jection have been altered by constitutional provision, and there is a 
strong movement of thought in favor of such modification. 






276 



[May, '99 



CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE KNOWLEDOB OF THE COCCID/G, 

BY T. D. A, COCKERELL AND P. J. PARROTT. 

{Concluded from lout month.) 

IX, A green Mytilaspis. 
Mytilaspis concolor (Ckll.) var, viridissima, Ckll. & Parrott, n. var. 
Scales of both sexes emerald green, often very bright. Female dark 
purple (turning green in caustic soda), with a bright yellow patch in 
the anal region, and suffused crimson spots at intervals round the 
margins of the hind end, ^a&.— Campus of Agricultural College, 
Mesilla Park, N. M., Feb. 5, 1899 (P. J. Parrott). On bases of stems 
of Atriplex canescens. A very interesting variety, having the purple 
pigment of the female converted to green (its alkaline phase) in the 
scale. 

X. Some species from Oregon. 

The following species, coUected in Oregon, were received from 
Prof. A. B. Cordley sometime ago: 

1. Aspidiot'mfmder(s{y allot) Signoret. (Cordley, No 4 ) 

2. A.hed^r^ var. ca,-po(kti ( Mask.) n. comb. On oleander, Pandelon, Ore- 
gon, Apnl 20, 1897. (Cordley, No. 7.) This is a variety with a convex scaled 
covered exuvi*, and large median lobes; we believe it must be referred to car- 
poaeti. It 18 new to America, 

3. A. bntannieus, Newstead, 1898. ( Aspidiotm n. 8p.,'ckll.. Bull. 6 . Tech Ser 
Diy Ent., Dept. Agric, 1897, p. 12, fig. 9, the figure being original, from m^ 
terial supplied by Newstead, not "after Newstead." as it was labeled without 
f?nr^^ 1^ knowledge.) On leaves of holly, Salem, Oregon, April 11, 1898. 
( Cordley, No. 11. New to America; previously only found in England. 

Mat 5 itqf 'r^^ ^^'^ ^^^''"■! '^'"'- ^PP^r«^*ly «" Pi°e needles. The Dalle., 
May 5, 1896. (Cordley, No. 1.) New to the West. 

5. Anpidiotus pemiciosiui, Comst. (Cordley, No 6 ) 

189^: 'i'drd'eyrN^^^^^ ^''" """"""" ^''"'''^" '" ' ^^''°"«^»^ ^«^- "^ 
^J.^ IHUspis cantefo, Targ. On Juniperm. Corvallis, July 20, 189«. (Cordley, 

XI, Some Miscellaneous Records. 
1. Lecanium tessellatum var. perforatum (Newst.) In a greenhouse 
at Ames, Iowa, on Hoive^ belmoreana and Trax-hycarpm excelsus, Jan. 
25, 1899. (W. Newell.) This is an addition to the Iowa list. 2 Le- 
canium cofeo',, Walker. On Cycas revoluta in a greenhouse at Ames, 
Iowa; Jan. 25. 1899. (W. Newell.) 3. Aulacaspis elegans (Ijeon.) CkU 
On Cycas revoluta in Massachusetts, which was imported last year 
from Bermuda. (G. B. King.) Previously only known from Italy. 
A. Diaspis amygdali, Tryon. On Cycas revoluta from Japan (A. 



May, '99.] 



THE COCCIDiE. 



277 



Craw.); on peach and Cieiiis, Campinas, Brazil. (P. Noack.) 5. D. 
calyptroides var. opuntice (Ckll.). Sierra Blanca, Texas, on Opuntia 
arborescens, May 28, 1898, (C. H. T. Townsend). The variety is new 
to the United States. The grouped glands were as follows: median, 
11; anterior laterals, 23; posterior laterals, 13. 6. Fiorinia fiorinice 
(Targ.) Ckll. On leaf of camellia, Campinas, Brazil, 1898. (F. Noack, 
No. 1.) 7. Pseudoparlatoria noacki, Ckll. On Nectandra, Campinas, 
Brazil, (F. Noack). 8. Aspidiotus maskelU, Ckll. On twigs of camellia. 
Campinas, Brazil, 1898. (P. Noack.) 9. .Aspidiotus crawii, Ckll. On 
Hedera in hothouse, Lawrence, Mass. (G. B. King). Previously only 
known from Mexico. 10. Aspidiotus convexus, Comst. El Paso, 
Texas, on twigs of Melia azedarach, May 3, 1898, (C. H. T. Townsend). 
11. Aspidiotus cydoni(B, Comst. On Prosopis juliflora var., Kenedy, 
Texas, May 31, 1898, (C. H. T Townsend). 12. Aspidiotus greenii, 
Ckll. On guava, Campinas, Brazil, (P. Noack); on vine leaves, Ita- 
pirano, Mattodentro, (Dr. Brunnemann; com. P. Noack). 



XII. A new Aspidiotus from New Mexico. 
Aspidiotus (Targionia) gutierrezire, Ckll. & Parrott, n. sp. 



Female 
scale U to U mm. diameter, subcircular, slightly convex, with a 
thick ventral scale, the margins of which are free and somewhat 
elevated, sO that the whole scale resembles an oyster sheU as in A. 
cueroensis. Color of scale snow white; exuviae marginal covered by a 
delicate film, often rubbed off, exposing the shining straw-yellow first 
skin. Living female plump, rather dull amber yellow, speckled with 
reddish brown about the lateral margins. Female of the usual shape; 
caudal portion remaining strongly brown after boiling in caustic 
alkali; no grouped circumgenital glands, but in their place are chit- 
inous thickenings, as in cueroensis; anal orifice rather distant from the 
hind end; two large contiguous median lobes, almost square, with 
truncate ends, the outer corner rounded and depressed; second and 
third lobes represented by short tooth-like processes, the inner 
sides of which are practically perpendicular, and the long outer sides 
gently sloping; spines quite large; plates almost obsolete, but there 
are two pointed ones in the first interlobular interval; dorsal glands 
numerous, quite small, round. Male scale pure white, elongated 
with parallel sides, as in Diaspis, but rather short; about four-fifths 
mm. long, hardly two-fifths mm. broad;the anterior portion con vex, the 
hind portion flat, with no trace of a keel; exuvia entirely covered. 
Hab.— On stems of Gutierrezia iucida, Greene, near the Agricul- 



ymfn^^mi^ 



278 



THE INDUSTRIALIST. 



[May, '99 



turali College, Mesilla Valley, New Mexico, March 2, 1899, (P. J. Par- 
rot). Allied to A. cueroensis which must also go in Targionia. The 
male scale, with its covered exuvia, is quite peculiar. Outierrezia lu- 
ddaiB the common species of the Mesilla Valley, hitherto reported (Proc. 
Phila. Acad., 1896, p. 35, etc.) as O. sarothrm var. microcephala. The 
commonest Coccid on it is Dactylopius gutierrezice. It may be as well 
to record the breeding of Aphycus tetanus, Howard, from this Dacty- 
lopius, the specimens having been collected, Sept. 27, on the mesa east 
of Las Cruces, by Cockerell. The Aphycus is a minute lemon yellow 
species, with the tip of the ovipositor black; the front is very dis- 
tinctly tessellate; the mandibles are brown at tips, and notched 
within. The Mesilla valley examples had been described in MS. as 
a new species, but Dr. Howard stated that they belonged to his A. 
texanus, then unpublished. 

Accompaning this account of Aspidiotus gutierrezice, we have 
thought it expedient to present figures, not only of the new species, 
but also of a number of other North American forms without circum- 
genital glands, which are more or less closely allied to it, namely A. 
cueroensis, coniferarum, yuccce and var. neomexicanus, yurcarum, bige- 
lovifp. and dearnessi. A. cueroemis, as first described, showed no 
squames, but they are well seen in the example figured, which is 
from the original lot. It must be that they are easily deciduous. 
The variety of A. yitccva is herewith described: 

Aspidiotm ywxcR \9,r. )m»nexicanus, Ckll. & Parrott, n. var. ( Aspldiolux yuccce, 
Vftr., Ckll., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., July, 1898, p. 25 ). Median lobes more pro- 
duced; notched on each side. Hab.~Oa Yucca elata, Mesilla Valley, New Mexico, ' 
1898, (C.H. T. Townsend). 

It may also be stated here that A. yuccarurn was lately found by 
Parrott at Mesilla Park, N. M., at the base of the stems of Tsdcoma 
heterophylla var, ivrightii (Linosyris ivrightii, Gray, PL Wright i, 95; 
Bigelovia wrighfii, Gray, Syn. Flora, vol. i. pt. 2, p. 142). This is a 
new and unexpected food-plant. 



XIII. (hjmnaspis perpmilla (Maskell). 

Mr. C. Fuller was so kind as to send us some specimens of Parla- 
torla perpusilki, Maskell, Trans. N. Z. Inst, xxix, 299, from Western 
Australia. As the insect was evidently not a Parlatoria, we exam- 
ined it with much interest, and found it to belong to Newstead's ge- 
nus Gymnaspis. Maskell's figure 9 is from the immature stage; the 
caudal end of the adult female, closely resembling XanthophtMlma, 



May, '99.] 



THE COCCID.E. 



279 




Asp\j(iiotjU.8 v(acea& 




. O 

Aspi'd/iolu.s >(u»CGaTum 




A»pvivolu<5 ieaT-nitssL 



280 



THE INDUSTRIALIST. 



[May, '99 



is figured herewith. New figures are also given of the scale, those of 
Maskell being unsatisfactory. Only the individuals which have not 
formed the scanty white scale show the double cap, consistifagof the 
two exuviae. The known species of Gymnaspis are easily separated 
by their scales, thus: 

A. Female scale ( really second skin ) from a dark brown to shining bronzy black 

a. Caudal extremity usually pointed Q. cechmece. Newste^d 

b. Caudal half narrowed, ilattened, produced G. Imllata { Green) 

B. Female scale (really second skin) orange brown. . . .G. perpimlla (Maskell) 

Newstead's figure (Ent. Mo. Mag., 1898, p. 93) of the caudal end of 
O. (Echmece resembles Green's figure of the margin of the second 
peUicle of G. bullata. The original habitat of G.(Echme(B is not known; 
it was found in Kew Gardens, England, on Mchmea aquUega, Griseb. .' 
which is a Bromeliaceous plant native of the West Indies. 

XIV. Lichtensia hakearum (Fuller). 
This was very briefly described by Puller as a doubtful Lecaniodi^ 
aspis, but it has nothing to do with that genus. We have examined 
material kindly sent by Mr. Pulier, and place the insect for the 
present m Lichtensia. It has numerous tubular glands after the 
manner of Mallococms and Ceronema. The legs and antennae measure 
as follows in micromillimeters: Legs-coxa, 182-231; femur with 
trochanter, 265; tibia, 182; tarsus, 115-123; claw, 33. Antennal seg- 
ments-(l) 84-112, (2) 56-70, (3) 64-98, (4) 93-98, (5) 22-28, (6) 17-22, (7) 

XV. Eriochito7i cajani, Maskell. 
The foUowing measurements in micromillimeters, are from speci- 
mens received from Mr. MaskeU: Legs- coxa, 93-101; femur with 
trochanter, 98-140; tibia, 70-101; tarsus, 64-70; claw, 12. Antennal seg- 
ments-(l) 34-39, (2) 28-31, (3) 28-36, (4) 28-36. (5) 20-?2, (6) 17-20, 
(7) 15-20, (8)17-20. We found always eight antennal segments, altho 
MaskeU says there are but seven. Superficially, the insect looks 
much like a Ceroplastodes, but it does not belong to that genus. 

XVI. Pulvinaria. 

The following measurements, in micromillimeters, will assist in 
the recognition of various forms of Pulvinaria: 



May, '99.] 



THE COCCIDiE. 



281 



ANTKNNAL. SBGMBNTS. 



FOUMS. 



P, innunwrabilin, Rathv. Lincoln, 
Nebraska, on Acer negundo. ( L 
Bruner.) 



PAnnumeiabilix on Virginia creep- 
er, San Juan, N. M. (A.Boyle.) 

P. inmtmerabilin var. occidenlalis, 
Ckll. Part of type lot. Wash, 
state 



P. innumerabiliK var. San. Antonio, 
Texas, on Velt^K. (C. H. T.Town 
send.) 



P. amygdali. Ckll., Plnos Altos, N. 
M. Type lot, but antenna ab- 
normal 



P. urbicola, Ukll. Kintfston, Jama- 
ica . Topotypes 



P. marnwrata. Ckll. Organ Mts., 
N. M. Type 

P. bigelovim. Ckll. Grand Junction. 
Colo. (GUlette.) 



42-47 
47 

70 

40 

33? 



42-46 
42 

56 

42 

70? 



:«-42 '< 42-50 



47 56 
50 



49-56 
47-56 



67 70 

78 

81 95 
59 

.50 
56^52 
61-64 

73 



.0-53 
45 

70-76 

47 

31 
36-42 

.56 
68-70 



31 39 
33 

53-67 

37 

23-26 
33-47 
31 37 
42-45 



25 

28 

:«-53 

25 

20 

20-28] 

28 

28 



19 
17 

28-38 

22 

47 

42 

17-20 

19 
20-23 



40-42 
56 

42-56 

48 



22-25 
39 

28 



liBGS. 



KOBMS. 



P. InnumerabiliK. Rathv. Lincoln, Ne- 
braska, on Acer neffundo. (L. Bruner.) 

P. innumerabilis on Virginia creeper. San 
Juan, N. M. (A.Boyle.) 



P. innunurabilig var oceidentalin, Ckll., 
Part of type lot. Wash, state 



P. innumerabilis, var. San Antonio, Texas, 
on Celtis. ( C. H. T. Townsend.) 



P. amygdali, Ckll., Pinos Altos. N. M., 
Type lot, but antenna abnormal 



P. urbicola, Ckll., Kingston, Jamaica, 
Topotypes 

P.marmorata, Ckll. Organ Mts., N. M., 
Type 

P bigelovice, Ckll. Grand Junction, Colo, 
(Gillette.) .... 



Coxa. 



132 
82-115 
132-182 

110 
149-165 
149-165 
165-215 
215-231 



Femur and 
trochanter 



198 
198-215 
215-281 

174 
231-248 
198-223 
381-347 
347-364 



Tibia. 

165 
165-182 
163-165 

133 
182-198 
132-149 
215-231 

248 



Tarsus. 

90 

90 
82-99 

83 
90-99 
74-85 
123-132 

132 



Claw. 



16 

20 

16-24 

17-24 
23-24 
41-45 
41-49 



XVII. Icerya rileyi, Ckll. 
This insect is common at Mesilla Park, N. M., on Larrea and mes- 
^uite. It has been thought possible that the forms on these very 
different plants might be separable, and to test this, an experiment 
was made. On May 24, 1898, a lot of eggs and young larvae were 
transferred from a Larrea to a mesquite, to see if they would survive 
ihe change. It may have been an accidental circumstance that none 



« 282 



THE INDUSTRIALIST. 



[May, '99 




A. yiieeae vobT. ueomexLoanUiS 




A8pLcLiolu,& giulb6TT6z\jaC/ 




O 

AspiAiotus bigfilovUfc 



May, '99.] 



THECOCCIDiE, 



28S 



lived, but a later examination showed no traces of them. On the* 
other hand, a new examination of specimens from both plants (usingr 
some material collected at Las Cruces by Professor Townsend)' 
shows that their legs and antennae are practically the same. In both 
lots the antennae varied from nine to ten segments, and both showed 
the fourth segment divided by quite a distinct suture, so that it 
would be possible to regard it as consisting of two segments. The 
following measurements are in micromillimeters: 



ANTKNNAI. SKUMBNTS. 



FOBHS. 


1 


2 

99 
116 

99 
99 

47 


8 

99 
99 

99 
107 

5»-.56 


4 


5 


6 


7 

50 
57 

09 
66 


8 


9 


10 


7. rileyi from Lama. Adult 

female J 

( 

/. rUeyl from mesquite .' 


lltt 
133 

116 
116 

42 


83 
99 

83 

58 

42 


83 
50 

83 
41 

28 36 


66 
50 

74 
91 99 

81 


SO 
!>7 

5H 


149 
.57, 

149. 


149' 


I. rileyi, larva from mesquite. . . 


149 



IjB3R. 



Forms. 



I. rileyi trom Larrea. Adultfemale J 



7. rileyi, larva from mesquite j 



Pnxii Femurand ,p,^, 
coxa, trochanter ^'''^"'■ 



331 

115 

58 
66 



612 by 248 
612 by 248 

182 
199 



546 
562 

166 
182 



Tarsus. Claw 



314 
24» 

133. 
14 C 



74 
49 

25-. 
2& 



Chloroform turns the white ovisacs of this species bright yellow; 
this color disappears when the chloroform evaporates. 

There is a Coccinellid beetle, not hitherto recognized in the U. S. 
fauna, which is rather common at Mesilla Park, always preying on. 
leery a rileyi. It is 3 mm. long, broad oval, convex, black, hoary with. 
a short pale pubescence, moderately shiny; each elytron with an oval 
dark red spot, and a broad red upper external margin. The under 
surface, legs and antenna), are dark, dull reddish. According to Mr. 
H. S. Gorham, who kindly examined a specimen, this beetle is a. 
Cnoodefi, either G. bipunctatus, Gorh., or very closely allied to it. A_ 
similar species preys on Crypticerya fownsendi, Ckll., near the Mesr- 
calero Agency, N. M. 



284 



THE INDUSTRIALIST. 



[May, '99 




GyTTiniasTpbS peTpU/SulLoi 





9 scaU 0^ G.p6Tpu.8blla 




AspidLiotas cutroeasu 




AspiitoUs Gouijeraram 



May, '99.] 



285 



RILEY COUNTY REAL ESTATE nORTQAQES. 

BY R. S. KELLOGG. 

RILEY COUNTY is in the northeastern part of the state of Kan- 
sas. The Blue river forms its eastern boundary, and its 
southern portion is crossed by the Kaw. Manhattan, the largest 
town and the county seat, is at the junction of these two streams and 
has a population of about 3000. 

The area of the county is 617 square miles, or 394,880 acres. Its 
population is 12,453. The assessed valuation of property for the 
year 1898 is as follows: 

Land • $1,709,265.00 

City lots ■. 385,106.00 

Personal 556,810.00 

Railways 708,169.00 

Total.... $3,359,350.00 

The average assessed valuation of the land for the past six years 
has been $1,702,542.25. The assessed valuation is commonly esti- 
mated to be one-third of the true valuation. 

The average number of acres under cultivation for the past six 
years has been 171,867. For the same period the average yearly 
value of all farm products, including cattle slaughtered and sold for 
slaughter was $1,689,434.46. It will be noticed that this amount is 
nearly the same as the assessed valuation of the land — a fact which 
should indicate a fair degree of prosperity. 

There are many intelligent, progressive farmers in the county, 
and presumably it is as favorably situated for agricultural pursuits 
as the average county in the eastern third of the state. 

Under these circumstances a few facts concerning the mortgage 
indebtedness are of interest, and certainly more satisfactory than 
the frequent theorizings on the subject which are not based on care- 
ful investigation. Accordingly the books of the register of deeds 
were examined with two principal objects in view: (1) to obtain 
statistics concerning the releasing of mortgages, (2) to determine 
the total amount filed for several years past. 

Table No. 1 was prepared for the first purpose. The 180 cases 
investigated for the years named, are, of course, but a small fraction 
of the total number filed during that period, but every effort was 
made to make them representative. They were taken in alphabetical 
order as recorded in the general mortgage index of the county, and 



286 



THE INDUSTRIALIST. 



[May, '99 





4> 

1 




* 


:c ph -p^. 55 

M « ri M 


i-H 

1^ 




"si 

SI 

X 


IS 

H>-. 

6 

55 


14 27 3.87 
9 17 ; 3.75 

10 23, 3.21 
7 ' 22 i 3.77 


CO 




11 


6 


iM t N eo « 

,-1 ri -- 1-1 »(5 




i 

i 


l« 


^ '^ =^. ^ 


a 




4^ 


$11,825 00 

12,062 50 

6.905 00 

13,200 00 


i 


e 


1^ 


8 8 8 8 8 

S 2 5 12 '^ 

1 :? i S , 3§ 


f1 


6 


15 j 29 

15 28 

9 21 

11 34 

50 28 


n 


J: 


1- 


ri "2 :+ M <M 

1-1 -H -^ ..^ 




1 


:d 00 XI fH _! 




- a 


Vi> 


Q ffl O OO i lO 
« « -ft M , {is 




1 

« 






5C Oi r- (M 1 ■* 

^ ,-1 ,_( 1-H ' S 




1 
1- 


2 


$695 61 

. 863 11 

629 13 

720 69 


-H 
rH 

s 

CO 




e 

3 

o 
S 
< 


$36,171 60 
45,745 00 
27.052 50 
23,062 00 




i 


N eo W >M o 

"O »« •<* CO 00 






3 




8 53 g S 

00 00 x> x> 

rH f^ ^ ,H 


4 



May, '99.] 



REAL ESTATE MORTGAGES. 



287 



omissions made only when the record was incomplete, or when some 
minor mortgage was evidently given for interest or commission on 
another of larger amount. If no release was recorded, of course 
the assumption had to be made that the mortgage was yet unpaid. 
As the registry laws of the state are quite strict, this can be no 
great source of error, if any at all. 

If a release was recorded, then the search was continued to de- 
termine whether a sale of the property had been in any way con- 
nected with it, or if a new mortgage had been made at about the time 
of the release, or subsequently. The figures for this table were 
nearly all taken during the months of October and November, 1898. 

A perusal of this table will make the meaning of its terms evident. 
Of 180 mortgages recorded in the years given, 64 were found to be 
yet standing, and 116 had been released in various ways. Under the 
heading "Sale involved" are grouped all cases in which a sale of the 
property took place at about the time of the release, or previous to it, 
and payment assumed by either buyer or seller. No claim is made 
that for a number of cases under this head, the sale was the actual 
cause of payment, but only that it was a possible or probable one. 
Under the heading "Remortgaged" are given the cases in which the 
release was followed by a new mortgage, also the amount in both 
cases and the per cent of increase. The heading "Paid straight" 
means that no evidence of sale or remortgaging could be found. 
The average duration of a mortgage with the number of cases upon 
which it is based complete the table. This period would be lengthened 
were it known when those still standing would be paid, and their 
time included. These mortgages were on both farm and town 
property, tho mostly on the former. 

The totals give some interesting facts. Of the 180 mortgages 
taken from the years 1890, '91, '92 and '93, amounting to $132,031.10 
and averaging $733.51 each, 64 or 35% were found to be still stand- 
ing. A sale was apparently involved in some way with the release 
of 21 or 12%. New mortgages had been given for 50 or 28%, while 
their original amount of $36,583.00 was replaced by one of $43,992.50 
showing a 20% increase of indebtedness. The cases of actual fore- 
closure and sale by judicial order were only 5 or 3%. Foreclosure 
is sometimes avoided by the deeding of the property to the mortga- 
gee. The cases of straight payment numbered 40 or 22%. The 
average time on 111 mortgages was 3.67 years, or practically three 
years and eight months. 



288 



THE INDUSTRIALIST. 



[May, '99 



It was impossible to make this last computation really accurate 
because of the fact that the filing of the release is often quite a time 
after the release is actually made. It is, however, a very fair ap- 
proximation, probably within a few days, as in numerous cases the 
recording of the release was made by copying the endorsement on 
the original instrument, or the entering of a receipt upon the margin 
of the record. It may be remarked here that a recent law compels 
the mortgagee to have the release recorded within thirty days of the 
date of payment, if the mortgagor demands it, and without expense 
to the latter. A failure to comply with this demand renders the 
mortgagee liable to a heavy fine, and also to a claim for damage, 
should any result from his inaction. 





TABLE NUMBER TWO — ] 


KELBASBD. 




No. 


1 

Sale Involved. Remortgaged. 


Foreclosed. 


P'd straight. 

No. ;;; 


No. 


% ' No. 

1 


% 


No. 


. % 
4 


116 


21 


18 50 


43 


5 


40 35 



In table No. 1, 180 is used as the base for figuring the percentages. 
In table No. 2, 116, the number released, is used as the base. 

This table, made from the totals of No. 1, shows that a sale was in- 
volved in the release of 18%. Remortgaging occurred in 43%, fore- 
closure in 4%,, and straight payment in 35% of the cases. 



TABLE NUMBER THREE — MORTGAGES FILED. 


Year. 


Number. 


Average 
amount 


Total amount. 


1892 


359 
310 
380 
329 
235 
214 
298 


$791 99 
787 31 
803 47 
664 08 
651 47 
818 90 
919 85 

5437 07 
778 66 


$284,324 65 
244,065 13 
305,320 39 
218,482 24 
153,095 64 
175,244 75 
274,115 88 


1893 


1894 

1895 


1896 


1897 


1898 


Total 

Average 


2125 
303.57 


1,664,648 68 
236,378 38 



May, '99.] 



REAL ESTATE MORTGAGES. 



289 



Table No. 3 shows the total amount of mortgages filed for the past 
seven years. It includes everything on the books, subsidiary as 
well as principal. Only one exception was made; a mortgage for 
$17,320, filed in 1898, on property nearly all in other counties, was. 
properly omitted. 

During the years 1892 to '98, inclusive, 2125 mortgages amounting 
to $1,654,648.68 have been recorded, giving 303.57 mortgages a year 
of $778.66 each, or a yearly total of $236,378.38. 

Shown graphically on a scale of $67,500 per inch, the amount for 
each year is represented as follows: 

1892 

1893 

1894 

1895 

1896 



1897 



1898 



AVERAGE. 



The rate of interest was not determined because its frequent 
omission in the record made such an attempt unsatisfactory. It 
apparently runs from 6% to 10%— the legal rates. A few com- 
parisons may be interesting. 

The total of $1,654,648.68 for the last seven years is equivalent to 
$4.19 per acre for the entire county. The yearly average of $236,- 
378.38 amounts to about 60 cents per acre for the county, or $1.38 per 
acre for the 171,867 acres under cultivation. The interest charge on 
this sum at 7% —a safe estimate— is $16,546. 49 yearly. The total of 
$274,115.88 for 1898 is 16% of the value of the farm products and 13% 
of the assessed value of the real estate exclusive of railroads for the 
same year. 

Table No. 4 shows the total amount of mortgages recorded as re 
leased during the year 1898. It includes releases by foreclosure. 

This table shows that the releases for 1898 amounted to $176,676. - 
61. The amount of new mortgages filed during the same year — 
$274,115.88— exceeds the releases by $97,439.27, or 55%. This sum 
is the net increase of indebtedness for the year. 



290 



THE INDUSTRIALIST. 



[May, '99 





Year. 


NUl 


Average. 


Amount. 


1898 


268 


$659.24 


$176,676.61 



In table Na 5, the foreclosures are given separately. 

The percentage of foreclosures, 4, is seen to be the same as shown 
by the other cases in table No. 2. The actual releases for 1898 may 
be slightly greater than the recorded amount, but as the figures 
-were taken during February and March, 1899, probably the releases 
bad been nearly all recorded by that time. 

As to what the actual mortgage indebtedness of the county is, the 
■writer cannot say; to determine it would require a large amount of 
■work in examining the books. The question can be partly answered, 
however. March 1, 1899, residents of the county held mortgages to 



TABr^ NUMBBB FIVH — MOETGAGBS FORBCLiOHBD. 



Year. 



1898. 



No. 



12 



S of 
Average. | Amount. total. 



$6;J3.37 $7600.62 



the amount of $289,285.73 on real property in the county. This de- 
-termination was made by the register for purposes of assessment. 
Many mortgages, of course, are held by outside individuals and loan 
■companies. 

As to what degree of prosperity or otherwise is indicated by these 
Ifigures, no definite answer can be given. Any such statement should 
be based upon much wider investigation, accompanied by a com- 
parison with other counties. The attempt has been made simply to 
obtain a few facts as accurately as possible, and if it has been 
successful, the theorizing is willingly left to others. The register 
'believes that the large amount filed during the year 1898 is caused, 
partially at least, by the increased sales of real estate, the mortgages 
being given as security for payment. 

The statements as to area, population, valuation, and farm prod- 
ucts are taken from the excellent reports of the State Board of 
Agriculture. Many thanks are due to Mr. M. M. Davis, the register 
ot deeds, thru whose courtesy the freest access to the records was 
•obtained. 



May, '99.] 



291 



FARniNO AND STOCK RAISING IN AUSTRALIA. 



I 



BY E. M. SHELTON. 

rProfessor Shelton. of the colony ot Queensland, in Australia, while visiting America some 
time since gave an extemporary lecture to the students in the chapel, the subject as announced 
being Tropical Agriculture. A summary of the professors lecture is here given.] 

SHALL speak of a diversity of matters connected indirectly 
with farming in Australia. My life for the past nine years has 
been spent in the antipodes, that is away down somewhere below our 
feet, in that strange contineni where things seem to have been piled 
in topsy-turvy. 

Austraha is a dependency of the British crown, as it has been 
from the first settlement. It is in area nearly the size of the United 
States. If we make no account of small things and if we ehminate 
the states of Michigan and Wisconsin from the United States, the 
balance of this great commonwealth would be almost equal to Aus- 
traha. This would be exclusive of Tasmania and New Zealand. 
You see from this that our continent is worthy of the name of 
continent. The country is divided into provinces which we call 
colonies. We always call ourselves colonists; each subject of Queen 
Victoria speaks of his colony, not his state. There are five of these 
colonies or provinces. I will say a word about their pohtical rela- 
tions, which I find are generally misunderstood.* Each of these ter- 
ritories is quite separate and distinct. They have no connection 
except thru the colonial office in London. Each colony makes its 
own tariff laws, has its own government, and stands off on its dig- 
nity as independent. They even take pains to accentuate this in- 
dependence not a little, for there is rivalry among these colonies. 
Each has a different railroad gauge; their laws are not uniform but 
differ very materially. From the first there has been a very marked 
emphasis on this distinction of colonies. Queensland has tried to 
prevent Queenslanders from having connection with others. 

There are five colonies on the continent of Australia. Queens- 
land, my home, is in the extreme northeast. Let us lay a map of 
Austraha over that of the United States and compare the position of 
each colony with that of the corresponding portion of the United 
States. In doing this, however, we must remember that Australia 
is in the southern hemisphere; the north is the warmest part; our 
coldest day is the Fourth of July, and the hottest is Christmas. 
Queensland would take the place on the map of Austraha held by 



292 



THE INDUSTRIALIST, 



[May, '99 



the northeastern states in America, beginning with Maine and reach- 
ing south thru the country to the north line of North Carolina, and 
extending inland to about the west end of Kentucky. All that great 
northeastern portion of the United States corresponds to what we 
call the colony of Queensland. Queensland is about nine times as 
large as the state of Kansas. It has at the present time a population 
of a little over 400,000. You see it is not very densely populated. 
Its chief industries are stock raising and mining. Stock raising, 
or, as we call it, the pastoral pursuit, is predominant; next to that 
mining; and after that farming, a very long distance behind. 

Next on the map, reaching down to Florida, and over into the 
Gulf states a little way, you have New South Wales. Its capital is 
Sydney. New South Wales is the mother colony; that is, it is the 
first of the Australian colonies that had a government, and it has 
always taken the first place among the colonies. It has a population 
of about a million and a half, and has always had a dominant influence 
upon the other colonies, due to its population, its commercial im- 
portance, and its age. 

One of the most important colonies, which comes in just west of 
Florida, upon our scheme, is Victoria, which has for its capital Mel- 
bourne, the second largest city in Australia. And then, beyond 
this, embracing a large part of Texas, comes South Austraha, a col- 
ony calling for no special mention. It is a somewhat feeble colony 
largely desert and sparsely settled. Its principal city is Adelaide, 
Then over west on the extreme coast comes West Australia, cele- 
brated m recent years for its discovery of gold. 

Now in the diagram in which we have marked out Australia upon, 
the map of the United States, suppose we go right south into the 
Gulf of Mexico and locate an island about the size of one of the west- 
ern states. There we will have Tasmania. This was formerly 
called Van Diemen's land, and we call the inhabitants even now Van 
Diemenians. Out in the Atlantic, on our comparison of maps, we 
have the lovely group of islands known as New Zealand. These 
islands extend thru a good many degrees of latitude and have 
always occupied an important position in Australasia for several 
reasons. In the first pla<;e they are an admirable region climatically 
as compared with most of the others of the South Sea islands In 
New Zealand they grow all of the English crops, having abundant 
ramfall as a rule; and so a peculiarly English civilization has there 
token root, which is sure in the future, as it has done already, to 



May, '99.] AUSTRALIAN FARMING. 293 

make New Zealand oneof the most important countries in Australasia. 

Australia is a country of drouths. It is an arid region for the 
most part. A large part of the continent lies between 10^ and 30° 
south latitude. Generally, the world over, anywhere between 10*^ 
and 30^ north or south latitude, (with certain exceptions which are 
explainable) we find regions of scant rainfall, and consequently little 
agriculture. Australia is no exception to the general rule. Roughly 
speaking, we may say that arable land extends in a narrow strip 
along the coast clear around the continent. In places the interior 
desert approaches the east coast, but as a rule the union of the sea 
and land gives a certain downfall of rain which makes it a productive 
country. The climate has always vastly more to do with the produc- 
tiveness of a country than has the soil. It is easy to make poor soil 
good; non-productive soils, productive in a profitd,ble sense; but it is^ 
almost impossible to modify the climate so as to affect the produc- 
tiveness of a country. 

In my own colony, Queensland, we have all along the coast an 
abundant rainfall. In the south the rainfaU is about fifty inches, 
about twice as much as that of Kansas. As we go north into the 
tropics this amount is greatly .increased. In the vicinity of Cairns, 
ten degrees south latitude, it is two hundred inches. One time I 
had been out traveling and was returning to the coast; it had rained 
incessantly the whole day. I came to a government experiment 
station situated on the side of a mountain overlooking the sea. I 
went into the house; the manager was a man I knew. I said to him, 
"You are having a big rain here; how much fell last night? " " WeU,. 
I don't know, " he replied. Now he kept the government meterolog- 
ical record, and it was his business to measure the rain that fell. " I 
emptied the rain gauge last night, and this morning it was running- 
over. Last night it measured 16.7 inches. " Now that is a pretty 
big yarn, but I am not here for the purpose of advertising Queens- 
land, so remembering that, you can take the story on its merits. 

I said to an old gentleman, once a sea captain, "What is your rain- 
fallV How many inches?" "I don't know, " heanswered, "wedon't 
reckon rain by inches here. We reckon it by fathoms. " It must have 
fallen by fathoms at the experiment farm. Now, my next visit to- 
that very experiment station was for the purpose of locating an ir- 
rigation plant. At that season it was found absolutely necessary,, 
before we could prosecute agriculture successfully in that locality,, 
to have an artificial water supply, altho the rainfall of the year was 



M 



294 THE INDUSTRIALIST. [May, '99 

two hundred inches. There is quite a falling off as we proceed in- 
land. One hundred miles inland there is only thirty inches in a 
year; inland two hundred miles it is twenty-six inches a year; and 
four hundred miles inland only fifteen inches. I met a friend from 
northern Queensland who said that at the time of speaking the last 
rain they had had was three years before;* then they had had three 
inches on a Christmas day. 

Out of these peculiar facts have grown the political and social con- 
dition of things which we find there in the colonies. Our social and 
political fabric, as might be expected by the philosopher, is founded 
on this peculiarity of rainfall. As we go inland we find the country 
oannot be used for farming. What is the result? What can it be used 
for? It can be pastured, tho it cannot be turned by the plow. All 
over Australia the country is divided into two great classes. There 
is one class of people who depend wholly on their flocks and herds, 
who lease land from the government. Occasionally they own it in 
fee, but as a rule they lease from the government great tracts of 
land known as runs or squattages, and the owner of these runs is 
known as the squatter. "Squatter's Rights" is a familiar term in 
America. The American squatter is generally a man who taJces a 
little land belonging to the government and uses it without paying 
for it. The Australian squatter is a rich man who owns large tracts 
of land which he has obtained from the government on a thirty- 
years lease at the rate of from one farthing (equal to half a cent) 
to three farthings per acre per annum. Whatever he spends in the 
^ay of improvement during his tenancy must be recouped when he 
^ives up the tenancy. 

In every Australian colony there is in politics a "squatting party " 
devoted to the landed interests; it is analagous to the Torv party in 
England. Then there is the liberal party, made up of m'erchants 
laborers and others who are not squatters. There is a sharp dis- 
tmction in politics between these two. These squatters often pos- 
sess great estates, the like of which we do not have here to my 
knowledge. I know of one station which has on it two or three 
thousand head of sheep alone, and another which follows the sea 
ooast for forty miles. These men are literally the lords of creation 
You can see from this that their opportunities, at least, for useful- 
ness are very great. 

In Queensland we have today about twenty million .heep; in aU 
America there are only thirty-eight miUions. We have also about 



r" 



tma 



May, '99.] 



AUSTRALIAN FARMING. 



295 



seven million cittle and a corresponding number of horses and other 
live stock. Queensland is first of all a pastoral country, devoted to 
its flocks and herds. You must understand that this is not idle talk; 
it is a sober statement of facts. I am not a real estate agent. 

Traveling thru the interior of Queensland, you may see a succession, 
of high plains, generally rich land, with scattered trees, such as the 
gidiya, eucalyptus, mimosa, and a great variety of strange forms of 
vegetation almost unknown in this country. Groups here and there 
of trees are in sight, and then come miles of country with no trees 
at all. The ground beneath these trees is not shady. The leaves 
are lanceolate like the willow, and they hang almost edgewise on the 
trees, so that they make very little shade indeed. The evergreen 
trees in Australia shed their leaves without ceasing to be evergreen; 
all the year round they keep dropping, but the trees are never bare. 
The eucalyptus trees shed their bark once a year: one can see it 
splitting oif in long strips. These habits are quite different from 
those of American trees, but that is our way of doing things. I was 
talking one time to Mr. Bailey, the colonial botanist. He said: "Our 
trees have no time of flowering, no spring nor autumn, but whenever 
it rains they grow and bloom. I have seen whole woods in bloom in 
midwinter; and another time, in the spring. It depends on the rain- 
fall and season. Trees may go for years in dry times and never 
show a flower at all." 

If you talk to a farmer, he will tell you about scrub and forest 
country. All Australia is divided into these two kinds. The forest 
is this upper country with trees growing scatteringly, whether 
singly or in groups, often as few as one on an acre. These trees are 
almost entirely of the eucalyptus family. Near the coast you will 
find fairly thick woods alternating with the open plains. On coming 
to the coast the dimensions of the vegetable growth are enough to 
startle you. The trees grow to tremendous heights; they seem bent 
on pushing up into the sky. The growth underneath is a mass of 
palms and vines and low growing stuff. These twist about so that it 
is absolutely impossible to penetrate a rod inside of this scrub. 
That is the name given to the dense timber. 

They have there a very singular vine which sends out runners 
with branches which have recurved claws. These claws dig into the 
arms and clothing and defy you to make further advance. The 
colonist call it the "lawyer vine. " They make from this vine, how- 
ever, some of the finest walking sticks in the world, I will tell you 



296 THE INDUSTRIALIST. [May, '99 

another feature of this scrub which is most interesting to me. You 
may see sometimes a tremendous tree growing to far heights; look 
up into the top and you may discover another tree growing in the 
forks of the big one. The big tree may be a eucalyptus — but the 
trees generally have no names. The leaves of the one growing in 
the crotch are coarse and glossy and oft^n two feet in height. 
Watch attentively this little sprout, the size of a piece of chalk. You 
wiU see it has thrown down two little rootlets with white tips. In a 
radius of a half a mile you may see twenty such examples. The 
rootlet is not larger than a knitting needle, while its length may be 
seventy-five feet. One fastens in the ground on one side of the tree 
and another on the other side. 

There is significance in that. As soon as the rootlet has struck its 
tip into the ground it takes root, and the part above ground grpws to 
be like the stem of a tree. These rootlets come down from the 
branches of the big tree on all sides, take root and grow until the tree 
is enveloped by them. Wherever twoof them rub against one another 
they become welded together, and two or three of them may form a 
slab of timber, perhaps two feet across, with holes in it. In time 
the whole big tree is enclosed in this case of roots. They grow 
against the tree and crush it. They draw the nutriment out of the 
ground beneath it. Growth goes on. As the bark and decayed por- 
tions of the old- tree fall down they are converted into food for the 
greedy parasite. The parasite is a ficus, a member of the India 
rubber family. I have seen a clump of the roots of one of these 
trees as large as the chapel rostrum; away in the center is the trunk 
of the old tree. 

While you have been standing and watching the tree and not mov- 
ing your feet about, presently you feel a sting on your ankles. You 
pull up the edge of your pants and find the land leeches have fast- 
ened upon you. The best thing to do is to return to camp and pour 
kerosene on them, and thus get rid of the incumbrance. 

Another fact about Austraha is associated with the practise of 
squatting, one which no student of Australasian history should for- 
get. Grass is everywhere, even in the forest. Grass grows right 
up to the feet of the trees, and in the vast majority of cases it is an 
exceedingly sweet and nutritious food for all classes of herbivorous 
animals. We do not have there, as here, to cut down the trees and 
clear the land in order to get supplies of food for the cattle, because 
the grass is everywhere. Ride out west into the "never never" 




May, '99.] 



AUSTRALIAN FARMING. 



297 



country and see there these everlasting growths of grass; sometimes 
not very high, sometimes up to one's waist; but always nutritious. 
That is why Australia can compete with any other country on the 
globe in the production of wool and meat. Valuable as artificial fod- 
ders are, and necessary; there is no agricultural community on the 
globe which can hope to compete in th6 matter of cheap production . 
with the growers of stock who have access to these abundant grass 
lands. Grass is everything, and grass we have on the Australian 
<M)ntinent in the greatest profusion. 

How about the other Australian colonies? The country is under- 
laid with artesian water. We have only to go into the ground one 
or two thousand feet to get abundant supplies of the best water. It 
is hot, too hot to hold your hand in; but there is no trouble in cooling 
the water. Accordingly, our stockmen are reaching down exten- 
sively to this natural supply of stock water. Once when I happened 
to be in the western country I visited a squatter who a few months 
before had opened an artesian well. Water was flowing in a stream 
three inches in diameter, with such force that it rose to a great 
height. Sixty feet away from this well it flowed in a swift stream 
four feet in wi'dth and nine inches in depth. I asked him what he 
was doing with that water. He told me that the stream of water was 
flowing for fourteen miles across his run. It requires no effort of 
imagination to see that this discovery of artesian water means a 
complete changing of conditions in the interior of Australia. Sheep 
and cattle will stand almost any amount of drouth if water is there 
for them to drink. 

In the whole interior of AustraMa rains are tolerably certain in 
January and February. No sooner do the rains come than the as- 
pect of the entire country changes. The empty watercourses which 
you have been crossing in the coach become full. They gradually 
swell until frequently little creeks become thirty or even forty rods 
in width. It is extraordinary to see the wonderful change that 
comes over that country in the rainy season. As this flood of water 
subsides after the rain ceases in February, and as the summer heats 
come on, another wonderful transformation takes place. First of 
all there springs to the surface a great mass of annual plants; the 
natives call them carrots, and they are a sort of carrots; they are a 
peculiar species. They grow to the height of six inches or a foot; 
but they are ephemeral, existing no longer than a few weeks at most. 
AU these annual plants are greedily consumed by every class of 



298 THE INDUSTRIALIST. [May, '99 

stock. Never in my life have I seen cattle and sheep feed as they 
do on this carrot growth. After this the native grasses come. Blue 
grass, kangaroo grass, and other grasses not known to you, start up 
in extraordinarily rich number in the sun. 

This will serve briefly to introduce to you the squatter area of 
Queensland. 

Our farming is done almost entirely on the coast. In the south, 
corn and potatoes are grown. The farmers begin to plant these in 
August, and keep on until the following February. There is plenty 
of chance for the late farmer. The crops of corn are nearly or quite 
equal to those produced in this state. Of potatoes two crops are 
raised, a summer and a winter crop. In the north the great crop is- 
sugar cane. Some of you may have no idea what a crop of sugar 
cane means. I have seen crops of sugar cane myself which come to- 
fully seven or eight tons per acre— not seven or eight tons of cane,, 
but seven or eight tons of sugar to the acre. With the extraordi- 
nary productiveness of the tropical sugar cane, it is a crop that in- 
volves much labor. Moreover, it has two or three years of life; 
the first year is the planting; then in the next two years are the first 
rattoon and second rattoon respectively. There may* be four or five 
crops from the first planting, but the best is the second. 

I want' to say in conclusion that while we have many good and 
wonderful things in Australia and in Queensland, yet you have a lot 
of good things right here in America. While I do not wish to dis- 
praise Australia, noi* be over- modest, I want to say that we have no 
country in that continent which can compare agriculturally with 
what you can see in the United States. I remember seeing a state- 
ment by Caird, the eminent statistician and agriculturist, that in a 
radius of 500 miles west of Chicago there is the best bit of agricul- 
tural land in the world. We might take much more land into the ra- 
dius and still the statement would hold good. No land in the world 
can match eastern Kansas, Missouri, and Iowa. Therefore do not 
go to the Philippines, to Australia, or to any other country, with the 
expectation that you will ever see such good country as that between, 
where we are now meeting and Chicago. There is no other such tract, 
of agricultural land on earth. However, there is ample room in 
Australia for thousands of Americans if they wUl take up with the 
conditions that exist. And we will give a cordial welcome to the en- 
terprising man of business. Come as graduates of an agricultural' 
college, and you will certainly be greeted with a hearty welcome, and 




May, '99.] 



A NEW CROP. 



299 



given every chance for work and ultimate success that a people can 
give to well-meaning, earnest immigrants. Yet after all, it may well 
be questioned whether you can do as well there as you can at home- 



A NEW CROP FOR KANSAS FARMERS. 

(Press Bulletin No, 24, Kansas Experiment Station, Manhattan, Kansas;)- 

THE KANSAS EXPERIMENT STATION has been growing-the 
soy bean for the past ten years, starting with a small patchy 
and increasing the area until last year 35 acres were grown. It is a 
good drought resister, is not touched by chinch bugs, and the beans, 
are richer in protein than hnseed meal. With sufficienti moisture to* 
germinate them, a crop can be grown after wheat and oats are har- 
vested. In 1896 the yield on ground after wheat was 8 bushels per- 
acre; in 1898, 6i bushels. 

With linseed meal at $25 per ton, these crops after wheat would be- 
worth $6 and $4.68 per acre. When planted earlier in the season,, 
the yield of soy beans is from 10 to 20 bushels per #,cre. The soy 
bean not only furnishes a crop rich in protein, but at the same time- 
enriches the soil. Henry Rogler, one of our graduates, reports an. 
increase in large fields of 5 bushels of wheat per acre on land where- 
soy beans had previously been grown, over land that had not been, 
in soy beans. 

With dairy cows, soy bean meal takes the place of linseed meal, 
being somewhat richer in protein, a laxative feed, and softening the 
butter fat. Not over 3 pounds per day should be fed to a cow, and 
the softening effect on the butter may be overcome by giving feeds 
having the opposite tendency, such as corn, Kafir corn, and cotton- 
seed meal. 

In the winter of 1898, in fattening 7i-months-old pigs, the gains. 

per bushel of feed were: 

Kafir corn meal 11.7 pounds. 

Shelled corn 12.3 " 

Kafir corn meal four-fifths, soy bean meal one-fifth. .. 13.9 '* 

With pigs 6 months old the gains per bushel of feed were: 

Kafir corn meal 9.4 pounds.. ' 

Shelled corn 11.2 " 

Kafir corn meal four-fifths, soy bean meal one-fifth. .. 13.2 " 



800 THE INDUSTRIALIST. [May, '99 

With both lots the pigs having soy bean meal made the most rapid 
growth and were ready for market much earlier. 

With weaning pigs the gains per bushel of feed were : 

Kafir corn meal 10.4 pounds. 

Corn meal H-S 

Kafir corn meal two-thirds, soy bean meal one-third. 15.4 " 

Corn meal two-thirds, soy bean meal one-third 15.6 '* 

In the fall of 1898 this station bought of farmers 60 ordinary stock 

hogs of mixed breeding. The gains per bushel of feed in fattening 

these hogs were : 

Kafir corn meal 7.5 pounds. 

Kafir corn meal four-fifths, soy bean meal, one-fifth. . 12.0 " 

The hogs fattened with soy bean meal have just been marketed, 
while those not having it will not be ready for four or five weeks. 

The soy bean is an erect-growing plant, H to 3^ feet in height, 
with stiff stem, having branches thickly covered with pods. Cold 
weather hinders its growth, and for this reason it is not best to plant 
until the middle of May; and, if the rainfall is sufficient, a planting 
may be made as late as July 1. The ground should be in good tilth, 
and the weeds thoroly killed just before planting. Plant in drills, 
the rows 32 to 42«nches apart, dropping seeds 2 inches apart in the 
row. One-half bushel of seed per acre is required. Cultivate as for 
corn, using small shovels on the cultivator, and being careful not 
to ridge the ground. When the pods turn brown, cut either with a 
self-rake reaper or with a common cultivator rigged up with two 
horizontal knives bolted to the inner shanks. Put the stalks in 
cocks, where they should be kept until cured. Thresh with a 
common threshing machine. Run slowly and use all blank con- 
caves. The beans may be fed whole or ground. 

We believe the soy bean is worthy of a trial in all parts of this 
state, and that the trial should not be made on less than an acre; 
five acres would be better. Hundreds of people have tried planting 
a quart of seed, with the result that grasshoppers and rabbits har- 
yested these small patches. 



May, '99.] 



301 



•i ' 



TENDEJ^CIES 6F "t^E kANSAS STATE AGRICULTURAL COLLEQE. 

fey THOMAS ELMER WILL. 

THE question has been raised as to the present tendencies of the 
Kansas State Agricultural College. The Kansas State Agri- 
cultural College is a public institution maintained by the people, 
primarily of the nation, secondarily of the state of Kansas. The 
inquiry is therefore entirely proper, and a courteous and candid 
reply is due. 

It is also proper to inquire first what the tendencies of such an 
institution ought to be. For reply we turn to the law to which the 
College owes its existence. In section four of the act of July 2, 1862, 
we find that the interest upon moneys derived from the sale of lands 
granted by congress to states and territories is to be inviolably 
appropriated "to the endowment, support, and maintenance of at 
least one college, where the leading object shall be, without exclud- 
ing other scientific and classical studies, and including military 
tactics, to teach such branches of learning as are related to agricul- 
ture and the mechanic arts, in such manner as the legislatures of 
the states may respectively prescribe, in order to promote the lib- 
eral and practical education of the industrial classes in the several 
pursuits and professions in life." 

L The paragraph will bear re-reading and reading again and mem- 
orizing in substance if not in words. Military tactics are included, 
and rightly if defensive war only is contemplated. Care is taken 
not to exclude scientific and even classical studies, but special em- 
phasis is laid on two subjects, namely, agriculture and the mechanic 
arts. And the avowed object of such instruction, whether in any or 
all of the preceding, is ''to promote the liberal and practical educa- 
tion of the industrial classes in the several pursuits and professions 
in hfe. " A more catholic provision it would be difficult to conceive. 
Those who toil in the world of matter not less than those who labor 
in the realm of mind, those who petform the nation's work in 
overalls and roundabouts, who callous their hands and begrime their 
faces, as well as those who dress in doeskins and corkscrew diagonals, 
silk hats and patent leathers, and plead law, preach sermons, ad- 
minister drugs, or shufle bank notes and commercial paper, are to 
be fitted for their work; and the nation is to furnish the means. 



'd .',"10' OI'.W-'i'.)' 



302 THE INDUSTRIALIST. [May, '99 

The supplementary act of August 30, 1890, appropriating the 
"Morrill Fund," contains in section one the following language a& 
to the uses to which the funds appropriated may be put: **To be 
applied only to instruction in agriculture, the mechanic arts, the 
English language, and the various branches of mathematical, physical, 
natural, and economic science, with special reference to their applica- 
tions in the industries of hfe and to the facilities for such instruction. "^ 
This provision is slightly less broad than the foregoing: under it 
instruction may not be given in either ancient or modern languages 
save English. The emphasis of position, however, is again laid on 
agriculture and the mechanic arts; the mathematical,. physical, and 
natural sciences are this time specifically mentioned ; and, news tho- 
it may be to those who see in a land-grant institution nothing but an 
experiment station and a "cow colJege," the betenoir or red dragon, 
ECONOMIC saENCE, is not only permitted by construction but speci- 
fied by name. The practical bearings of these land-grant colleges are 
still, after the lapse of twenty-eight years, kept in view; for the in- 
struction authorized in the sciences mentioned is to have "especial 
reference to their applications in the industries of life;" in a word, 
not only pure but applied science is to be taught— even applied eco- 
nomics! 

Obviously, then, neither the law of 1862 nor that of 1890 contem- 
plates a purely agricultural college, if by this is meant an institution 
in which agriculture and agriculture only is taught. Such an insti- 
tution would be not only preposterous but scientifically impossible. 
The students in land-grant colleges come quite commonly directly 
from the farms, bringing with them little or no scholastic preparation 
save that furnished by the common district school. While a short 
course of three [months in agriculture only might be possible, even 
the celebrated short courses given by the agricultural departments in 
Wisconsin and Minnesota include several other lines of study in ad- 
dition to agriculture pure and simple. A four-years' agricultural 
course, such as is now given by the Kansas State Agricultural Col- 
lege, must include, as an agricultural specialist himself must recog- 
nize and concede, numerous other studies than those purely agricul- 
tural. What, for example, were agriculture without chemistry and 
physics of the soil? Who, again, would regard a strictly agricultural 
course complete that omitted instruction in veterinary science, bot- 
any, and the elements of geology? Almost equally appropriate in 
such a course are studies in entomology, horticulture and forestry. 



May, '99.] 



TENDENCIES OP K. S. A. C. 



303 



And thus the list of valuable sciences appropriate tx) a specifically- 
agricultural course grows. But how can the student handle such 
sciences without some preliminary or accompanying training in cer- 
tain other subjects not agricultural at all, as, for example, English 
and mathematics? That a course may be agricultural in any ade- 
quate sense, it must be much more than simply agricultural. 

What now has the College within the past few years been doing 
for agriculture? First, as to its course of study. Its position two 
years ago among the agricultural colleges of the country may be 
shown by the following table. 

Number of class hours in agriculture taught in a four-years' 
course in various colleges and universities: Wisconsin, 540; Iowa, 
529; IUinois,482: New York, 420; North Dakota, 890; Rhode Island, 
382; Texas, 368; Missouri, 342; Georgia, 324; Delaware, 322; Colo- 
rado, 300; Arkansas, 296; South Carolina, 270; Mississippi, 240; 
Louisiana, 232; New Mexico, 220; Kansas, 185; New Hampshire, 160; 

New Jersey; 158. 

Kansas, that is, at the time when its alleged tendency away from 
agriculture began, stood within two numbers of the foot of the class, 
as regards agricultural instruction, among the institutions named. 
Now, with 424 hours, when purely agricultural studies are counted, it 
stands within three of the head; while if horticulture and veterinary 
science, two subjects intimately related to agriculture and perhaps 
equally important, are also taken into account, the Kansas College 
leaps well to the front, with the splendid showing of 1090 hours. 
Again, 100 students have taken the 424 hours of agricultural work in 
this institution, while only 8 have taken the 540 hours in Wisconsin. 

To be more specific, June 30, 1897, found the College with a single 
course of study, highly general in its nature, and containing two 
terms, or 130 hours, of agriculture and one term, or 50 hours, of ag- 
ricultural chemistry. The College now maintains, in addition 
to several other courses, a four-years' course in agriculture, 
including the following studies: Agriculture, 60; hygiene of farm 
animals, 42 ; tillage and fertiUty, 70 ; dairying, 60 ; crop production, dO ; 
a-ricultural chemistry, 70; agricultural mechanics, 24; stock feed- 
ing, 60; breeds and breeding, 50; agricultural bacteriology, ^0; agri- 
cultural physics, 60; agricultural economics, 50. 

The last on the list, like most of the others, is taught by the Agri- 

cultural department. , • i 

The ra.tio, then, of opportunity in the College for strictly agricul^ 



304 THE INDUSTRIALIST. [May, V9- 

tural work at the date first mentioned to that at the present time is 
180 to 666, or 1 to 3. 7. In other words, the student now has more than 
3f times as much opportunity to do strictly agricultural work as he 
had two years ago. 

A word next as to the college dairy school. For ten years the 
College had talked about the need for a dairy school in Kansas, Tha 
biennial report of 1896-7 contained a request for a legislative appro- 
priation for this purpose, tho the writer was sent to Topeka in the 
interest of the College, with private instructions to ignore this re- 
quest. After July 1, 1897, the CoUege determined to have a dairy 
school, and to show its determination by making a start without 
awaiting an appropriation. The barn office and an adjoining room 
were taken for this purpose, and later supplemented by a grain bin 
and the young men's dressing room. Three hundred dollars were 
put into apparatus, and a scrub herd was purchased. The dairy 
school opened in January, 1898, with 6 special dairy students, while 
24 others from the four-years' course received dairy instruction 
during the year. The second term of the dairy School opened in 
January, 1899, with 25 special dairy students who were reinforced 
by 20 more from the other courses. These students fairly trod 
upon one another in their crowded quarters. Legislative committees 
came, saw, and were conquered. Thirty-four thousand dollars were 
voted for a dairy building, equipment, herd and shelter. 

To provide milk for the use of the dairy school, and to ascertain* 
what proper feeding and care would do for grade animals, a scrub 
herd of 30 cows, much inferior to average Kansas cows, was pur- 
chased. The average receipts from these cows were more than- 
double those from average Kansas cows. The worst cow in this 
herd produced butter fat at a cost to the College of 15 cents per 
pound; the best cows produced butter fat at an average cost of 7 
cents. Were the lesson taught by this experiment utilized by Kan- 
sas farmers and dairymen, and the grade of the average milch cow 
in the state raised by the difference between the worst and the best 
cows in the college herd, the gain to the state would be $3,000,000 
per annum. Conservative dairymen have declared the value of this 
experiment to be greater to the state than that of any other work 
ever done by the College. One editor says: 

When Professor Cottrell went out and bought a number of cows of the kind 
the average farmer keeps, and put up a cheap milk shed of the "every-farmer- 
can-afiford-it" sort, he did so because he knew that the farmers of Kansas are 



May, '99.] 



TENDENCIES OF K. S. A. C. 



305 



not farming for fun merely, and that they want some common-sense experiments 
up at Manhattan, and that they want some experiments that will do some good 
as well as read well. 

Seed, like cattle and horses, can be improved by breeding. The 
Gartons of Lancashire, England, by crossings and selections for 
seventeen years increased the oat yield on experimental fields 60 per 
cent, and the wheat yield 100 per cent. Were similar work to be 
done for Kansas, the increased yield in oats would amount annually 
to 50,000,000 bushels, and in wheat to 120,000,000 bushels. 

Experiments indicate that the protein or muscle-producing con> 
tent of corn may be increased by selection and breeding two to three 
per cent. An increase of but one per cent would be worth to Kansas 
corn raisers $380,000 per annum. 

The work of seed breeding has recently been taken up by the 
Kansas Experiment Station. A member of the force is now at Cor- 
nell University, at his own expense, devoting his entire time to the 
study of this subject under the direction of experts. The three 
departments of Agriculture, Chemistry and Botany at this College 
are cooperating in seed-breeding experiments. They have already 
found that surprising variations exist in the nitrogen content of 
corn as respects varieties, individual ears of the same variety, and 
individual kernels of equal weight on the same ear; and are prac- 
tically convinced that the per cent of nitrogen in corn may be ma- 
teriaUy increased and its feeding value thereby correspondingly 
enhanced by the improvement in varieties thru intelligent selection 

and breeding. 

The results of the experiment-station work are distributed thru 
bulletins. Of the pamphlet bulletins such statements as the follow- 
ing have been made: 

-BuUetin No. 77 is the grandest that has been issued from your 
college. " A Rochester, New York, firm of seedmen asked permis. 
sion to reprint five thousand copies of this bulletin. Of Bulletin No. 
81 a dairy paper said, "This bulletin for practical information is 
worth its weight ia gold ten times over." A Minnesota farm paper 
says of this bulletin: -If the farmers wUl read this bulletin and fol- 
low its teaching their success in dairying will be assured, and in the 
near future the state wiU be found well to the front in this industry. 
This bulletin alone is worth more than all the station has cost for the 
period of five years, and should be read and its teaxjhings followed by 
every dairyman in the state. " 



S06 THE INDUSTRIALIST. [May, '99 

The School of Agriculture at Gizeh, Egypt, wrote for the publica- 
tions of the Kansas station, saying, "These valuable productions 
are most useful in such an institution as this. " 

A letter has just been received from the Junta de Agricultura, 
Industria y Comereio, at Havana, ^Cuba, asking for reports of the 
College and station, as they desire to become acquainted with it. 

A Kansas farmer Writes in contrasting our bulletins with those 
from Cornell and the United States Department of Agriculture, "I 
am so favorably impressed by the excellence of your station that I 
am proud to say that we farmers of Kansas need hardly go outside 
«f our state for information on matters concerning the agriculturist. " 
These quotations might be multiplied at will. 

Brief press bulletins are issued weekly or oftener, and published 
in the papers of almost every county in Kansas, in agricultural pa- 
pers in almost every state in the Union, and in many of the papers of 
Jlurope. Thru these press bulletins, thus widely scattered, infor- 
mation is conveyed in popular form to multitudes who are not 
reached by the more expensive pamphlet bulletins or have not time 
to read them. To these publications such references as the follow- 
ing have been made: 

We publish everything that comes from you with great pleasure, and con- 
sider the matter furnished by you to be of great value to our readers 

We cannot refrain from complimenting the Kansas Experiment Station upon 
■the admirable series of press bulletins which it is issuing. . The Kan 

aas press bulletins enjoy and deserve a wide circulation thru the press of the 
<50untry. ^ 

As I write, the Chicago Dairy and Creamery for April 1 is handed 
me, on page 2 of which I find a two-column article entitled, "A 
Valuable Common-Sense Experiment, " and b^inning thus: 

_ The Kansas Experiment Station has issued a press bulletin in which it has 
^iven the results of an experiment which should commend the work of the sta- 
iaon to every farmer and business man in that state. 

It then gives in substance our Press Bulletin No. 29, "Milking 
Scrub Cows.^' On page 13 of the same paper appears a one-column 
article entitled, >' A State Experimental Dairy, " opening as follows: 

.ni'T' ';^'^"'^ %^''^'''^ °* P""^^ *" '^^ ^^^ '''^^'' i» *h« Kansas legislature, 
jnd in the Kansas farmers who have for 25 years permitted the interests of th^ 

Srowd^d D^y'" ' """' ''"'' '" "'^"' *" '''"^ "Condensed Notes from a 
hy Assistant Otis, of the Agricultural department of this College 

A powerful agency for the development of agriculture is the 
farmers' institute. Kansas for years lagged in prosecuting this 



May, '99.] 



TENDENCIES OP K. S. A. C. 



307 



work. The state has appropriated nothing, and the College has 
asked for nothing, to assist farmers' institutes. During the same 
time Wisconsin has been appropriating annually $12,000, Minnesota 
$13,500, and New York and Pennsylvania $15,000 each. Kansas 
farmers are in competition with these better-instructed farmers, as 
'well as with those of the whole world. It is noteworthy and sug- 
:gestive that the states in which the farmers' interests have been 
cared for are those in which heavy conservative majorities are polled; 
while Kansas, the state in which the farmers' interests have been 
less considered, is the state in which tremendous conservative ma- 
jorities have been turned into majorities favoring a change in policy. 
Between July 1, 1890, and July 1, 1899, the Agricultural CoUege 
:assisted at 209 farmers' institutes. Indiana held 185 in the single 
year 1897 ; Ohio held 284; and New York, 300. Of the 209 named, 91, 
or more than 43%, have been held since July 1. 1897. During the 
present winter the three men on the Farm department staff have 
attended 35 farmers' institutes, and have declined invitations to 133 
others on account of lack of time. The need for farmers' institutes 
^as strongly stated in our last biennial report, page 44-6, and an 
earnest effort was made to secure state aid for this enterprise, with 
the result that $2000 per year for the biennium was granted. With 
this appropriation, and the plan last year devised for economizing 
institute funds, from two to three institutes can be held in each of 
the 105 counties in the state, during the next year and the year 

following. 

As to the cost of institutes: The average cost of the 118 insti- 
tutes held previous to July, 1897, was $18.93; the average cost of 
the 91 held since that date was $10.59; while in 1898-9 it was found 
that by grouping the institutes the average cost could be reduced 
to $7.77. The following table gives the figures: 



FARMERS' INSTITUTES. 



Year. 



1890-1 
1891-2 
1892-3 
1893-4 
1894-5 
1895-6 
1896-7 
189-7-8 
1898-9 



27 

11 
17 
22 
22 
19 
30 
61 



Number. Total cost. 



$254 33 
251 79 
264 01 
342 12 
398 10 
33() 81 
38(5 56 
489 94 
473 97 



Average cost. 



$18 74 

24 00 
20 12 
18 10 

15 31 
20 34 

16 33 
7 77 



308 THE INDUSTRIALIST. [May, '99 

A sure index to the success or failure of a department or institu- 
tion is the degree of student interest aroused. Students, faculty 
and all other informed persons can bear witness that for several 
years prior to July.l, 1897, the Agricultural department of this Col- 
lege was weak and unpopular. They can also testify that since that 
date this department has enjoyed a genuine boom. Students now 
believe in agricultural study, and are proud of their prospective- 
calling. Not satisfied with the greatly enlarged opportunities for 
agricultural study in the special four-years' agricultural course, 
they organized early in the fall of 1897 a Students' Farmers' Club! 
that they might carry still farther their agricultural investigations. 
This club has been a success from the start, and has recently been 
obliged to change its quarters to accommodate its increased num- 
bers. Pull reports of the meetings are given regularly in the 
Stydents' Herald. Under the head, "Proud of Their Vocation," the 
Farmers' Voice, of Chicago, Feb. 4, 1899, says: 

Whatever of justice there may have been in the past in statements made to- 
the effect that agricultural college students deserted the farms when their col- 
lege course was ended, it must be manifest to all who keep in touch with the- 
movements of college students and of graduates that such a statement can no 
longer be made in truth. 

It .quotes an 18-Hno account of the Farmers' Club from the Stu- 
dents' Herald, and adds: 

Young men do not form clubs to discuss the details of a profession in which 
they are not interested, or one which they intend to desert. 

The hold of the Agricultural department upon the peorjle of the 
state is in a measure reflected by the legislative appropriations for 
that department. Between July 1, 1890, and June 30, 1897, the total 
amount appropriated was $700, averaging $100 per year. In 1897 
the legislature appropriated $1500 for the Farm department for the 
biennium ending June 30, 1899. At the session recently ended they 
appropriated to that department, as stated above, $34,000. Following 
is the table of legislative appropriations for the Farm department: 

}^S?i »20000 

iim 00000 

189^4;::.:.:::::::::::;:;;::;::::;:::;::::: SSSSS 

Ks 25000 

1898-9... :::::::::::::::::::::::::;;::;;;;;;; ^gg 

Total for nine years $2200 00 

ioyy-i»ui 34,000 Oft 



May, '99.] TENDENCIES OF K. S. A. C. , 309 

For many students who ought to get the benefit of such an insti- 
tution as this a four-years' course is too long. For the benefit of such, 
short, twelve-weeks' courses have been arranged, to occur on two 
consecutive years in midwinter, with the object of driUing young 
men directly from the farms in methods and principles which may 
be applied immediately on their return to the farm and which will 
enable the student to coin his labor directly into cash. With the ag- 
ricultural work it is planned to give such instruction in blacksmith- 
ing and the use of carpenter's tools as shall enable the student to do 
all ordinary repairing on the farm. 

With the legislative appropriation of $34,000 it is planned immedi- 
ately to erect an agricultural building, including a dairy, in which 
high-grade instruction will be given in creamery butter-making, 
cheese-making, and milk production. From this date Kansas 
should stand in the front rank of states giving instruction m 

dairying. 

Following agriculture, a word may be said as to horticulture. 
The curriculum of June 30, 1897, provided one term of horticulture 
(70 hours) for both sexes, and one term of floriculture (60 hours) for 
young women. It also provided one term (50 hours) of instruction in 
entomology. The Agricultural course now gives : Horticulture, 9& 
hours; entomology, 50; vegetable gardening and small fruit culture, 
70; pomology, 42; forestry, 30-the ratio being 120 to 288, or 1 to 2.4, 
for young men, while the young women, in their special Domestic 
Science course, are far better provided with work adapted to their 
special needs than ever before. 

The Horticultural department furnishes the following statement: 

HORTICULTURAL DEPARTMENT, EXPERIMENT STATION. 

This department has in operation the following lines of experimental work: 
I Fruit Improvement. 1. An attempt to improve domestic varieties of or- 
chard ^"ts by^tt^ntion to the principles of breeding. 2^ ^ test of p-mising 
new varieties of fruit, especially those originating within the state^ 3 An 
attempt to develop the hardy native fruits of western Kansas, ^"^^^ /inde; 
cherries, and currants, and introduce varieties that will be profitable under 

""'T^Mloa. of Orchard Treatment. A trial of various methods of cultivation 
and kinds of soiling crops adapted to orchards in this state. 

III. Races of Peach. A cooperative test carried on in connection with o^^^^^ 
experiment stations to test the adaptability of the various races of the peach. 

IV. Methods of Grape Pruning and Training. * „„,.i^tips of fruit 

V. Varkty Tests. Tests of the productiveness and value of varieties of fruit 

and vegetables for Kansas conditions. 

Vl sLng and Marketing of Fruits. A series of investigations covering the 



M 



310 THE INDUSraiALIST. [May, '99 

points of thinning; picking, packing, shipping, storing and marketing. The 
department has had the cooperation of cold storage houses of Kansas City and 
Topeka, and has carried on experiments with both fruits and vegetables. A 
bulletin on Cold Storage for Fruit is now in press. 

Several press bulletins on practical subjects have recently been issued and 
■have been widely published by the press. 

COLLEGE. 

The department has advanced the agricultural educational work in the fol- 
lowing ways: 

I. By courses of instruction, industrial practise, etc., in classes at the Col- 
lege, over 100 students being enrolled in such classes. Short courses in horti- 
.culture are, if approved, to be instituted next year as divisions of the Farmers' 
Short Course. 

II. By addresses and lectures at farmers' institutes and horticultural so- 
.cieties, and committee work in connection with the State Horticultural Society. 
A large extension of the farmers' institute work is being planned for the coming 
jear. 

III. By writings and publications other than bulletins of the Experiment 
Station. The work includes personal correspondence, weekly newspaper arti- 
cles and papers written for horticultural meetings. 

The influence of the department among the people of the state is indicated by 
their general knowledge of what the department is doing, their eagerness for 
department publications, general acceptance of results obtained and readiness 
to cooperate in investigations proposed by the department. 

The operations of the department are constantly broadening and are being 
prosecuted with one end in view, viz: To educate the people of the state and 
lielp them discover and put into practise the best horticultural methods. 

The practical value of the work of this department may be indica- 
ted by such facts as the following: Kansas grows seven and a half 
million apple trees; the annual value of her apple crop is $1,000,000; 
under proper treatment and culture, such as the Agricultural College 
teaches, these should produce on an average $1.00 each per annum 
or $7,500,000. If Kansas apple growers knew how to pack properly 
their apples placed in cold storage the annual saving might easilv be 
:$50,000. 

The possibihties of cold storage are great. Had Kansas raisers 
of Jonathan apples last September placed their crops in cold storage 
in Kansas and adjoining states when these apples were worth $4 per 
barrel, they might later have sold them for $7 per barrel, which, 
after paying cold storage charges of 50 cents per barrel, would have 
left the producers a profit of $700,000. 

Scarcely second to the Agricultural department in importance to 
Kansas farmers, is the department of Veterinary Science. The old 
curriculum provided 50 hours of anatomy and physiology, 60 hours of 
zoology and 60 hours of veterinary science. The new Agricultural 
course contains: Hygiene of farm animals (already mentioned), 42 




May, "99.1 



TENDENCIES OF K. S. A. C. 



311 



hours; physiology, 50; biology, 60; agricultural bacteriology, 70; 
comparative anatomy, 52; veterinary science, 50. Not counting, then, 
the now enlarged opportunity for advanced and postgraduate 
study furnished by this department, the ratio of opportunity in 
the Unes in question under the old course to that now afforded is 170 
to 324, or 1 to 1.9. 

It should also be added that the student demand for advanced 
work in bacteriology and histology is so great that at the beginning 
of every term in the year students are turned away from the Veter- 
inary department. 

Two years ago found the Veterinary department with no labora- 
tory worthy the name, tho laboratory work is the foundation for ad- 
vances in this science. For the work of the Experiment Station, a 
laboratory has since been equipped and experiments have been made 
along the following lines: 

(1) Pour extensive tuberculin tests and resulting post-mortem ex- 
aminations. (2)Mastitisin cows. (3) Infectious scours in calves, 
(4) Sniffling disease in pigs. (5) Swine plague protective inocula- 
lation (an experiment in which positive results have been secured), 
(6) Blackleg protective inoculation. (7) Vaccine to inoculate and 
protect against blackleg. (8) Rabies in horses. (9) Roup in poultry. 
(10) Lice on cattle (good results have been secured). (11) An mfec- 
tious disease of thegenital organs of heifers. ( 12) Bacteriological ex- 
aminations of milk on an extensive scale. (13) Treating outbreak of 
panaritium in college herd. Every experiment has resulted in 
practical benefit to some person or community. 

The present veterinary laboratory facilities, tho far superior to 
those found here two years ago, are still entirely inadequate for the 
needs of this department. Room is also badly needed. The recent 
legislature was asked to enlarge the Library building, in which this 
department is located, with a view to providing the needed room; 
this, thru misinformation, they failed to do. Nothing daunted, how- 
ever, it is proposed to crowd three stories of the museum into two, 
and give the Veterinary department the splendid ground floor thus 

gained. . . j 

The college veterinarian is, by. law, the state veterinarian, and 
subject to the caU of the State Uve Stock Sanitary Commission. 
That these calls might not cripple the college and station work, the 
legislature was asked to appropriate $1800 per annum for the state 
veterinarian; this they did, and a new man wiU be added to the forc^ 



312 THE INDUSTRIALIST. [May, '99 

of the department next summer. The legislature also voted $950 for 
microscopes and other equipment for the Veterinary department. 
This department acts as a bureau of information to the farmers and 
stockmen of Kansas. About one hour daily is devoted by the de- 
partment, aided by a stenographer and typewriter, to answering 
letters. The department inspected the tuberculous herd and ordered 
it slaughtered; it has published a thirty-page bulletin on Bovine 
Tuberculosis, and press bulletins as follows: (a) Blackleg; (b) Taenia 
Fimbriata; (c) Lice on Animals; (d) Blackleg; (e) Blackleg. It has 
also participated in farmers' institute work, in meetings of the State 
Board of Agriculture and in the National Association of the Live 
Stock Sanitary Boards at Omaha. The veterinary professor is also 
-the veterinary editor of the Kansas Farmer, veterinarian for the State 
Board of Agriculture, and bacteriologist for the State Board of Health. 
The most fatal cattle disease in Kansas is blackleg. To protect 
the herds of Kansas farmers and stockmen against its ravages the 
department produces and distributes free protective vaccine. 
Within the past six months the department has sent out vaccine 
sufficient to inoculate thirty thousand calves. The commercial value 
of this vaccine has far exceeded the cost of running the department 
for the past two years. The results have been most satisfactory. 
The value of live stock saved by this vaccine has been conservatively 
estimated at $60,000! The foUowing are extracts from the corre- 
spondence of the department on this subject: 

The day before I received the vaccine four (4) calves died in one day? I 
never saw any sign of disease since using it. 

The calves treated with the vaccine for blackleg did all right and I lost none 
of them. I think the vaccine is all right if used at the proper time. Before I 
knew of the vaccine I tried everything to prevent the disease but failed. Would 
be plfeased to have you send me more vaccine. 

I hear that you are sending out vaccine for calves. I have 170 head that I 
would like to vaccinate. What will medicine cost, or do you send it as an 
experiment? 

Another writes for enough to vaccinate 200 calves and then says: 
• Out of about 300 head treated in part with the vaccine matter sent me, and in 
part with some sent to another party in this county, there has been 'no loss 
whatever and no ill results from the treatment. In one bunch of twenty-four 
calves one had already died with what was pronounced a case of blackleg the 
the day before the herd was treated; no more died. From what I see it appears 
to be a sure preventive. 

Experiments along the line of protective inoculation against hog 
cholera are in active progress. Results similar to those already 
mentioned are hoped for. 



May, '99.] TENDENCIES OF K. S. A. C. 313 

As above indicated, the work of the land grant colleges is ex- 
pected to bear especially upon agriculture and mechanic arts. The 
name therefore, "Agricultural College," is misleading; in fact, almost 
as much so as would be the name "Mechanical College." Some of 
the institutions are more correctly designated "Agricultural and 
Mechanical Colleges." The Mechanical department of this College, 
however, was established under protest and has existed in the past 
by sufferance rather than by recognized right. But for an aggres- 
sive professor at its head, it might still have resembled a potato sprout 
growing in a cellar. On June 80, 1897, the course of study provided 
^0 hours of mechanics and 50 hours of engineering. The work with 
tools was almost purely elementary, rising only to the dignity of 
manual training. The department now carries a special four-years' 
course in mechanical engineering, providing, among other things: 
Mechanics, 52 hours ; hydraulics, 20; machine design, 160 ; principles 
of mechanism, 50; mechanics of materials, 70; measurement of power, 
S4; mechanics of engineering, 60; engineering of power plants, 50; 
original designing, 100— the ratio of old to new being 110 to 646, or 1 
to 5.87. Manual training is still provided for the general students, 
but the Mechanical Engineering course looks toward the preparation 
of students for the profession of mechanical engineering. The 
department is now prepared, on receiving the sanction of the Board 
of Regents, materially to raise its entrance requirements, introduce 
still more technical work into the four-years' course, and to provide 
for .a year of high-grade postgraduate work, including thermody- 
namics, power transmission, steam engineering, steam-engine de- 
signing, mechanics of machinery, and laboratory work. 

The attendance at the Mechanical department has greatly in- 
creased, as the following figures will show: 

Year FaU Term. Winter Term. 

-.aoR -7 ' 257 297 ( Admittance refused to 

Sq 356 385-^ over 50 students be- 

^°y<^-^ ^Qo ( cauae of lack of room. 

Increase 99 88 

Percentage increase 35 30 

Averag'e increase in attendance in two years, i2i percent. 

An innovation introduced January 1, 1898, is the apprentice sys- 
tem. A limited number of students are admitted to the shops for a 
course of at least forty weeks of exclusive shop work. This course 
has proved to be extraordinarily popular, and applicants have been 
turned away from the start. The effects of this system have been- 
first, by setting an example of unusually high-grade shop work, to 



314 THE INDUSTRIALIST. [May, '9^ 

raise the standard of work done by shop students not apprentices, 
and to increase the respect of such students for mechanical pursuits;, 
second, by having on hand constantly a body of fairly skilled young- 
men concentrating on a single line, to set in operation considerable 
work in practical machine building, the product to be used in fur- 
ther equipping the shops or exchanged for other needed machinery. 
At present the shops are making about three-fourths of the ma- 
chinery needed to equip the new extension. There is already a 
steady demand for gasoline engines, which can be produced at the- 
shops. 

The new spirit in the Mechanical department is already bringing^ 
its reward in a pecuniary way. The last legislature appropriated 
$9000 for additional buildings, $7000 for equipment, and $5000 for 
additional boilers, boiler house and engines, or a total of $21,000,. 
against $200 in 1889-90; $200 in 1890-91; 000 in 1891-2; 000 in 1892-3; 
000 in 1893-4; $3745 in 1894-5; $1770 in 1895-6; $1300 in 1896-7?. 
and $1099 in 1897-8. 

With these appropriations it becomes possible properly to house 
the foundry and to enlarge and make more practical and helpful the 
blacks mithing department and shops. The size of the iron-shops 
will be increased 250 per cent. The pressure for room will be relieved, 
thenumber of apprentices that can be accommodated much increased, 
and the general efficiency of the department materially raised. 
With these improvements and with the entrance requirements 
raised, the course of study strengthened, and a postgraduate year 
added, the state may congratulate itself that henceforth it will be^ 
relieved from the necessity of maintaining more than one depart- 
ment of mechanical engineering at public expense. 

While not specified in the law, work in domestic science and 
household economics has by common consent been accepted as ap- 
propriate to a land-grant college. The Domestic Science department 
at this College is among the oldest in the country, and had attained 
high standing and favor before the college changes. It had for years,, 
however, been seriously hampered from lack of a suitable building. 
This building was secured from the legislature of 1897 and erected 
by the coUege authorities. It is called by competent and impartial 
judges the best building in the state for the money. In the basement 
is found the kitchen and students' dining haU, to be mentioned later. 
On its ground floor is the department of Domestic Science, with office, 
reception room, study room, class room, laboratory, etc. On its sec- 




May, '99.] 



TENDENCIES OF K. S.A. C; 



31S 



ond floor is the department of Sewing. The departments centerings 
in this building are among the most successful and popular in the in- 
stitution. A special four-years' course of study has been provided 
for them, including, among other things: Hygiene, 94 hours; household 
economics, 110; home architecture, 35; chemistry of foods, 30; dairy- 
ing, 70— as against household economics, 60; chemistry of foods 20 r- 
and hygiene, 70. The ratio, therefore, of old to new is 150 to 339, or 
1 to 2.26. This course has recently undergone revision, whereby,, 
when accepted by the Board of Regents, it will materially increase^ 
the opportunity for the distinctive work of the department. 

Like the departments of Agriculture and Mechanics and the de- 
partment of Horticulture, the department of Domestic Science, in- 
cluding sewing, has prepared a short course to be put into operation,, 
if approved by the regents, at the beginning of next fall term. It 
will include three months of work in each of two consecutive years, 
and is designed to meet the needs of young women who need prac- 
tical training but cannot spend four years in college. 

Next as to economics, the bone of contention, but a subject for 
which, as seen, specific provision is made in the act of congress of 
1890. The old course provided for studies in sociological lines as fol- 
lows: General history, 70 hours; civics, 60; economic science, 50; his- 
tory of industry and science, 30. It also gave 110 hours to psychology- 
and logic. The new courses other than agricultural and mechanical,, 
which omit these subjects, give 50 hours to psychology and logic and 
provide for sociological studies as follows: Elementary economics,. 
28 hours; general history, 60; U. S. history, 50; principles of econom- 
ics, 70; civics, 60; nineteenth century history, 50; industrial history,. 
70; economic problems, 60; finance, 50. Omitting the psychology and 
logic, the ratio of old to new is therefore 210 to498,.or 1 to 2.37; while,, 
if the psychology and logic be counted, the ratio is 320 to 54H, or 1 to- 
1.7. The old ratio of sociological studies to agriculture wns 210 to- 
180 (1.16 to 1); or, counting psychology and logic, 320 to 180 (l.H to 1). 
The new ratio is 498 to 666 (1 to 1.33); or, counting psychology and 
logic, 548 to 666 (1 to 1.2): that is, even with the largely increased op- 
portunity for sociological studies in the course, sociological opportu- 
nity is now considerably behind agricultural, while in the old course 
agricultural was still farther behind sociological. 

The College, then, within the past two years, has been tending- 
strongly and rapidly toward agriculture and the related lines of 
horticulture and veterinary science,, and toward the mechanic art» 



316 THE INDUSTRIALIST. [May, '99 

and domestic science. It has also increased the eflficiency of the 
work in economic science ; that is, it has been fulfilling in letter and 
in spirit the laws of 1862 and 1890 to which, as a land-grant college, 
it primarily owes its life. Another tendency may be notfed — one in 
fullest accord with the theory upon which our public school system 
is based; that, namely, toward making this great institution accessi- 
ble to the boys and girls of Kansas. The mass of young people are 
barred from college by poverty. This evil must be met if free insti- 
tutions are to survive. This College is seeking to meet it by lower- 
ing the students' cost of living at the College. Its dining-hall fur- 
nishes meals at cost and its bookstore books and supplies at cost. It 
desires and expects a dormitory in which rooms may be furnished to 
students at cost and thru which the growth of the College may no 
longer be limited by the size of the town. It furnishes much remu- 
nerative work to students, thus helping them to earn their way thru 
College, and it has asked, and not in vain, that the legislature appro- 
priate money toward students' wages. Further, the writer has just 
received a letter notifying him of a bequest, the first in the history 
of the college, of an estate valued at several thousand dollars, the 
proceeds of which are "to go for current expenses of white male 
students attending the College. " May the good work go on ! That 
these inducements and the educational opportunities are appreciated 
is shown by the unequaled attendance. Strange to say these meas- 
ures for the relief of worthy students without means have in cases 
been eyed askance, and even opposed by some. The dining-hall and 
bookstore conflict with certain local, private interests, and we are 
boldly told in public prints that these institutions must go, and the 
interests of the students be sacrificed to the interests of private 
money-getters. Thru Manhattan opposition the move for a college 
dormitory was killed at the last legislature. The printing office, in 
which many of the students earn much of their way, is under the 
same local ban. Whether the bequest will arouse local opposition 
remains to be seen. Tho many public-spirited citizens live within 
4ihe vicinity of the College, not all as yet realize that an institution 
'' endowed by the nation, housed by the state, and maintained by 
both" is designed for the benefit of a larger area than the village be- 
side which it is established. 

What is true locally of measures instituted to relieve the present 
material needs of students is true both locally and elsewhere, and in 
a still greater degree, of measures looking toward their permanent 



May, '99.] 



TENDENCIES OF K. S. A. C. 



317 



relief from the pressure of poverty. Bitter tho it is, the opposition 
to the dining-hall, bookstore and dormitory is mild in comparisott 
with the opposition to the economic enlightenment of students. This 
opposition may take the specious but untenable ground that this 
College is tending away from agriculture toward economics; but 
this, even were it true, would not explain the animus of the oppo- 
nents to economic instruction in this institution. A single term pro- 
viding genuine enlightenment on sociological lines would be odious 
to such. They are entirely willing the young people of Kansas 
should be taught to cook meals, sew on buttons, fatten pigs, curry 
cows, make butter and cheese, and increase the annual product of 
grains and meats, provided their instruction goes no farther. South- 
ern planters before the sixties were equally willing that the black 
toilers who made the desert blossom should be taught to produce 
more skilfully and abundantly; the trouble came when these toilers 
were taught anything else. To teach them to read, and to open the 
eyes of their minds that they might perceive that they were more 
than beasts of burden born to drudgery that others might loll 
• in luxury and fatten on the fruits of unpaid labor, was seditious 
and a crime worthy of banishment or death. In less degree 
the principle still applies. Producers may be developed and 
trained until they are veritable Samsons, provided only they 
be blind Samsons, left to grind thru life in the prison house 
of the modern Philistines of wealth; but open-eyed, enlightened 
Samsons there is no abiding. Christianity might have been taught 
in the Roman Empire along with scores of other religions but for 
the fact that it preached deliverance to the captives and the setting 
at liberty those that were bound. Exponents of such doctrines 
might fitly light up Nero's race track. And when has the time been 
that an exploiting class was willing that its victims should be enlight- 
ened as to the processes by which they were despoiled ? Are not the 
silversmiths of Ephesus ever with us; and are we to imagine that 
modern trusts and monopolies and their advocates, servants, and 
pensioners will tolerate the enlightenment of American youth as to 
their methods? Have we forgotten Chicago University and Brown 
University and the rest of the list; and are not papers even now tell- 
ing us of Syracuse University, which stipulated in advance that its 
professor of economics, whatever his qualifications, must not hold 
certain views however well-grounded, and which has recently dis- 
charged him, as is generally believed at the institution, because of 



m 



318 THE INDUSTRIALIST. [May, '99 

his attitude toward monopolies and trusts'? The people of America 
may as well recognize once for all that the owners of America pro- 
pose to control college and university teaching, and to strangle and 
crush every man in the economic field who will not either assist in 
making of economics an occult science with which to mystify and be- 
fog those whom he professes to enlighten, or become an open advo- 
cate of policies whereby the utilities of the nation are centered in the 
hands of a few industrial despots. In this tight for the freedom of 
science — a bush-whacking tight in which noiseless guns and smoke- 
less powder are the favorite weapons of the representatives of 
wealth — it is for the American people to say which shall ultimately 
triumph. 

* * * 



ALFALFA HAY FOR FATTENING HOGS. 

(Press Bulletin No. 25, Kansas Experiment Stutlon, Manhattan, Kansas.) 

IN the fall of 1898 the Kansas Experiment Station made an experi- 
ment to test the value of alfalfa hay when fed daily to fattening 
hogs that were being given all the grain they would eat. The gain 
greatly exceeded our expectations, and if further experiments 
show the same results, alfalfa hay will form a regular part of the 
rations of every well-fed pig fattened in Kansas in the winter. 

The hogs fed in this experiment were bought of farmers, and av- 
eraged in weight 125 pounds each. They were placed in lots of 10 
each, in large pens, having for shelter some sheds open to the south. 
The alfalfa hay used was of the best quality, carefully cured. Black- 
hulled, white Katir corn was the grain used, the hogs being fed all 
that they would eat without waste. The hay was fed dry, in fork- 
fuls, in a large flat trough. The pigs were given more than they 
would eat, and they picked out the leaves and finer stems, rejecting 
the coarser stems. One lot of hogs wa.s fed Kafir corn meal dry and 
alfalfa hay; one lot whole Kafir corn, dry; one lot Kafir corn meal, 
dry; and one lot Kafir cqrn meal, wet. 

The experiment began on November 24 and lasted 9' weeks. By 
that time the alfalfa- fed hogs became well fattened, and were mar- 
keted. We estimated that it would require 4 to 5 weeks additional 
feeding, with ordinary winter weather, to get the hogs that were fed 



May, '99.] , ALFALFA FOR HOGS. 319 

grain alone into good marketable condition. The recent continued 
extreme cold weather will make the time required considerably- 
longer. ' 

The gains in 9 weeks from the different methods of feeding were 
as follows: 

Kafir corn meal, dry, and alfalfa hay 90.9 pounds per hogf. 

Kafir corn, whole 59.4 " " " 

Kafir corn meal, fed dry 52.4 " " •' 

Kafir corn meal, fed wet fi3.3 " " 

The gain from feeding alfalfa hay with Kafir corn meal fed dry, 

over the meal alone fed dry, is more than 73 per cent. 

The gains per bushel of feed were as follows: 

Kafir corn meal, dry, and 7.83 pounds alfalfa hay 10.88 pounds 

Kafir corn, whole 8.56 

Kafir corn meal, fed dry 7.48 

Kafir corn meal, fed wet 8.09 

Ten hogs in 9 weeks were fed 656 pounds of alfalfa hay; and as 
shown above, for each 7.83 pounds of alfalfa hay fed with the dry 
Kafir corn meal, the hogs gained 3.4 pounds over those having dry 
Kafir corn meal alone— a gain of 868 pounds of pork per ton of alfalfa 
hay. These results are not due to the feeding value of the alfalfa 
alone, but also to its influence in aiding the hogs to better digest the 
Kafir corn. The alfalfa hay also gave a variety to the ration, making 
it more appetizing and inducing the hogs to eat more grain. The 10 
hogs having grain alone ate 3,885 pounds of dry Kafir corn meal, 
while the ten hogs having hay and grain ate 4,679 pounds of the Kafir 
corn meal and 656 pounds alfalfa hay. The hay- fed hogs ate more 
grain and gained -more for each bushel eaten. 

In a former experiment at this College, pigs were pastured thru 
the summer on alfalfa with a light feeding of corn. After deducting 
the probable gain from the corn, the gain per acre from the alfalfa 
pasture was 776 pounds of pork. 

These facts indicate that to produce pork most cheaply the Kansas 
farmer must have alfalfa pasture in summer and alfalfa hay in 
winter. 



320 



THE INDUSTRIALIST. 



May, '99 



BOARD OP INSTRUCTION. 

Faculty. 

Thomas Blmrr Will, A. M. (Harvard), President Corner Fifth and Pierre streets 

Professor of Economics and Philosophy. 

Wm. H. Phipps, B S. (K. 8. A. C). Secretary Juliette avenue, north of Leavenworth street 

Professor of Bookkeeping, Commercial Law and Accounts. 

HXNBY M. CoTTBBLL, M. S. (Kansas State Agricultural College) College Campus 

Professor of Agriculture, Superintendent of Farm. 
Albbrt S. Hitchcock, M. S. (Iowa Agricultural College) . College HUl, 2 miles N. W. of College 

Professor of Botany. 

JDLins T. WiLLABD, M. S. (Kansas State Agricultural College) 1211 Moro street 

Professor of Applied Chemistry. 

Gbobgb F. Wbida, Ph. D. (Johns Hopkins) Comer Manhattan avenue and Moro street 

Professor of Pure Chemistry. 

Edwabd W. Bbmis, Ph. D. (Johns Hopkins) Corner Juliette avenue and Houston street 

Professor of Economic Science. 

DUBBN J. H. Wabd. Ph. D. (Lelpsic) 830 Houston street, comer Eighth 

_ Professor of English Language and Literature. 

Abnold Emch. Ph. D. (University of Kansas) Comer Fourth and Moro streets 

Professor of Graphic Mathematics. 

Frank Parsons, B. C. E. (Cornell University) Comer Fifth and Pierre streets 

Professor of History and PoUtical Science. 



„ Professor of Horticulture and Entomology, Superintendent of Orchards and Gardens. " 
MissMiNNiB A. Stonbb. (Boston N. S. of H. A.), B. S. (S. D. A. C.) M. E. Parsonage, Poyntz ave 
_ ^ Professor of Household Economics, Dean of Domestic Science Department. 

John D. Walters, M. S. (Kansas State Agricultural College) North end of Sixth street 

^ „. Professor of Industrial Art and Designing. 

MissMaby F. Winston, Ph. D. (GoBttingen) 12ii Moro street 

Professor of Mathematics. 
JoSBPH D. Harpbb, M. S. (Rose Polytechnic Institute) . ..Houston st., between Fifth and Juliette 
Professor of Mechanics and Engineering, Superintendent of Workshops. 

. „ „ Professor of Military Science and Tactics. 

ALBXANDBB B. Bbown, (Boston Music School), A. M.(Olivet) Corner Juliette avenue and 

™ . Professor of Music. FHouston street 

Frbdric Augustus Mbtcalf, O. M. (Emerson CoUege of Oratory) Comer Poyntz avenue 

m T, -^T Professor of Oratory. fand Sixth street 

Ernest R. Nichoi^, D. B. (Iowa Normal), B. S., A. M. (University of Iowa).. . .512 Houston street 

__ „ „ „, Professor of Physics. 

Charles S. Davis, (Kansas State Normal School) i^ mile west of CoUege 

_, _ „ Superintendent of Printing. 

Paul Fischer, B. Agr., M V d. (Ohio State University) . ..Juliette avenue and Humboldt street 

M.o„ II. .,„ „ ti Professor of Veterinary Science and Biology. 

K Atfp.. Rn?p^.?^-^';i^''%*? \»«"*"*«) Superintendent of Sewing. .. .More street, near Tenth 

mI^ Tf^KPHiN^r H.»«S^ ^t'''\^ Normal), Instructor In English. . . .Poyntz avenue, cor. Seventh 

mI^ ii^f^K ? w».™^"'?:k°'^*™*'*°'" *" Mathematics Comer Sixth and Pierre streets 

MifiS Hbi J!N J. Wbscott, Libranan Juliette avenue near Leavenworth street 

Assistants and Foremen . 

R^ wTw WpT b" «"'/!?"*q °I S^fPf"'^?': S^^P • x: • ■•. Comer Sixth and Colorado 

Roval' S Kp io;^|- <^ tvW^-^ Assistant In Chemistry Cor. Fremont and Sixth streets 

J M WeS^^^R .i /t^ 4 k^nS•*^^^°^l^** Assistant... Cor. Sixth and Fremont streets 

Wm w M«^nri 'we /i?-e®/^^-4>^®°^''*'^^^^^''*°!: ^or. Fourth and Leavenworth streets 

C P MPpTr^ <\Pk h ^ ?l' ^p-I^™^? of Greenhouses, Manhattan ave. near Laramie street 
C. p. Hartley, B. S. ( K. S. A. C), Assistant in Horticulture Seventh and Bertrand streets 

£ "■,5r;i?-"- T^"??". <:?.»•?' .""«i«)- 1 s. ,K. s.A. C.I, A^^'itits2"^°:miSnMS,f^ 



Assistants in Experiment Station. 

D. H. Otis, M. S. (Kansas State Agricultural CoUege), Dairying 814 Houston street 

O ?• ?Wh?;,^1?^°^.^"*^ ^^L^. y*":'^ _■ ■ • -, Comer Manhattan avenue and Kearney Ultll 

Q. L. Clothier, B. S. (Kansas State Agricultural CoUege), Botany Fourth and Leavenworth 

^."^i'^irki V'i'ThT^'or'^i'^^^'^'\\^'^-^^'.^^^^^ -«• anrFr^e=tTt?e'^^ 



1 avenue and Fremont street 



OTHER OFFICERS. 



Sren^aTcitmonk'fi ^ %*°«f *'S^rT'' AV^.^t^*** ^^ ^°^^«^ ^^' ' ^^ ^e«t ot CoUege 

feSgene Emrick jInUof ■ ^ ^^' "°^ Secretary Comer Fourth and LaranUe 

aafo%"lSSi^'s^.^ri:xc.y, Engineer:::: :::-.y 



THE INDUSTRIALIST. 



BOARD OF REGENTS. 



Published ten times per year by the Printing 
Department. 

KANSAS STATE 
AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE. 

rianhattan, Kansas. 
O O O 
Pbbs. Thos. E. Will, Managing Editor. 
Prof. John D. Walters, Local Editor. 



Hon. J. N. LiHBOCKBR, President, Manhattan 
Mr& Susan J. St. John, Vice President, 
Olathe. 

Hon. C. B. Hoffman, Treasurer, Enterprise. 

Hon. Wm. Hunter, Blue Rapids 

Hon. E. T. Fairchild Ellsworth 

Hon. J. M. Sattbrthwaitb Douglass 

Hon. Carl Vrooman Parson* 

Pbbs. Thos. E. Will, Secretary, ex-offlcio. 



MILKING SCRUB COWS 

(Press Bulletin No. 29, Kansas Experiment Station. Manhattan, Kansas.) 

FROM January 1 to April 15, 1898, the College bought thirty head 
of common scrub cows, with the object of testing the value for 
the dairy of this class of cows when properly handled, These cows 
were purchased in Lincoln county, cost delivered at Manhattan an 
average of $34 each, were selected by a farmer who was not a dairy- 
man, and in quality were below the average cows of the state. The 
cows were shipped from Lincoln county to Manhattan (100 miles) in 
midwinter, the excitement and weather causing a serious drop in the- 
milk yield of those that had calved. The first week the average 
daily milk yield per cow was 15i pounds, the second week 21 pounds. 

At the start the cows were fed alfalfa hay and a mixture of two- 
thirds bran and one-third old process linseed meal, a ration rich m 
protein, designed to stimulate the milk liow and to partially overcome 
the effects from shipping. As soon as the cows were brought to a. 
fair milk flow they were put on a ration of alfalfa hay and Kafir corn 
grain. This ration produced the greatest flow of milk with butter 
fat at least cost, but had to be dropped at the end of 7 weeks, so that 
various feed stuffs could be fed in order to show our dairy classes, 
the effect of various feeds on the texture of butter. The daily grain 
ration averaged about 8 pounds per cow while on dry feed. While 
on pasture the daily grain ration averaged B pounds of a mixture of 
four parts corn meal and one part of bran. Alfalfa hay was also kept 
in a rack where the cows could eat it at will when they were brought 
in at milking time. The yield held up well thru the fall drouth. For 
a short time green Kafir corn was fed with the pasture, and the cows- 
were pastured on wheat in the fall until the ground became frozen. 

Twelve cows were fresh when received, January 5, the rest calv- 
ing in from one to five months. The records here given are for the 
twelve, for 1898. The butter fat yielded has been credited at tha 

(32!) 



S22 



THE INDUSTRIALIST. 



[May, '99 



prices paid each month by the Manhattan Creamery, which were as 
dCollows: January, 17^ cents; February, 17 cents; March, 16^ cents; 
JVpril, 15 cents; May, 14^ cents; June, 13 cents; July, 13^ cents; 
August, 15^ cents; September, 16 cents; October, 18 cents; No- 
-vember, 18 cents; December, 17 cents. The feed has been charged 
at the average retail price in Manhattan for the year: Cost per 100 
pounds — corn meal, 55 cents; Kafir corn meal, 55 cents; linseed 
meal, $1.25; soy bean *meal, $1; bran, 55 cents; cotton-seed meal, $1. 
Cost per ton— alfalfa hay, $4; corn ensilage, $1. Pasture, 75 cents' 
per month. It would pay many Kansas farmers who live distant 
:Erom market to milk cows, if thru the milk they could obtain the 
«.bove prices, with no additional profits. 

Results.— Average yield of milk per cow, 5,707 pounds; best 
<Jow, 9,116 pounds; poorest cow, 3,588 pounds. Agerage yield of 
Gutter fat per cow, 238 pounds; best cow, 383.7 pounds; poorest cow, 
135. 7 pounds. Average cost of feed per cow, $29.20; best cow, $32.80; 
poorest cow, $26.75. Average value of butter fat per cow, $37.75; 
best cow, $60.88; poorest cow, $21.39. Average value of skim milk 
per cow, at 15 cents per 100 pounds, $7.69; best cow, $12.29; poorest 
•cow, $4.83. Average income per cow from butter fat and skim milk, 
:$45.44; best cow, $73.17; poorest cow, $26.22. Average receipts per 
<;ow, less cost of feed, $16.25; best cow, $40.37; poorest cow, receipts 
43 cents less than cost of feed. Average cost of butter fat per 
pound, 12.2 cents; from best cow, 8.5 cents; from poorest cow, 19.7 
'Cents. The average price received for butter fat for the year was 
15.8 cents. To the receipts given above should be added the value 
•of the culf at birth. 

This test shows the difference in value between different cows with 
:feed and care alike. The year's record of our best scrub cow (9,116 
pounds of milk; 383.7 pounds butter fat, equal to 451 pounds butter; 
value of products, $73.17; returns less feed $40.37) is one of which 
;many a pedigree dairy cow would be proud. This cow is of mongrel 
breeding but has a pronounced dairy form. The poorest cow's form 
is a good beef type, and her yield of 3,583 pounds of milk and 135.7 
pounds butter fat was worth 43 cents less than the feed she ate. Is 
stronger argument needed to induce Kansas dairymen to cull their 
herds and keep only the best? 

This test shows that Kansas cows can be made to give greatly in- 
creased yields with proper feed and care. We collected the records 
of 82 herds owned by creamery patrons in one of the leading dairy 



1^ 



■■ 



May, '99.] 



MILKING SCRUB COWS. 



323 



sections of the state, finding an average annual yield per cow of milk 
3,441 pounds, butter fat 104.5 pounds, value of butter fat $19.79, 
Contrast this with the average for the college scrub herd, milk 5,707 
pounds, butter fat 238 pounds, value of butter fat $37.75; and re- 
member that the college herd is much inferior to the average herd of 

the state. 

We attribute the greater yield secured from the college scrub 
herd to three causes: (1) At all times their rations were either bal- 
anced or contained an excess of protein — the material which builds 
blood and milk— while the Kansas cow usually, when on dry feed, 
has only half enough protein. (2) Kindness and shelter. Our scrub 
cows were petted, comfortably sheltered, never driven faster than a 
slow walk, and never spoken to in an unkind tone. (3) A full milk 
yield was secured thru the summer drouth by giving- extra feed. 



Record of Scrub Herd, 1898. 





Products. 


r Num- 








ber 

of 

cow. 


Milk, 
lbs. 


Ave'Ke 

t«st, 
per ct. 


Butter 
fat, 
lbs. 


20 


9,116 


4.21 


383.7 


7 


7,015 


4.43 


310.8 


1.5 


6,509 


4.27 


277.9 


1 


5,904 


4.62 


272.7 


(! 


6,269 


4.09 


256.4 


a 


.5,864 


3.99 


2:«.9 


10 


6,580 


3.51 


230.9 


17 


5,336 


3.97 


207.8 


18 


5,023 


4.12 


206.9 


11 


3.475 


5.14 


178.6 


19 


3,913 


4.14 


161.9 


5 


3,583 


3.79 


135.7 


Ave'ge 


5,707 


4.17 


238.1 



Cost 

of 

feed. 



S32.80 
30.61 
29.20 
31.06 
29.95 
28. 9:^ 
30.79 
28.8:^ 
28.97 
25.24 
27.27 
26.75 

S2J».:M 



Valce. 



Butter 
fat. 



49 
43 
43 
40 
37 
37 
32 
32 
28 
25 
21 



1.88 
26 
89 
65 
56 
04 
16 
92 
69 
18 
41 
39 



$17.75 



Skim 

milk, 

15c per 

100 lbs. 



$12. at 
9.46 
8.70 
7.97 
8.44 
7.91 
8.87 
7.07 
6.78 
4.()8 
5.27 

4.8;i 



f 7.69 



Toial. 



S73.17 
58.72 
52.59 
51.62 
49.00 
44.95 
46.03 
.39.99 
;ffl.47 
32.84 
30.(58 
9>fi 99 



$45.44 



Receipts, Less 
Cost of Peed. 


t!ost 

of 
but- 


Gain. 


Loss. 


ter 
fat. 


$40.37 




.085 


28.11 




.098 


23.39 




.105 


20.56 




.114 


19.15 




.113 


16.02 




.m 


15.24 




.i;« 


11.16 




.m 


10.50 




.139 


7.60 




.134 


3.41 




.168 




$0.43 


.197 






$16.25 





.123 



Price of butter fat per pound: -Tanuary 17'/, cents; February 17 ^^nt^: Man.h^l6H 
cents; April, 15 cents; May, llH cents; June, 13 cents; •Tulyvl^^^cents.Augus.. 15 /i cents, 

September, IB cents; October, 18 cents; Noveml^/, l\«cnt^j. DccpJ?„^^' i'/4"*!nts- linseed 

Oostof feed, per 100 pounds: Corn meal, 5d cents ; Kaffir corn mea. ;^cents.^^^ 
meal, $1.25; soy bian meal, $1; cottonseed meal, $1; bran, 5» cents; alfalfa, $4 per ton, ensi 
lage, $1 per ton ; pasture, 75 cents per month. 



824 



THE INDUSTRIALIST. 



[May, '99 



HOW TO GET THE AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETINS. 

The pamphlet bulletins of the Kansas Agricultural Experiment 
Station are sent, whenever they are issued, to the addresses on the 
mailing list. Any farmer may have his name put on this list by 
writing to the station. Bulletins already published may be had on 
application. A list of these is usually found on each bulletin. The 
last one (No. 81 ), on "Peed and Care of the Dairy Cow, " has been 
widely called for. At this time of the year some very short extra 
bulletins are being sent out. containing information which farmers- 
ought to have right at this time. Among them is one on soy beans, 
a highly valuable new drouth-resisting crop; also one on fattening- 
hogs on alf :lfa hay and Kafir corn together. The discoveries ex- 
plained in these last two bulletins may be of priceless value to the 
farmers of Kansas. Names may be sent in to the Kansas Experi- 
ment Station, Manhattan, Kan. 



LOCAL NOTES. 

.. M. V. Hester, '94, writes from Haviland, Kan., that his apprecia- 
tion of his alma mater is constantly growing as the years roll by. 

The Ministerio de Agricultura of the Republica Argentina has 
written to the College asking for the bulletins issued from the 
Bixperiment Station, and proposing to send us those issued by their 
department. 

M. H. Horn.^former member of the present Senior class, visited 
College, April /, on his way home from Topeka, where he has been 
attending medical college. He expects to begin practising in Mitchdl 
county this spring. 

The members of the classes in domestic science work have organ- 
ized a Domestic Science Club. The new society meets every twa 
weeks. It has a good attendance and will undoubtedly become a. 
nxture at the college. 

.i.^'^.'*JSnT^^^.7i?®''T?,'' ^i^strap, '91, and Harriet Adelaide Pat- 
rick, at Stillman Va ley 111., April 9. The young people will be at 
home m Chandler, Oklahoma, where Mr. Gilstrap is enWed in the 
newspaper business. We congratulate the young coupll dpon their 
happy union. ° i- i 

Professor and Mrs. Weida will be at home, Saturdav evenings, for 
a few weeks, to meet the members of Dr. Weida's classes of the last 
r«5 fiT J""^' . <iefanite evening will be set for each of the classes; 
and the students may call at any time between 8 and 11 o'clock of the 
evening named. Professor Weida's residence is the first south of 
the college grounds, on Manhattan avenue. 



Ilk 



May, '99.1 



LOCAL NOTES. 



325 



Two young Armenians were enrolled as students of this College, 
April 17. They intend to pursue postgraduate work for a number 
of terms to improve the methods of practical farming in their native 
countries, Turkey and Asia Minor. 

' During the first ten days of the spring term the Bookstore de- 
partment sold to the students books and stationery amounting to 
$539. This sum does not include the department transfers, which 
amount to about one hundred dollars. 

Miss Ella Weeks, special art student at this College in '97, has our 
thanks for a copy of the University Bulletin on "Alfalfa, Grass- 
hoppers, Bees: Their Relationship." The publication owes much 
of its beauty and usefulness to the artistic pencil of Miss Weeks, 
who has been illustrator at the university for the past two years. 

The eleventh biennial report of the State Agricultural College has 
been received at this office, and if every citizen in this state would 
examine this report and inform himself concerning the splendid 
work now being accomplished at this College, since its reorganization 
and renovation, he would become a warm, firm friend to this great 
Kansas institution of learning. — Pratt Union. 

Married.— April 11, at the home of the bride at Kansas City, 
Kan.. Mr. Frank Davis Tomson and Miss Tina Louise Coburn. Both 
parties have been students at this College, Miss Coburn graduating 
■with the class of '91. Since her graduation she has been an efficient 
assistant to her father, the secretary of the State Board of Agricul- 
ture of Kansas. The happy couple will live at Cedar Rapids, Iowa. 

The faculty social for March was held at the residence of Professor 
Walters. Notwithstanding the bad roads, there was a large attend- 
ance, and all seemed to enjoy themselves very much. A chief 
feature of the entertainment consisted in the musical program of the 
college mandolin club and the piano recitals of Miss Bertha Jaedicke, 
of Hanover, Kansas, a graduate of the Scharwenka Musical Con- 
servatory of Berlin, Germany. 

During the month of March the Veterinary department distrib- 
uted, free, to the farmers of Kansas, blackleg protective vaccine 
sufficient to inoculate between 8265 and 16,530 head of cattle with 
double vaccine. Up to the time of writing, favorable results only 
have been reported. To this there was one apparentexception, where 
the owner of 47 calves did not follow directions but pursued a method 
that he thought was "just as good, " and as a result lost ten of his 
best animals. 

The Olathe Tribune speaks of the ex-superintendent of the School 
for the Deaf in the following manner: "A. A. Stewart and family 
left, Saturday last, for Manhattan, their former home. They carry 
with them the kindest wishes of a host of friends for health and pros- 
perity. They are excellent people and we much regret to have them 
leave our community. " Mr. Stewart was at one time a member of 
the faculty of the Kansas State Agricultural College. What is 01a- 
the's loss will be Manhattan's gain. 



326 



THE INDUSTRIALIST. 



[May, '99 



J. A. Conover, '98. who does assistant work in the Farm depart- 
ment, had a very narrow escape from serious injury at the barn on 
April 10. He went into the yard, caught a two-year-old Guernsey bull 
and led him out thru the gate, and as he turned to close the gate the 
bull caught him with his horns, throwing him to the ground. As the 
bull backed up for another charge, Conover scrambled thru the gate 
and closed it, thus avoiding further injury. Mr. Conover was badly 
bruised, but it is expected that he will be out again in a few days. 

Bulletin on Cold Storage. — The College is receiving many 
requests for information on the subject of cold storage for keeping 
fruits. As many fruit growers already know, the College has been 
experimenting along this line for some time, and has obtained some 
very definite results. This information is soon to be distributed in 
the form of a bulletin on "Cold Storage for Fruit. " This is the first 
bulletin to be issued in the United States on this important subject, 
and will be widely read. Send your request to the Horticultural 
department of the College and obtain a copy. 

The local editor had the great pleasure, on April 15, of attending 
a dress parade of the college cadets. The battalion, including the 
band, numbers 211 members. The late trouble with Senor Sagasta 
prevented the government this year from detailing an officer to the 
College, but the battalion, under the care of Acting- Commandant 
Robert B. Mitchell, formerly a memberof the Twenty-second Kansas 
volunteers, is doing excellently. The College has never had a better 
and more effective Military department. Mr. Mitchell is a member 
of the present Senior class. The next Industrialist will give the 
names of the commissioned and noncommissioned officers of the bat- 
talion. 

The Agricultural College will have two new buildings before the 
close of another year — an agricultural hall and a large additional 
mechanical engineering shop. Yet there are several departments 
so poorly provided with suitable class rooms and laboratories that the 
legislature must be asked to open its purse again. Most of all, we 
need a new building for the departments of Chemistry and Physics. 
Let all patrons and friends of the College, and especially all old stu- 
dents and altrmni, consider this as the main thing to be worked for 
at the next session of the legislature, and let the good work of agita- 
tion begin at once whenever and wherever there is a chance. We 
must have a new laboratory. 

Whatever may be the matter with Kansas, when it comes to ex- 
periment stations she is most emphatically all right. Their last bul- 
letin, which, by the way, is only a single 6 by 9 sheet of paper, 
contains enough information to make the fortune of any man who is 
now losing one by means of his cows. And, according to the bulle- 
tin, there must be many who are losing money in that way. Eighty- 
two herds in one of the leading dairy sections of Kansas averaged 
only $19.79 worth of butter fat for the year, while a herd of the 
same cows managed by the station turned in $37.75 for each and 
every cow. What made the difference? [Here follows a reprint of 
the bulletin issued by the Farm department.]— iVe6ra.sA:a Dairyman. 



May, '99. J 



LOCAL NOTES. 



327 



As we go to press, the news comes from Guthrie, Oklahoma, of 
the death of a veteran 'maker of the Agricultural College," Rev. 
J E Piatt. The professor, as he was called by old and young, was 
a member of the faculty of this College from 1864 till 1883, teaching 
elementary Enghsh and mathematics. For many years he was also 
teacher of vocal music, and secretary of the faculty. Smce '83 he 
has been organizer of Sunday school work for the Congregational 
church in Kansas and Oklahoma. Rev. Mr. Piatt was a kind neigh- 
bor, a model citizen, an enthusiastic teacher, and a never tirmg evan- 
gelist. He will live in the memory of hundreds of students as a man 
of pure thoughts and good deeds 

The legislature of Kansas has appropriated $110*,000 for the Agri- 
cultural College. Of this, $3-1,000 is to be used in the establishment 
of a dairy school— $25,000 for a building, $6000 for equipment and 
$3000 for a dairy herd. For farmers ' institute work, heretofore car- 
ried on by the College without help from the state, $2000 is set aside. 
Tlie agricultural interests of Kansas are to be congratulated. With 
the money now available, the farmers' institute work can be proper y 
developed, the young men and women connected with the rapidly 
expanding dairy industry can secure instructi<m without going out- 
side the state, and agricultural education in every way will be ad- 
vanced. The present faculty at Manhattan is doing good work and 
deserves this recognition.— 0/w<.f/e Judd Farmer. 

Mr Guv F Farley and Miss Nellie Roberts were married at the 
home of the bride's mother, Mrs. L. S. Roberts, Rev. Mr. CuUison 
officiating. A number of invited friends witnessed the ceremony 
and enioyed the refreshments and entertainment which followed the 
same. Both of these young people are well known to the majority 
of our readers and both have the high esteem of a large circle of ac- 
quaintances. xMr. Farley is a graduate of the Kansas State Agricul- 
tural College, and a good business manager. He is a son ot Mr 
and Mrs. Joel Farley, a family among our wealthiest farmers. 
Miss Roberts is a cultured, retined young lady, daughter of Mrs. U 
S. Roberts, a well-to-do widow living just west of town. We wish 
them a happy and prosperous wedded life^ Mr^and Mrs. Joe I^ al- 
ley will give a reception to invited friends and relatives at their 
country Residence, welcoming the young people hox^^ -Melvem lie- 
vieiv. The Industrialist joins heartily m the well wishes for the 
happy couple. 

The Students' Farmers' CLUB.-One of the most interesting 
and instructive organizations connected ^j^h the Kansas Agricul- 
tural College is a farmers' club composed of s^-udents interested 
along agricultural lines . This club meets weekly, and has a mem^ 
bership of about seventy-five names . Subjects P^rtammg to the 
farm, as soil, grain, stock, dairy, horticulture, landscape gardening, 
veterinary scilnce, botany, entomology, chemistry and even do mes^^^^^ 
science are discussed . These discussions bring out points of great 
value to the young man who expects to return to the farm At 
times the club secures the services of some veteran farmer or ag- 
riculturist outside of the College to discuss some special subject. 



828 THE INDUSTRIALIST. [May, '99 

During the present school term the programs have been arranged 
with a view of devoting one evening each to certain phases of farm 
work. For instance, one evening will be devoted to grain growing, 
another to beef cattle, others to horticulture, domestic science, chem- 
istry, botany, bacteriology, dairy, etc. — Mail and Breeze. 

The legislature, which has just adjourned, has been far more 
liberal with the Kansas State Agricultural College than previous 
legislatures. An appropriation of $111,000 was made. The nearest 
approach to this amount was made in 1892, when $75,000 was appro- 
priated for Science Hall. The Agricultural department received a 
total appropriation of $34,000, $25,000 of which is for a new dairy 
building, and the remaining $9,000 for equipment and a small dairy 
herd. Professor Cottrell says the building will be ready for the 
students at the opening of the fall term in September. The plans 
are already drawn for the building, and work on its erection will be- 
gin as soon as the regents decide upon a location. This will give the 
Agricultural College a first class dairy department which will prove 
a valuable acquisition and an encouragement to the growing butter 
industry of the state. Professor Cottrell is an efficient and ener- 
getic man and under his direction the new department will immedi- 
ately outrank any dairy school in the West. Two thousand dollars 
was also appropriated yearly for farmers' institutes. This is the 
first time that an appropriation has ever been made for this purpose. 
This winter the College has held 62 farmers' institutes, using college 
funds, and has declined 130" tnvitaf ions to help dairy institutes. 
With the new appropriation it will be enabled to conduct from two to 
three institutes in every county of the state. — Manhattan Merairy. 

Sow Alfalfa.— Every farmer who has fed alfalfa recognizes it 
as a good feed, but a great many have not as yet begun to realize its 
full value, and do not know what they are losing by not having it as 
one of their main feeds. The results from giving alfalfa to dairy 
cows and fattening steers as a part of the feed compares very favor- 
ably with those from such expensive feeds as oil meal, cotton- seed 
meal, and bran, and in fact takes the place of those feeds in the 
ration. The Kansas Experiment Station is demonstrating also that 
alfalfa is an invaluable hog feed. A pound and a half of alfalfa a day 
per hog used with Kafir produces gains very nearly equal to a feed 
of one-fifth soy bean meal and four-fifths Kafir. And now is the time 
to begin preparing to sow alfalfa. A deep, loose seed bed is not 
what you want; but the ground needs to be moist, and for this we 
may have the required rainfall and we may not. However, the 
ground is wet now ; and if you can keep that moisture there till 
the plant gets the good of it, there is enough, even without another 
rain before the first of June, to give alfalfa the best kind of a start. 
The ground to be put in alfalfa does not need to be plowed deep, but 
the surface three or four inches must be kept in the best of tilth. 
Disk or cultivate as soon as possible, and then harrow everv week or 
so; or at least after every rain, to keep up a good earth mulch until 
it is time to seed. If at that time the surface three or four inches 
of soil is loose and moist, and there is a solid bed of moist soil under- 
neath this loose surface, then it doesn't matter much, say many 



2k 



May, '99.] 



LOCAL NOTES. 



329 



extensive alfalfa growers, how you proceed to get the seed under 
the ground. We have had the best results on the Agricultural Col- 
lege farm by using a press drill, and mixing the seed with an equal 
weight of wheat bran. But the principal thing is to sow alfalfa, and 
sow it until you get a field. 

Appreciative Press Comments. 

The appropriation of $34,000 will enable the Agricultural College to make a 
splendid move in dairy work, and no man is better fitted than Professor Cottrell 
to place this feature upon a thoroly practical and scientific basis. The work 
already done by Mr. Cottrell is telling in every dairy county in the state. — 
Junction City Ihdly Union. 

. To the above just and appreciative remarks it may be added that 
the general attendance at the 'ollege during the last and present 
terms has been and is greater than ever before. And, besides the 
important improvements and progress above mentioned, the same 
general spirit of advancement has shown itself all along the line. — 
Junction (Hty Trihvne. 

Appreciative Words for The Industrialist. 

"I assure you I appreciate it." — Mary N. Kirby, County Supt. 

"The Industrialist is an excellent magazine.'' — L. A. Goodman, 
Sec. Mo. State Hort. Society. 

"I have found The Industrialist very helpful." — L. G. Wooster, 
Kansas State Normal, School. 

"I have been much interested in The Industrialist." — Prof. 
Richard T. Ely, Director of School of KconomicH, University of Wisconsin. 

"The public library has made good use of it in the free reading 
room. We find it one of the best journals of its kind published." — 
John Parsons, Librarian, Denver, ( Colo. ) Public Library. 

"The Industrialist is one of our best exchanges — always full of 
truth and instruction. " — Philosophian Review, Bridgeton, N. J. 

Farm Notes. 

Work on the farm is a month behind, on account of the season, but 
is beginning in earnest. 

Pocket gophers began work in several fields very energetically 
on our first warm days, but since a potato containing a small quan- 
tity of crystallized strychnine was placed in each hole, they seem 
to have "rested from their labors." 

The backwardness of the season will make little difference in the 
work this year, as it will be pure and simple farm work. The old 
line of plat experiment has been entirely dropped, and the crops to 
be put in will be handled in the most practical manner. 

Wheat on the college farm is very badly frozen out. It will not 
pay to let any of it stand. Experimental acre, which has been in 
wheat for eighteen years continuously, has only a httle fringe of 
green along the edges where the snow drifted. It will be disked 
and put in oats for a soiling crop. 

Plans will be submitted to the regents at their next meeting for 
the feeding of not less tlian 600 head of hogs in the eight months 
beginning September 1. The feeds that can be raised in Kansas, 



330 



THE INDUSTRIALIST, 



[May, '99 



and the results of their various combinations, will be tested as to 
their flesh-producing qualities and the quality of pork they will 
produce. 

The crops and the area devoted to each this year will be as fol- 
lows: Kafir and soy beans, each 40 acres; sorghum, 15 acres; silage 
corn, 12 acres; millet, 10 acres; soiling crops, 10 acres. These 
crops will be planted, tended and harvested with the object of get- 
ting the most and best quality of feed possible, to be used in future 
feeding experiments. 

We drop plat experiments because the results of our feeding ex- 
periments this winter have been so remarkable, have excited so much 
attention, and are being so corroborated in the minutest detail by 
repetition, that it is believed that the work of the Experiment Station, 
Farm department, which will be of the greatest benefit to the farmers 
of the state is in feeding and not in the field work. 

Dairy Notes. 

The college dairy recently received a couplo^of cream bottles from 
one of the leading creameries of the state to be tested. These bot- 
tles were graduated from to 35. It was found that when these bot- 
tles would indicate 35 per cent of butter fat in cream the true test 
would be only 27^ per cent. 

Five of the boys from the dairy class had employment on entering 
the College, two remain to work in the dairy line at the College, five 
have received employment with creamery companies in the state, 
and six take up work on the farm where they will have a chance to 
exercise their dairy prochvities with both muscle and brain. 

The Meriden Creamery Company, who sent two of its own men to 
the dairy school and who have recently employed two others among 
our dairy students, expects to develop the literary inclinations of the 
boys by having them publish a monthly bulletin on dairy topics 
which will be sent to each one of their two thousand patrons. 

The Meriden Creamery Company asks for the list of questions 
that was used last summer by the Experiment Station in collecting 
statistics from creamery patrons. They expect to have each one of 
their skimming station men go out among the patrons of their 
respective stations, study the conditions as to feed and care of the 
dairy cow, and receive and offer suggestions for improvement. 

The College is now the proud owner of nine grade Guernsey calves, 
six heifers and three steers. An interesting calf experiment has 
been under way since the first of April. After the calves are three 
^®i^^^ m? ^^^^^ ^®®^ ^® gradually changed from whole milk to skim 
milk. The experiment consists of giving every alternate calf cream- 
ery skim milk and the remaining alternate calves college skim milk. 
The former is sterilized at the creamery and cooled upon arrival at 
the dairy. The latter is separated immediately after milking and 
is hkewise cooled. In all cases a little Blachford's meal is added to 

% ^11^^ "^.A '^^® ^^^^^ ^^® supplied with fresh water and salt 
and all the Kafir-corn meal p,nd mixed hay they will eat 



May, '99.] 



331 



BOOKS AND PERIODICALS, 

Studiks in Comparative Theolckjy. Six Lectures delivered before the- 
Stiidentsof Lawrence University, Appleton, Wis., by Rev. Geo. H. Trever, 
Ph. D., D. D., Milwaukee, Wis. Cloth, pp. 432, oi by 7J in., $L20. Cincin- 
nati: Curts & .Tenningfs. 

Tliis book is a sign of the times, and tills a need of the times. It 
indicates growth and breadth in the religious life. The fact that 
such lectures were delivered, and the further fact that there should 
be a demand for their publication, is the best of evidence that our 
age is passing out of narrow and into broad religious fields. The- 
book treats the religions of India— Vedism and Buddhism, the rehgioa. 
of Persia— Zoroastrianism, the religion of the Egyptians, the relig- 
ion of the Hebrews, and finally compares each with the Christian. 
Gospel. 11. J. H. w. 

Norsk Mythology: or Thk Religion of (H'K Fokefath>u{S. Containing all! 
the Myths of the Kddas, Systematized and Interpreted. With an Introduc- 
tion. Vocabulary and Index. By R. B. Anderson. A. M., Professor of the- 
Soandinavian Languages in the University of Wisconsin. Cloth, pp. .473, 5- 
by 'i in., $2.50. Chicago: Scott, Foresman it Co. 

Not too much shall we know concerning the religion of our ances- 
tors, nor of the various .sources which joined to make the religiom 
which we ourselves profess. Among our many ancestral relatives, 
are to be counted the Norsemen. Perhaps the greatest impulse- 
toward the study of what we are pleased to call "Norse Mythology"' 
was that given by Prof. R. B. Anderson of Wisconsin University.. 
This work has been before the people upwards of twenty years, and 
is still regarded as a trustworthy and systematic account of the^ 
religion of these far off pioneers. It discusses the general topic of 
mythology, compares that of the Northmen with the mythologies of 
the Greeks and Romans, and gives the Norse theories concerning 
creation, life and its final regenerati(m. It is a useful and mterest- 
ing book. ^- ^- ^- ^^'• 

The Age of F^hle, or Beauties of Mythology. By Tliomas Bulfinch. 
With notes, revisions and additions by William H. Klapp, Headmaster of 
the Episcopal Academy, Philadelphia. Nearly two hundred illustrations- 
Cloth, pp. XV-45H, .-) by 74 in., $1.25. Philadelphia: Henry Altemus. 
Fable and myth are not history, yet they are what remain in Hew 
of history at the dawn of "letters. " As material for history they are 
valuable in so far as the facts can be extracted from them. They- 
are also valuable as hterature, being in themselves a delightful and. 
unique type of romance. Never was the mass of this early "know- 
ledge" so entertainingly and so well summed up as in Bulfinch's- 
Age of Fable. But this was years and years ago. "So many dis- 
coveries have been made during the last forty years m the domain 
of art, Hterature, and archeology, that considerable changes werfr 
necessary to bring the book up to the present time and to retain or 
to enhance its usefulness. " These have been made in the revised 
and augmented edition lately put forth by Mr. W. H. Klapp. It is- 
now more valuable than ever. D. J. h. w. 



332 



THE INDUSTRIALIST. 



[May, '99 



Tennyson's Debt to Environment. A study of Tennyson's England as an 
introduction to his poems. By William G. Ward, Professor of English 
Literature in Syracuse University, and in the Emerson College of Oratory, 
Boston. Cloth, pp. 100, 4i by «}in., 50 cents. Boston: Roberts Brothers. 

Lovers of Tennyson — the most representative poet of the Victo- 
rian age, "the God-gifted organ of the voice of England, who hath 
written lyrics that must charm all who love, epics that must move 
all who act, songs that must cheer all who suffer, poems that must 
fascinate all who think" — all who love this grand poet and his songs 
must read "Tennyson's Debt to Environment." lathis book Will- 
iam G. Ward outhnes, lirst the man Tennyson ; the place he filled 
in the hearts of the English people; the honor, reverence, respect 
paid this noble character when his day's work was finished. 

The succeeding chapters treat of the poet's love of nature and the 
influence it played in the production of such poems as "The Brook,'* 
"The Owl," "The Lock, "etc. Romance, sorrow, success, etc., each 
fills an important mission in Tennyson's life and each bears a mag- 
ical influence in the production— the outward expression of the inner 
soul— of some poems characteristic of the breadth of sympathy and 
nobility of his character. 

Part 2 gives brief outlines of "Study of Minor Poems," "In 
Memoriam," "Idylls of the King," etc. The closing page is a 
Tennyson chronological table. The little book is full of interest not 
only to the beginner but to those who already know and love 
Tennyson. a. r. 

The Meaning op Education and Other Essays and Addresses. By 
Nicholas iMurray Butler, Professor of Philosophy and Education in Colum- 
bia University. Pp. viii-230,Ti by o inches, $1.'00. The Macmillan Com- 
pany, New York. 

Professor Butler is everywhere recognized as one of the most 
scholarly and progressive writers on education. The collection of 
essays and addresses here given to the public in convenient form, 
and originally delivered before the National Educational Association 
and other educational bodies, deserves a place in the library of all 
who are interested in the improvement of American schools and 
colleges. 

Professor Butler holds that he should attempt to give the child 
the inheritance of the race, physical, scientific, literary, esthetic, in- 
stitutional and religious. "Each generation is the trustee of civiliza- 
tion; each generation owes it to itself and to its posterity to protect 
its culture, to enrich it and to transmit it." 

In one chapter the close relation between democracy and educa- 
tion is well developed. Tlie greatest educational need of our time, in 
higher and lower schools alike, is declared to be "a fuller apprecia- 
tion on the part of the teachers of what human institutions really mean, 
and what tremendous moral issues and principles they involve " 
The safety of our institutions is found in "the enthusiasm born of in- 
tense conviction that finds the happiness of each in the good of all. " 

The functions of the university, the college, and the high school, 
and the greatly needed reforms of the latter along the lines of the re- 
port of the famous Committee of Ten of the National Educational 
Association, are ably discussed. E. w. b. 



May, '99.] 



BOOKS AND PERIODICALS. 



333 



The Study of the Child. A Brief Treatise on the Psychology of the Child, 
with Suggestions for Teachers, Students and Parents. By A. R. Taylor, 
Ph. D., President of the State Normal School, Emporia, Kansas. Cloth, pp. 
xliii-215, 4i by 7 in., $1.50. New York: D. Appleton & Co. 

After a preface by the editor and a few words by the author in 
-which philosophic child study is explained, this interesting book in- 
troduces the study of the child by a graphic illustration of the mi- 
nuteness of the godly attributes in the babe and their unlimited 
possibilities of the development in the man. The organic senses 
presiding over the vegetative functions of the body are given a pass- 
ing notice. The temperature sense is then taken up and cautions 
pertaining to the health of the child given for the observance of 
teachers. The education and formation of a cultured sense of taste, 
and a protection of the organs of smell, are subjects that no parent 
can afford to ignore. The author then discusses the delicate and 
wonderful sense of touch, and suggests methods for its development. 
The senses of hearing and sight are made the themes for some ex- 
cellent advice to teachers. Ignorance of defects in some of the 
organs of special sensation may be the occasion for unintentional 
cruelty to pupils on the part of the teacher. In the discussion of the 
special senses, the author constantly emphasizes their psychological 
significance. 

The subjects of consciousness, apperception, attention, symbolism 
and language are taken up and discussed in a manner that any in- 
telligent person can comprehend. After a chapter on muscular and 
motor control, the mental faculties are taken up in due order. Ob- 
servations of the outward effects of those internal mental states 
called feelings are suggested, from which valuable inductions may 
be made. 

The will is next noticed, and finally the intellect and its functions 
of perception, memory and imagination. 

As the child grows up to maturity, the intellectual functions of 
conception, judgment and reason become developed. "When a 
child, he ought to be permitted to think and reason as a child. " The 
author notices the physiological side to reasoning, and gives a few 
elementary syllogisms for the use of the teacher. Instincts and 
plays of children are discussed with reference to the formation of 
character, and the social qualities, manners and morals resulting 
from a proper direction of the instincts. 

A chapter is devoted to the care and handling of normals and ab- 
normals. or defectives, and is followed by a discussion of the physical 
stages of growth and the fatigue point. A bibliography of four pages 
closes this interesting and instructive book. G. l. c. 



Economics. By Edward T. Devine, Ph. D. Pp. vi-404, 7 by 5 inches, 1898, $1.00. 

Macmillan Company, New York. 

This work by the general secretary of the Charity Organization 
Society of New York city, but recently fellow in the University of 
Pennsylvania, and university extension lecturer in Pennsylvania, 
should rather be entitled ''Some Phases of Economic Theory," since 
it is not really a treatise on the science as a whole. 

The book presents some of the latest conclusions on the influence 



334 THE INDUSTRIALIST. [May, '99 

of environment on industry, the nature and conditions of social pros- 
perity, and other subjects. In most text-books the student is in- 
formed at the beginning that a society is truly prosperous when its 
climate, soil, etc. , are favorable, and when living is cheap and easily 
obtained and the people are progressive; but the attention is at once 
diverted to the study of value until it appears as if the real pros- 
perity of a people depended upon such limitations in the supply of 
desirable goods as to make them of great exchange value. Doctor 
Devine, on the other hand, does not touch value until page 154, and 
admirably sums up a rational review of the subject in these words: 

Consumers as a class are coacerned that there should be great utility and 
little value; producers, that there should be great value and little cost; society, 
as a whole, that there shall be great utility and little cost. 

Nowtiere has the relation of extensive public education and state 
universities to the economic life of the people been better shown 
than in a few passages of this book. For example, it is clearly 
proved that the discovery of some new mechanical processes or some 
other improvement in the arts and industrial processes making pos- 
sible a higher level of living for all because of a cheaper cost of the 
necessaries of life will redound to the advantage of shrewd monop- 
olists and unscrupulous dealers, while wages will fall with the cheap- 
ened cost of living, unless the worker has been influenced by his 
oducation and environment to. demand a higher and ever higher 
standard of living. 

Again it is shown that the sons of the rich and the well-to-do enjoy 
a monopoly of opportunity for the development of their talent and 
intellectual powers, and consequently have monopoly earnings from 
such developed skill, unless not only elementary education but high 
school and university opportunities are fully opened to all by the 
state. Public irrigation or drainage, as circumstances may require, 
and the planting and care of forests by the state are shown to be of 
^eat social advantage in permitting great increased yield of agricul- 
tural products without the rise in prices and rents made necessary 
by the ordinary method to cover the initial risks and expense of 
private action in these matters. 

A great defect in American farm life is pointed out in the location 
of farm houses remote from one another instead of in small villages 
along a good highway, as thruout Europe. In fact the book is full of 
helpful thoughts and suggestions; but, in endeavoring to cover a 
wide field, this small work is obliged to neglect many portions and to 
give very inadequate space to others. Imagine, for example, a 
treatment of the money question without any reference to the causes 
or effects of rising or falling prices. But considered as a series of 
essays on iltility, value, environment and consumption, rather than 
•on economics as a whole, this work of Doctor Devine, who acknowl- 
edges his great debt to his teacher. Professor Patten, will be of real 
service to the student. E. w. b. 

.Aj)Vanced Metal-work. Lessons on the Speed-Lathe, Engine-Lathe, and 
Plamng-Machine. For the use of technical schools, manual-training schools 
and amateurs. In three parts. Part L The Speed-Lathe. Bv Alfred G. 
Compton and James H. De Groodt. Cloth, pp. v-134, 5 by 7j in., $1.50. 
New York: John Wiley & Son. j ' > 



May, '99.J 



BOOKS AND PERIODICALS. 



335 



The April Overland contains several articles of more than passing 
interest and value. Among- these is a paper by Dr. John S. White, of 
the Berkeley School of New York, on the requirements for admission 
exacted by American colleges . 

Miss Tar bell relates in McClure's Magazine for April the story of 
Lincoln's attitude and conduct in reference to emancipation, giving 
much new reminiscence of Lincoln by Charles Sumner, Carl Schurz, 
and other of Lincoln's close friends. 

Cooking, in its every-day phases and also as as a fine art, is among 
the attractions always held out hy- Table Talk, and in the April issue 
the recipes, the menus, and the notes on serving and table decoration, 
are of special interest to housejceepers. 

To The YoutKs Comjyanion, for the week of April 27, Surgeon-Gen- 
eral Wyman, U. S. A., contributes an article entitled "Maritime 
Quarantine," in which he describes the precautions which the gov- 
ernment takes to prevent infectious and contagious diseases. 

Miss Maria Parloa, the well-known household economist, will here- 
after write exclusively for The Ladles' Home Journal. Beginning 
with theMay issue Miss Parloa is to conduct a department on the care, 
etc., of the home, and home work. Miss Parloa is regarded as the 
highest authority on her branch of domestic science. 

Bright and welcome as the spring it symbolizes is Outing for 
April, laden with the season's pleasures from "The First Strike", on 
its frontispiece, to its concluding poem, "When the Brook Trout 
Leap. " The new life of the year, the glory of the budding woods, 
the trill of the songster, the purr of snow-fed streams, the whirr of 
the liberated cycle, are all reflected in its pages . 

Major-General Merritt contributes the leading article, entitled 
"Our Flag in the Philippines," to the April number of Frank Leslies 
Popular Monthly. General Merritt's comments on the present opera- 
tions in the Phihppines, and upon the outlook for the establishment 
of our military control there, are decidedly optimistic and make first- 
class reading, which is enhanced by profuse pictorial illustration. 

Under the title "The Face of Christ in Art," an interesting collec- 
tion of opinions of noted clergymen of many denominations has been 
made by Mrs. Wade Hampton, jr., in reply to the question, "Is the 
Portraiture of Jesus in Art, Strong, or Weak?" The article is illus- 
trated with careful reproductions of many famous art pictures of 
Christ. It forms a peculiarly appropriate feature for the April mag- 
azine number of The Outlook, as that is the Easter number. 

The musical features of F.vrn Month for April are varied enough to 
suitany taste. Abeautiful and plaintive "Ave Maria," by Paul Dres- 
.ser, shows that he can not only Avrite the most popular song of recent 
years, but can compose sacred music of a very high order . "A China 
Heart," a humorous ballad, supplies the hghter element, while "Vir- 
ginia Capers," a cake-walk and two-step, will irresistibly compel the 
feet of the listener to tap in time to its characteristic movement. 






The Affairs 
of Europe 

are faithfully portrayed in the original and 
exclusive cable dispatches which The CHI- 
CAGO Record prints <Jaily from the leading 
capitals of the old world. This magnificent 
special service is in process of being gre.itly 
extended so as to include every important 
city in Europe; and it is supplemented by 
the full regular cable service of The Asso- 
ciated Press. 



The Chicago Record, alone of all American 
newspapers outside New York city, 
now prints original and exclusive 
cable dispatches daily from 
the leading capitals of Europe, 



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the compositor and proofreader as weU as for 
the information of those who prepare copy for 
the press. It will be a valuable reference 
book in every school and library. No pnce s 
indicated on the copy we have received, but 
it will be worth, to almost anyone, ten times 
what it will cost.- .sv//«"/ «i»l lUme Kihwatwn. 
"REMARKABLY HELPFUL. ' 
Your "Sbylebook andManualof Typography' 
is an InterestinK one. I have none thru it and 
know that it possesses much mterest and 
merit, and that it will be remarkably he pful to 
those who expect to become practical pnnt- 
e^-LeuiH JKSampxon. IHrector S,,enalCoin„e 
m JowmlUm. Xorthevn /m/iona \onnal ( oUeije. 

"PLEASED WITH ITS COMPACTNESS 
AND VALUE." ' 

CHK -Alio. 111.. AUH. 1«. 189X. 

Mr. Chas. S. Davis, Supt.. 

Ptg. Dep't. K. S. A. C. 
Manhattan. Kansas. .a>„^^ 

Dear Sib: We are m receipt of your btyie- 
hook and Manual of Typography.' and are very 
much plea,sed with its compactness and value. 
We think your article on type bodies covers 
the subject very thoroly. You are right in 
your statement that the destruction of Marder 
Luse & Co.'s old punches in the Chicago Hre of 
'71 was really the Hrsi impetus to the adoption 
of the new .system |of type bodies], whicb 
Marder, Luse & Co. had had in contemplation 
some time. Yours truly. 

Am. Typr Founders Company. 

' OUGHT TO BE IN GENERAL USE." 
The writer acknowledges, with thanks, the 
receipt of a copy of a -Stylebook and Manual 
of Typography Governing (Composition and 
Proofreading."' from the Printing department 
of the Kansas State Agricultural CJollege. The 
work was authorized by the Board of Regents 
and was done by Charles S. Davis, superintend- 
ent of printing. All who know Mr. Davis 
understand that it is well done. It is a care- 
fully compiled manual of twenty pages that 
gives abundant specific infonnation on all 
matters within ihe scopeof its title. It is eom- 
pUed from the highest authorities on all topics 
treated, and ought to be in geneiulusein print- 
ing offices. Price. 10 cents. -.Aw^" /'• haxtfrlu, 
in Eureka ('man. Aug. in. 'flu. 

"MUCH THAT IS ADMIRABLE.' 
In ording several copies of the K. S. A. C. 
Stylebook. Henry R. Boss, for the publishers of 
the Stvlebookof the Chicago Society of Proof- 
reader, says: 'There is much that is admir- 
able in your ./ ork. We are especiaUy gratified 
at the stand you take on the question of speU- 
Ing. In this work your book will render im- 
portant aid. 



ONE OF THE MOST COMPLETE AND AC- 
CURATE GUIDES. ' 

KANSAS c;rrY. Mo.. Feb. -iT, 1899. 
Supt. Chas. S. Davis. 

Manhattan. Kan. 
Dkar Sir: I consider your -Stylebook and 
Manual of Typography ' one of the most com- 
plete and accurate guides to both compositor 
and proofreader. There are. of course, in this 
pamphlet, as in all other works of the kind, a 
few rules not acceptable to every one. such 
as those relating to compound woi-ds. etc., yet 
one would not go far astray to follow itin totp. 
It is just such a work as should be found in 
every ofrtce: then. If followed, what a wonder- 
ful improvement would soon be seen, espe- 
cially among our country weeklies. 

Yours very truly. 

Chas. E. Pr.vihkr. 
Wit/i IliiilHOii-Kiinberlij PuhUMinj (Company. 

"VALUABLE IN ANY PRINTING OFFICF^" 
The Kansas State Agricultural College 
Printing department has just is,sued a Style- 
book and Manual of Typography. " It covers 
16 pages and takes up and treats thoroly the 
subjects. It is intended, we presume, to be 
used principaUv as a text-book in the Printing 
department. The booklet wiU be valuable in 
any printing office. -/uiKtion Cify I'moti . 

"A FONT OF USEFUL INFORMATION." 
This office is under obligations to Charles S. 
Davis superintendent of printing at the State 
Agricultural College, for a copy of the "Style- 
book and Manual of Typography' recently 
issued from the CoUege Press. To a beginner 
and even to an "old hand" the little pamphlet 
is of great value as a refresher of ifaemory, a 
book of reference and a font of useful informa- 
tion. Having educated several typos we have 
often felt the need of just such a litile book to 
nut into the hands of the beginner to study 
and be guided by. The price of the Uttle book 
is 10 cents. Leffoy Ile/iorfer. An;/, ill. »s. 

-HAVE REFERRED TO IT MANY TIMES." 
I ANN Ari^b, Mich.. Feb. 16. 1899. 

Chas. S. Davis. , ,, „ 

Kansas State Agricultural ( ollege. 
MY DKAR Sir: Please pardon me for not 
thanking vou before for the -Stylebook and 
Manual of Typography " sent. I have referred 
lo it many times and expect to many more. 

Mv idea has been to make a style sheet that 
would be adaptable to the University of M ch- 
igan publications, of which there are nearly a 
I dozen^ including a daily, weekly, semi-monthly, 
i two monthlies, etc. My sheet will be ar- 
ranged on a slightly different plan than any 
other I have seen. When it is in p: oof. which 
may not be for some time yet. I will mail you a 
conv That will best iUustrate my ideas on the 
subject. Under another cover I have maUed 
. vou several copies of the rnirer^ity New^-Let- 
\ ter on which I have been doing some work. 
I * Very truly, R. H. Ei^wobth. 

1 With the Inland P'rexM. Umvermty of Mtchtgan, 



REMIT 10 CENTS TO THE COLLEGE PRESS, MANHATTAN. KAN 



"An excellent magazine, diversified, practical, and readable, 
with high aims and large promise." — The "Congrega- 
tionalist," Boston, Mass. 

fl REVIEW OF COHSTRUCTIVE THOUGHT, 

\ Under the Editorial Hanagement of 

B. O. FLOWER flNb MRS. C. K. REirSNIbCR. 



THE COMING AGE is a maK»zine with a mission. workin»f for a nobler civilization. 
It appeals to heaxt and head, and teaches how to enjoy health thru rational living, how 
to think broadly dnd how to live nobly, thus affording that triple culture so much de- 
manded at the present time. There are scores of magazines which cater merely to the 
intellect, seeking to entertain, amuse, and incidentally instruct the reader. THE COM- 
ING AGE appeals preeminently to the spiritual or moral ensrgies of the reader. It be- 
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ting life on the higher planes of emotion. While ever keeping in view its high and definite 
mission, this magazine is bright. Interesting and thoroly up to date. It will interest 
every member of the home circle, each Lssue containing, in addition to the conversations 
and essays, biographical sketches, original Action, and other popular features. No better 
guarantee of the exceptional value and Interest of this magazine is needed than a glance 
over the following partial list of contributors: 



* 



Edward Everett Hale. D. D. 
Rev. Geo. C. Lorimer, D. D. 
William Ordway Partridge. 
Maty A. Livermore. 
Prof. A. E. Dolbear. 
Hamlin Garland. 
W. D. McCrackan. A. M. 
Prof. Jean du Buy. Ph. D. 
Hon. Josiah Qulncy. 
Louise Chandler Moulton. 
Prof. Daniel Bachellor. 
Kev. Philip S. Moxom. D. D. 
Ernest H. Crosby. 
Prof. Frank Parsons. 
Rev. Everett D. Burr. 
Henry Wood. 
LUlan Whiting. 



Charles Malloy. 
Rev. E. A. Horton. 
Richard Hodgson. LL. D. 
Henry Ware Allen. 
Rev. Charles A. Eaton. 
Prof. George D.,Herron. 
Will Allen Dromgoole. 
Rev. R. A. Bisbee. 
Imogene C. Fales. 
James A. Heme. 
Rev. W. C. Bitting. 
Rttlph Waldo Trine. 
E. P. Powell. 
Prof. Samuel T. Dutton. 
J. A. Edgerton. 
Rev. S. C. Eby. 
Rev. J. H. Garrison. 



Tisro AP^*^ Tt^f »i? ^^^u^ reflects the best constructive thought of the age as THE COM- 
ctTK . I. "^ *^^ cheapest great original review published in America. 
Subscription price only »2.00 a year; single copies, 30 cents: no free copies 



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Address THE INDUSTRIALIST. Manhattan, Kansas. 



[E \ 



THE COIL 

In the Horizontal Wires in the 

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Mr. C. W. DeMotts Fsirm Resirtence, East New Market. Maryland, showing 
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not suK. 

PAGE FENCES 

Are used to enclose some of the handsomest suburban resi- 
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PRBE WOVEH WIRE PEHGE CO., Rdtian, pchigaR. 



"♦^^•^^^^^(►^Wft^wip'^^^^p^^ 



LITERATURE 



W. D. Howells 




Henry James 



is an international weekly journal of literary criticism. It is a comparatively 
new peiiodicai, which, lias been recognized froM its first number as a review 
ul the liighest standing. 

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Tlioiiglitful,' thorough, and comprehensive reviews of all important ]}ubUca- 
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English and American works, are treated from week toweeki 

BELLES-LETTRES 

Sptcial articles appear weekly in the pai>er, sometimes under tfte vitle ol 
"Among My Boo".;s," wriuen by such well-known auiliors and critics as 

EDMUND fiOSSE MAX MIILLER 

SIR HERBERT MAXWELL DEAN STUBBS 

and from time to time original pieces of literary work, poems, fiction, and 
essays are published, but in each case only from the pens of world-famous 
writers, such as 

RUDYARD KIPLINQ QEORQE MEREDITH 

Each week a leading article in the nature of an editorial appears. These 
leaders are pre|>ared by the editor, and deal exclusively with literary subjects. 

AMERICAN LETTERS 

The Ri-weekly letter, written by William Dean Howells, deals in tbat 
autlior's original and keen way with subjects of vital interest in the American 
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Uccasional work by Henry James, and men of like ability, will also appear. 

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will be published, devoted to descriptive articles on such subjects as rare and 
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A PREMIUM OFFER 

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Hdm.inrt G«se j^ Address HARPER & BROTHERS, Publishers, New York. N, Y. 




DOUBLE FEED 
FOUNTAIN 

Is the best pen made. 
The saving of time 
will soon repay any 
student. 

PRICE $a TO $5, according to style. 

F. O. WOESTEMEYER agent for 
Kansas State Af^ricultural College. 
Ask him to show you styles and prices. 
Cbntury Pen Co., Whitewater, Wis. 




Agbn'i>8 Wanted— Write for information, 
and prices nn our Atlases and Maps. Our 
Men are making frona $15.00 to $50.00 weekly. 
Rand McNAi,t,Y & Co., Chicago, Dl. 



EVERGREENS 

10©. « n. <10 prepaid. lOO. 4 to«< ft. 

vartetles, $16. nSclioice Fruit trae8.i»' 
varieties, $10. WrNaaeatal it. Fruit 

Tree*. Catalogrue and prloes of 60 

B^ 0»«i l«cal ArentK Wanted. 

HILI, f»r.«;. Dundee, III. 




■In writing to any advertiser you will confera- 
favor by mentioning The InoustiaIjIBT. 



hk 



i 



miSH mEDICAIi CObliEGE 

,■ — 'i Tn af filiation uiltb th« Univcvsity of Chiaago. 

THE currioulum of tbe school of medicine requires a proper preliminary education, andtbree 
years of study in college, devoted to laboratory, didactic and clinical instruction, to recita- 
tions and to manual training in the use of instruments and appUanoes. 

Instruction is given in two capacious, well-lighted edifices. The new building contains five 
large laboratories, in which are conducted the practical laboratory courses In 

Anatomy, Physiology and Histology, Chemistry, Materia Medica, 
Pathology and Bacteriology. 

The old building is devoted to instruction by clinics, didactic lectures, and by numerous 
important practical courses in manual training in manipulations, and in the use of the instru- 
ments employed In medical science, surgery, obstetrics and the specialties. 

CKHanUClf ^YAtninp in sill departments of medicine Is a special feature of the instruction in 
-Is; — — — this college. Systematic recitations, conducted in five commodious 

recitation rooms, are regarded as a most important means of teaching. 

With over 70 professors and instructors and with ample room and appliances, this school is 

able to f umlbh its classes with the most approved systematic education in medicine. 

Physicians and medical students are invited to visit the laboratories and to Inspect the 
educational appliances of this school. 

For further Information and for announcements apply to the College Clerk or to the 
Secretary, 

J. H. ETHEf^lDCE, M. t>. 

33 Washington Stfaat, Cbieage. 



■a ■ I _^ _ iwtrde4 Chleur* Sol* C*. tar kcM 
■ ■||il|||MA Stack ud Hay 8«al« at OMakiExH* 
V I If I Wlllll ■Itisa. Offlebd BwlaaStock Pi^nltea, 
*_-.^ WwrM'aFaIr, Chleat*, 18SS. Beqair* 

O"** ■• pIC Sbal rrasM. Iraaa for 6«Mk 

|l«k|a| Ha JaI Bxka. Sealn far ill parpanM. Beat 
y will HwUfll Oaalltr. Uveal Prtem. Warraatc^. 

SlcelPnuiM& Royal Scale Rackffti,^^^ 2 




llwai Wkelaaal* Prleaai Scwlaf lacklaM, Safaa, Blc;ct«t, 
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Plewa, 8erap«n, Wire Peace, Stavn, Saddle*, Haraeki, Bapif le*, 
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'pHONc 592 




HAiriONE "~^!=T, 



VOODDI^KVIN Dm^- 




We buy 
school-books 

And we nend free to any applicant onr 
"B<iok» Wanted" Catalogue of over 2,U00 
Bchool-booki. with the pricea at wliich 
we accept iccond-hand ua well aa new 
book I. 

We pay cash 

For all marketable echool-bookt, or if 
denred, we credit consignments on ac- 
count, to be paid by us in other achool- 
booVs from time to time tu needed. 

HnrSS k HOBLE 
4 Cooper lastitnte Htvr 7ork aty 

Mention thti ad. 




BIG WAGES a a 

FOR HONEST WORK. 

THE best Harness Riv. 
eter on the market- 
Every machine guaran- 
teed. An absolute neoes. 
sity to every one owning 
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more than pay for Itself 
in a very short time. 
Sample outfit 75 cents. 
We have pleasant em- 
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selling our new Dexter 
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25 cents. Sample outfit 
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THE DEXTER MFG. CO., 
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800 STUDENTS. 



$500,000 ENDOWPIEHT. 



40 INSTRUCTORS. 



M FRee EDVOKTION 



IN. 



TIiB • Largest • flgilcultural • CoIleoB • In • the • World. 



SIX . COURSES 
OF STUDY: . , . 



^j^rioultural, 

Tirobiteotural, 

Domestio goienoe, 

General, 

TVVeobanioal gngineerinj^, and 

Qivil ^ngineerinj^. 



If \' 




Beautiful qroupds. f^ii^e SabstaQtial Stoi^e BuildiQ^s 

Admission on examination direct from the District Schools. 

Funds derived chiefly from federal government. 
Reputation established for thoro, scientific and practical work. 
. Engmeering course of a high order. 

Enrollment largest in the history of the College. 

Equipment for Domestic Science unsurpassed in the West 
Dining Hall furnishes full board at actual cost— $1.75 per week. 
United States Agricultural Experiment Station. 
College Bookstore furnishes Books and Stationery at cost. 
Apprentice Course in Shops, Sewing and Printing. 
The Laboratories and Shops are splendidly equipped 
instruction in Model Private Dairy-a newly added feature. 
Oratory and Music entirely free— something unusual. 
No Tuition nor Fees in any Department 



June, 1899. 



Historical 



Society 



Vol. 25. No. 6. 
Whole No. 1023. 



INDUSTRIALIST. 

Issued 10 times per year by the 

KflN5fl5 STATZ flQRICULTURflL COLLEQE. 



1 

e5, 1875- 



EDITED BY THE FACULTY. 

H&aaging Iditor, - - PRES. THOS. E. WILL. 
Local Editor, - - - PROF. J. D. WALTERS. 



PUBLISHED BY 

THE PRINTING DEPARTMENT, 

CEAS. S. DAVIS, Supl. 







• ■ 

(jna5A3ine 
fot m 
(ptomotion 

i«r I 

(Kgncuf* I 
tuvaf, \ 

3n)u9triaf I 

Ciioic I 

05ucation. | 

♦ 




CONTeWTS. 

SoMK Miniature Views. IT Fi-ontiapkce. 

PitACTicAL vs. Theoretical Methods 339 

arnold emch. 

Bibliography of Literature on Plant Breed- 
ing. I 343 

george lemon clothier. 

Consequences of the Reformation ;{55 

DUREN J. H. ward. 

Municipal Liberty. Ill 372 

FRANK parsons. 

The llE(jENTs' Investigation 378 

frank parsons. 

Board of Instructioivi. 388 

Abstract of Board Proceedin(js 389 

Economics in American Colleges and Uni- 
versities 392 

E. w. bemis. 



i 10 Cents, i 



I 



A Sensation in Rockefeller's University.. 394 
Local Notes .■{90 



» ^^^^^^^i^^^^S^^S^^S^^ 







\ 



EnleroJat the PoslolEce al Manhattan. Kansas. I'ortransm.ssion as scoouci-class mail matter. 

Subscription Price .... 

One Year, . . - - - $1.00 

Special Club Rate to Students and Alumni - - .50 

/T)ar>l?attai7, Ka^^S^S: <?olle($e Jype ai^d pr(5ss. 

Chicago .addkicss: T7 Ci.akk stkkkt. Room 23. 



CenTGRTS 6F FRGGGDIRG RUlVlBeRS. 



OCTOBEE. 

Outlines of (7. S. Financial History: VL De- 
monetization of Silver, Part l.T.EWIll, 623 
Student Lalior and College Income, by Ed- 
ward W. tiemls ~ Ml 

ManhattanWater-Works, by S. J. Adams . .. 640 
Makers of the K. S. A. C: VL Hon. Stephen 
M. Wood, Regent, {FrontUpiece Illustra- 

Hnn) by John D. Walters «.. 656 

College Quiz ~ 668 

The Higher Education and the State, by 

Thomas Ehner Will 663 

Personal and Explanatory 571 

New Ideas in Farm Machinery 671 

Books and Periodicals. n 672 

Local Notes ~ 676 

< I n »«»«»««iiii»>«« ««»» m «««»»i 

NOVEMBER. 

Parties and the People, by Frank Parspns 680 

Dairy School, K S. A. C 696 

The Value of Academic Opinions on Eco^ 

nomic Questions, by Thomas Elmer Will 600 
Tabular View of 'Mint BUI" (To face) 604 
Outlines of U. S. Financial History: VI. 
Demonetization of Silver, Part 2, by 

Thomas Elmer Will 607 

Fall Preparation for Alfalfa Seeding 620 

Production and Care of Milk for House- 
hold Use, by H. M. Cottrell 622 

Some Applications of Modem Geometry 
in Mechanics: I. The Statics of Peau- 

cellier's Cell, by Arnold Emch 616 

Camping in Florida, by A. S. Hitchcock 632 

Keeping Milk in Summer by H. M. Cottrell 637 
Editorials— Thos. E. Will: 

Why Workers Want 648 

"PoUtics in State Schools." 644 

Note on the History of Demonetization 646 

Local Notes 647 

Books and Periodicals 658 

DECEMBER. 

Postgraduate Work )n Pure Science: 
IL An American University.— .fro»<f«- 

piece Illustration.) 667 

in. A Summer in Europe, by George F. 

Weida 661 

Outlines of U. S. Financial History: VII. 
From Demonetization to Partial Restor- 
ation of Silver, by Thomas Ehner Will.. 666 
Growth of Alfalfa In Northwestern Kansas, 

by George L. Clothier 676 

The Sand Plum 684 

The National Association of Household 

Economics, by Harriet Howell 687 

Latent Fertility in the Soil: Its Utilization 
and Conservation, by R. W. Clothier. ... 689 

The Municipal League 708 

Kaflr Com for Fattening Pigs 709 

Local Notes ; 711 

Books and Periodicals ;. . 716 

iiiiii m ii mfmxxummxonxmnumxn 

JANUARY. 

Muni cipal Liberty, by Frank Parsons 3 

Topeka Electric Light Plant, by Henry M. 

Thomas 11 

Prevention of Blackleg in Cattle, by Paul 

Fischer 19 

Alfalfa Investigations in Central Kansas, 

by J. B. Norton 24 

My Christmas Gifts, by Frank Parsons 80 

College Sewage and Manhattan Water 

Supply, by J. T. Willard 85 

Prolrie Fires and their Prevention, by 

George L. Clothier 38 

Needs of the state Agricultural College. . . 48 : 
Makers of the K. S. A. C: VII. James 

Hervey Lee, A. M. (Frontispien Jllut- 

frotton.) by J. D. Walteis 47 

"EQUftllty Colony No. 1, B, 0. O." by Helen 

J. Wesoott 49 

Board of Regents 63 

Local Notes 64 

Books and Periodicals 66 



FEBRUARY. 

A Study of Creamery Patrons, D. H. Otis 69 
Harvard as a State Institution, Thos. K Will 75 
John Wiclif (FlrstPaper), Duren J. H. Ward 82 
Business Results of the College Herd, F. C. 

Uurtis 91 

Celery, Press Bulletin No. 11, Agricultural 

Experiment Station 97 

Board of Instniction 100 

Some Applications of Modem Geometry in 

Mechanics: II. Pole and Polar Plane, 

Arnold Emch lOl 

Statistics by the State Temperance Union, 

William Canfleld Lee lio 

Dedication of Domestic Science Hall. ... . . 113 

Proceedings of the Board of Regents 125 

Local Notes 126 

MARCH. 

John Wiclif <2d paper). Duren J. H.Ward. 135 
Why the Farmer Should Study Economics, 

Thomas EUmer Will 141 

A Fiosty Morning on the Campus, Helen J. 

Wescott 150 

Soldiers in the Spanish War l.M 

A Plea for Opportunity, l^bomas R Will . I.t3 
The Admirable Record of Regent Vrooman 157 
Contributions to the Knowledge of the 

Coccidae. Cockerell & Parrott 1.59 

The Oat Crop, F. C. Burtis 168 

Some Applications of Modem Geometry in 

Mechanics: III. Polygon of Forces 

and Funicular Polygon, Amold Emch. 169 
Makers of the K. S. A. C: VHI. Hon. F. 

D.Coburn. by J. D. Walters 178 

views of One Millionaire Economist, Thos. 

Elmer WUl 180 

The White Man's Burden. ( Kipling) 188 

Civics A nalj-ses, Frank Parsons 184 

Local Notes 189 

Books and Periodicals ... 197 



APRIL. 

Outline of U. S. financial History: VIII. 

From Hayes to Garfield, Thos. E. Will, 201 
The Evolution of Education, Thos. E. Will, iko 
Roentgen Radiography, Illustrated, E. R. 

Nichols 219 

Contributions to the knowledge of the Coc- 

cld83 (second paper), T. D. A. Cockerell 

and P. J. Parrott 227 

A Perspectivograph, Illustrated, Amold 

Emch 287 

Civics Analyses: Kans-s lU. Cities, Frank 

Parsons 241 

The CoUege Appropriation, Thos. E. Will, 249 
Makers of the K. 8. A. C: IX. Hon. Ed. Se- 

crest. (Frontispiece Illustration.) J. D. 

Walters 253 

Hardy Ornamental Shrubs. Press Bulletin 

Number Seventeen 256 

Board of Instruction 2.'i8 

LocalNotes 269 

MAY. 

Some Miniature Views Frontispiece. 

Municipal Liberty, H, Frank Parsons 267 

Contributions to the Knowledge of the Coc- 
cidae (third paper), T. D. A. Cockerell 

and P. J. Parrott 876 

Riley County Real Estate Mortgages, R. S. 

KeUogg 285 

Farming and Stock Raising in Australia, 

E. M. Shelton 291 

A New Crop for Kansas Farmers, Press 

Bulletin Number Twenty-four 299 

Tendencies of the K. S. A C. T. E. WiU. 301 
Alfalfa Hay for Fattening Hogs, Press 

Bulletin Number Twenty-tive 818 

Board of Instmctlon 820 

Milking Scmb Cows, Press BoUetin Number 

Twenty-nine „....»..,....,.. 821 

LocalNotes 884 

Books and Periodicals 831 



The INDaSTRlAlilST. 

(gof, 25, (TJlo. 6. 3une, 1899. TPfofe (JJo. TO25 



PRACTICAL VERSUS THEORETICAL METHODS. 

BY ARNOLD EMCH. 

NOUS VOYONS CHAQUE JOUR COMMENT L' APPLICATION DES DOCTRINES 
SCIENTIFIQUES A L' INDUSTRIE ACCROIT CONTINUELLEMENT LA RICHESSE ET 
LA PROSPfeRITE DES HATlOiiS.—Berthelot. 

THE time has passed when scieatificand technical discoveries are 
made by mere accident. A planless experimental method 
may be successful, sometimes, but it would surely indicate a state of 
degeneration if the spirit of such crude investigation should be 
introduced into higher institutions of learning. There is no danger, 
however, that such a thing will happen, altho some of the so-called 
practical people are not satisfied if they cannot recognize agricultural 
implements or statistical tables in geometrical figures and analytic 
formulas. 

A modern college must have an industrial character. It must 
teach agriculture, mechanics, engineering, architecture, chemical 
technology, household economics, sociology, etc.. from a scientific 
point of view and by laboratory methods. The introduction of re- 
fined methods in teaching is always one of the principal aims of a 
progressive school. 

Take as an example the teaching of mechanics. In this science, 
to which all modern .improvements in machinery and building are 
due, it is not sufficient to study and discuss the physical properties 
of metals and other materials and their transformation into wheels, 
rods, bricks, and so forth. The laws of motion and of equilibrium 
must be studied also. The nature of these laws in its refined form 
is mathematical, so that their investigation requires considerable 
knowledge of geometry and analysis. A true engineer, who is fa- 
miliar with the mathematical treatment of dynamic and static laws, 
will build more intelligently and more economically than the one who 
has to depend exclusively upon the knowledge gained by experience 
and from the catalogs of manufacturers. It is true that some of 

(339 }■ 



340 



THE INDUSTRIALIST. 



[June, '99 



the mathematical methods are very tedious and clumsy, and that the 
engineer tries to get along without them, if he can. This defect, 
however, is not due to the failure of mathematical applications; it is 
due to ancient methods and antiquated teaching. In England and 
some other countries a mistake is made in the very first grades of 
the high school. The "soul-destroying system atization of Euclidian 
methods must be followed to the weariness of the boy's mind and the 
quenching of his interest." Months are occupied in attaining the 
12th proposition of the first book, while a boy of ordinary intel- 
ligence could master those propositions in a few days, if he were 
taught by modern methods. The same is true with regard to the 
mathematical teaching of the majority of colleges and academies. 
The correlation of geometry and algebra, of graphics and analysis, 
and of mathematical and physical science in general, is but in- 
sufficiently developed before the mind of the student. WhUe Eng- 
land is making strenuous efforts to improve her technical teaching 
in order to meet the tremendous industrial expansion of Germany, 
this country is rapidly progressing along the same line. As in Ger- 
many and Switzerland and other continental countries, the indus- 
trial progress of the United States should be considered as a result 
of higher education. Mr. von Biilow said in the German Reichstag 
that the success of manufactures and commerce was due to the 
standard of the work of polytechnics and universities. This indi- 
cates clearly what shall be done in such institutions: it is evidently 
the raising of the scientific standard, and the improvement of teach- 
ing, libraries and laboratories. 

No stagnation in methods and investigation can be allowed, be- 
cause new facts in science will always find their application. Thus, 
graphic statics has its origin in the appHcation of projective geometry 
to mechanics. Projective geometry is a creation of this century and 
is connected with the work of such illustrious men as Steiner, Pon- 
celet, Chasles and v. Staudt. Based upon the principles of projec- 
tive geometry, in 1868, Professor Culmann in Zurich published his 
epoch-making work on graphic statics. The practical value of 
this science is best illustrated by a remark of the French engineer 
Eiffel, who at the opening exercises of the World's Exposition of Paris 
in 1889 said that he never would have been able to build his gigantic 
tower if he had not studied graphic statics at, the Polytechnic of 
Zurich. 

The historic development of physics and chemistry and of natural 




June, '99..] 



CONCERNING METHODS: 



341 



science in general presents similiar examples. When Fourier an- 
nounced his great discovery of the development of a function into 
trigonometric series and their connection with the conduction of 
heat, no practical physicist attached much importance to this theory. 
To-day it can be said that the solution of a great number of practical 
problems concerning the conduction of heat and electricity has been 
accomplished by the aid of Fourier's series. 

The most universal lavt^ of nature, the conservation of energy and 
matter, which for a long time was so very objectionable to certain 
theologians and philosophers, and whose origin may be found in 
purely metaphysical speculations, has revolutionized physical and 
chemical science. Even at the present time new theories are devel- 
oping under the predominating influence of this law. In this man- 
ner, the kinetic theory of gases has been established, by which the 
physical properties of gases, and also of fluid and solid states of mat- 
ter, can be explained by mechanical laws. It is this conception which 
directly or indirectly has led to the discovery of a number of new 
elements, like helion, argon, and recently etherion, and the liquefac- 
tion of all gases. The reversible process implied by the law of the 
conservation of energy and matter (the law indicates no dualism be- 
tween energy and matter; there is no energy without matter and no 
matter without energy) has been applied in the most beautiful man- 
ner in the ice- machine. Liquefied air, which for years was only of 
theoretical interest, is now used for different purposes, as, for in- 
stance, in the drilling of the Simplon tunnel in Switzerland. 

Crystallography is evidently a true science. Its objects may be 
found in nature, exclusively, and the crystal forms are carefully de- 
fined and described in a number of admirable systems. It is well 
known, however, that, on account of the infinity of nature, the best 
geologist cannot find everything in his excursions which by 
scientific induction is possible to exist. The best classification of 
crystal forms was obtained by a geometrical method, the method of 
groups, which is of the greatest importance in modern mathematical 
research. All regular configurations in space are characterized by 
group properties. Rotation, Translation and Reflexion form the 
elements of these regular arrangements of points in space. By this 
method it has been found that there are 32 classes of crystals while 
in reality only about 28 classes are known in crystallography. 

A great number of examples of this kind and probably a greater 
number from the realms of biology might be added which, in the 



342 



THE INDUSTRIALIST. 



[June, '99 



same manner, would show the necessity of upholding the standard 
of true scientific investigation. 

Certain theories may seem abstract, indeed, and it cannot be de- 
nied that some of them, originating from one-sided quarters, wiU 
never be of intellectual or material value to mankind. On the other 
hand it must be remembered that the course of scientific research is 
always rectified by practical possibilities and limits. Theory cannot 
develop rationally without the wholesome influence of practise, and 
vice versa Many people are one-sided in one or another di- 
rection. Some favor fanatically old practical methods of teaching 
and research, others are hypercritical and are led to theoretical ex- 
tremes. But the majority of competent educators and scientists 
know that true progress in science and its application to the great 
problems of organization, of agriculture, commerce and traflRc can 
only be made by the combination of practical and theoretical methods. 




STUDENTS AT WORK IN THE GARDENS. 



i 



June, '99.] 343 



iJ 



BIBLIOQRAPHY OF LITERATURE ON PLANT BREEDING. 

BY GEORGE LEMON CLOTHIER. 

THE following references have been selected chiefly because they 
throw light upon some of the problems entering into the seed- 
breeding experiments now in progress at the Kansas State Agricul- 
tural College. The writer takes this opportunity to express his 
obligations to Prof. L. H. Bailey and the Rural Publishing Company 
for permission to use Professor Bailey's excellent bibliography of 
"Cross-Breeding and Hybridizing," which will appear in its proper 
sequential place. 

The citations have been classified under the three general head- 
ings of plant variants, technology, and philosophy of plant breeding. 
The chief plant variants are food supply, chmate and crossing. 
Food supply will be treated under the subheadings, the seed, the 
soil, fertilizers and graf tage. 

FOOD SUPPLY AS A PLANT VARIANT. — THE SEED. 

Change of seed wheat advantageous. Darwin, "Animals and Plants 

under Domestication," ii, p. 128. Am. Ed.* 
Change of seed wheat, oats and potatoes. H. J. Waters, Mo. Exp. 

Sta. Bui. 15, pp. 11-16; E. S. R., iii, p. 168. 
Chemical composition of light and heavy oats. • R. Heinrich, Zweiter 

Ber. Landw. Vers. -Sta. Rostock, 1894, pp. 206-213; E. S. R., vii, p. 

497; (Cherasiche Zusammeusetzung des leichten und schweren 

Hafers.) R. Heinrich, Landw. Ann. d. Meek pat. Vereins, 

1892, No. 6, pp. 46-49: E. S. R., iii, p. 655. 
Chemical investigation of seed wheat and the wheat plant. H. Sny- 
der, Minn. Exp. Sta. Bui. 29, pp. 147-160; E. S. R., v, pp. 867-869. 
Chicory growing as an addition to the resources of the American 

farmer: Good and poor seed compared by M. G. Kains. U. S. 

Dept. Agr., Div. Hot., Bui. 19; E. S. R., x, p. 236. 
Cleaning wheat for seed and testing specific gravity of seed. Minn. 

Exp. Sta. Bui. 15. 
Concerning the influence of the starch content of the potato on the 

amount and quality of the yield. H. Hitler, Jour. Agr. Prat., 60 

(1896), I, No. 18, pp. 657-658; E. S. R., vm, p. 120. 

♦Whenever Darwin's "Animals and Plants under Domestication" is cited in the foliowing 
pages. It is to be understood that the American Edition is meant, 







344 



THE INDUSTRIALIST. 



[June, '99 



DecompositioD of albuminoid substances during germination. D 

Morosov, Ann. Sci. Agron., ser. 2, 1 (1896), No. 3, pp. 425-427 

E. S. R., VIII, p. 290. 
Deviation in development due to the use of unripe seed. J. C 

Arthur, Am. Nat., 29 (1895), No. 345, pp. 804-815; No. 346, pp 

904-913; E. S. R., vn, p. 371. 
Early and late fruits of tomato. L. H. Bailey, Cornell Exp, Sta. Bui 

32; same, Bailey and Corbett, Cornell Exp. Sta. Bui. 45. 
Early formation of gluten in wheat. (Sur le preexistence du gluten 

dans le hU.) M. Ballant?, Compt." rend., 116 (1893), No. 5, pp. 

202-204; E. S. R., iv, p. 614. 
Effect of quality of seed. Kerpeley, Centlbl. Agr. Chem., 1892, p. 

545; E. S. R., v, p. 226. 
Exchange of seed wheat. N. Dak. Exp. Sta. Bui. 17. 
Experiments with cereals by the German Agr. Soc. Liebscher, Sachs. 

Landw. Zeitschrift, 1891, pp. 324-326; E. S. R., m. p. 269. 
Experiments with varieties of grain: Testing of large and small 

seed reported. C. A. Zavitz, Ontario Agr. Col. and Exp. Farm 

Rep., 1897, pp. 154-186; E. S. R., x, p. 238. 
Genetic development of different forms of barley kernels. (Die 

genetische Entwicklung der verschiedenen Formen unserer Saat- 

gerste.) W. Rimpau, Landw. Jahrb. 21 (1892), Hefts. 3 and 

4, pp. 699-702; E. S. R., m, p. 927. 
Germinal selection a source of variation. A. Weissmann. "Ueber 

Germinal-Selection eine Quelle bestimmt gerichteter Variation." 

Jena: G. Fischer, 1896, pp. 80; abst. in Bot. Centralblatt, 56(1896), 

No. 12, pp. 380-385; E. S. R., vii, p. 926. 
Germination of heavy and light seed wheat. Minn. Exp. Sta. Bui. 6, 

pp. 22-28. 
Gluten content of varieties of wheat, etc. R. Heinrich, Zweiter Ber. 

Landw. Vers. -Sta. Rostock, 1894, pp. 213-223; E. S. R., vn, p. 518. 
Green and ripe seed. Peter Collier, N. Y. State Exp. Sta. Bui. 30. 
Green and ripe seeds of tomato. L. R. Taf t and H. P. Gladden, 

Mich. Exp. Sta. Bui. 79. 
Green and ripe tomato seed. Corbett, S. Dak. Exp. Sta. Bui. 37, p. 16. 
Growth of plants from the seed without any additional food. Wieg- 

mann & Polstorf, Preisschrift iiber die unorganischen Bes- 

tandtheile der Pflanzen. Johnson, "How Crops Grow, " p. 160. 
Growth of radishes as affected by the size and weight of seed. B. 

T. GaUoway, Agr. Sci., vin, 1895, No. 12, pp. 557-567; abst. in Proc. 

Am. Ass'n Advancement Sci., 1894, p. 285; E. S. R., vn, p. 499. 



June, '99.] PLANT BREEDING. 345 

Growth of seedling during early life corresponds very nearly to the 
weight of the seed. Hellriegel, Beitrage zu den naturwissen- 
schaftlichen, etc., p. 54. 

Heavy seed superior. G. H. Hicks and J. C. Dabney, Yearbook, 
1896, U. S. Dept. Agr. pp. 305-322; E. S. R., ix, p. 563. 

Immature seed. J. C. Arthur, abst. in Ann. Rep. Ind. Exp. Sta., 
1893, p. 21. 

Improvement of potatoes by selection of seed tubers rich in starch. 
(Die Verbesserung der Kartoffelsorten durch Auswahl starke- 
reicherMutterknollen.) E. Marek,Puhhng'sLandw. Ztg.,41(1892), 
Heft 5, pp. 164-171; also Heft 6, pp. 209-214; E. S. R., m, p. 655. 

Influence of seed. Marek, "Das Saatgut und dessen Einfluss auf 
Menge und Giitte der Ernte," Vienna, 1875. Influence of seed 
wheat: Marek, same, p. 61. 

Influence of the size of the grains of seed wheat on the resulting crop. 
Influence de la grosseur du grain de bl6 sur la recolte. F. Des- 
prez, Jour. Agr. Prat, 57 (1898), No. 41, pp. 503, 505; E. S. R., v, 
pp. 437, 526. 

Influence of the starch content of the parent potato on the starch con- 
tent and total weight of the crop. A. Girard, Ann. Agron., 19 
(1893), No. 4, pp. 161-181; E. S. R., iv, pp. 959-961. 

Influence of the starch content of the seed tubers on the yield of 
tubers and starch, W. Blumich, Sachs. Landw. Ztsch., 1896, No. 9, 
p. 92; E. S. R.,.vii, p. 765. 

Influence of weight of seed upon grain production of yellow and blue 
lupines, common vetch, and buckwheat. H. Ebeling, (inaug. 
diss.) Leipzig, 1895, pp. 65; abst., in Bot. Centralblatt, Beiheft 5, 
(1895), No. 7, pp. 537-539; E. S. R., vn, p. 680. 

Large and small, green and ripe seeds. G. W. Churchill, 8th Ann. 
Rep. N. Y. State Exp. Sta., 1889, p. 364. 

Large and small, hght and heavy seed of sugar beet. U. H. Nichol- 
son and L. T. Lyon, Neb. Exp. Sta. Bui. 44, p. 120. 

Large seed produces stronger plants with a greater capacity for re- 
production. J. C. Arthur, Agr. Sci., 1893, pp. 343-345. 

Light and heavy seed. Bailey, Ann. Rep. Mich. Bd. Agr., 1888, p. 245. 

Location of the heaviest kernels in the head of cereals, etc. (Ueber 
den Sitz des schwersten Kornes in den Fruchtstanden bei Ge- 
treide und in den Fruchtender Hiilsenfriichte.) C. Fruwirth, Forsch. 
a. dem Geb. d. agr. Physik 15, Hefts 1 and 2, pp. 49-90; E. S. R„ 
in, p. 925. 



mmMMM 



346 



THE INDUSTRIALIST. 



[June, '99 



New factor in the improvement of agricultural crops. J. C. Arthur, 

Agr. Sci., Aug.-Sept., 1893, Proc. Soc. Pro. Agr. Sci., 1893, pp. 17-21. 
Of all the parts of plants, the seeds are the least liable to vary in 

composition. Johnson, ^'How Crops Grow," p. 158. 
On the selection of seed by their specific weight. L. Degrully, Prog. 

Agr. et Vit, 30 (1898), No. 42, pp. 453-455; E. S. R., x, p. 555. 
Pedigree of grade races in horticulture. H. L. Vilmorin, Gard. 

Chron., ser. 3, 14 (1893), pp. 301-332; E. S. R., v, p. 347. 
Progress of the several experimental farms in 1896. W. M. Hays, T. 

A. Hoverstadt, W. W. Pendergast, and A. Boss, Minn. Exp. Sta. 

Bui. 50, pp. 305-341 (Heavy weight seed wheat recommended); E. 

S. R., IX, p. 131. 
Protein increased by the use of heavy seed. H. Bbeling, Der Ein- 

fluss des Gewichts der Same auf die Korperproduction, etc., 

(inaug. diss.) p. 65, Leipzig, 1895 ; abst. in Beiheft zum Botanischen 

Centralblatt, 1895, pp. 537-539. 
Protein in wheat (per cent for varieties given). Ohio Exp. Sta. Bui. 

42, Aug., 1892, pp. 83-98; E. S. R., iv, pp. 343-345. 
Raising and selecting field and garden seed. 0. B. Hodwen, Ann. 

Rep. Mass. Board Agr., 1882, p. 329. 
Raising and preservation of seed. T. G. Huntington, Ann. Rep. 

Mass. Board Agr., 1865, part 1, pp. 246-254. 
Rapidity of germination influences the development of the plant. 

Schmid, Hiltner, Richter and Nobbe, Landwirthschaftliche 

Versuchs-Stationen, xxxvn, pp. 137-148. 
Rational selection of seed wheat. N. Dak. Exp. Sta. Bui. 13. 
Reciprocal relation of embryo and grain. H. Micheels, Bui. Min. 

Agr. Belgique, 10(1894), No. 1, pp. 96-102; E. S. R., vii, p. 188. 
Relation between the size and composition of beet seeds and the size 

and composition of the roots produced by them. N. Laskowsky, 

Landbnte, 14 (1893), No. 6, p. 600; E. S. R., v, p. 335. 
Relation of number of eyes on the seed tubers of potatoes to the 

product. J. C. Arthur, Ind. Exp. Sti. Bui. 42, pp. 105-118; E. S. 

R., IV, pp. 466-470. 
Relation of seed to quality of fruit. E. L. Sturtevant, 1st Ann. 

Rep. N. Y. Exi>. Sta., 1882, p. 78. 
Relative weight to vitality of seed of rye grasses. K. Heinrich, 

Zweiter Ber. Landw. Vers.-Sta. Rostock, 1894. pp. 102-111. 
Seed from first ripe fruits. Taft, Mich. Exp. Sta. Buls. 48 and 57. 
Seed of wheat when cut at successive stages. Mich. Exp. Sta. Bui. 

125, pp. 34-36. 



June, '99.] 



PLANT BREEDING. 



347 



Seed production and saving. A. J. Pieters, Yearbook, 1896, U. S. 
Dept Agr., pp. 207-216. 

Seed selection. Nobbe, "Handbuch der Samenkunde," 1876, p. 307. 

Seed selection, large vs. small, green vs. ripe. E. S. Goff, Ann. Rep. 
N- Y. State Exp. Sta., 1884, pp. 196, 199, 224, 231-235, 284; 1885, 
pp. 52, 131, 144, 152, 154, 203. 

Seed wheat, weight of. W. M. Hays, etc. Minn. Exp. Sta. Bui. 50, 
pp. 305-341; R S. K, ix, p. 131. 

Selection of medium sized wheat grains for seed rather than the , 
largest T. B. Terry, Rural New-Yorker, 1890, p. 726. 

Selection of seed. Peter Collier, Ann. Rep. U. S. Dept. Agr., 1879, 
p. 91; T. S. Gold, Trans. Conn. State Agr. Soc, 1854, p. 93; J. T. 
Henderson, Ga. Dept. Agr., vi, 1880, p. 397; Gov. Hoard, et al, 
Rep. Mass. State Board Agr., 1891, pp. 53-64; W. R. Lazenby, 1st 
Ann. Rep. Ohio Exp. Sta., p. 63. 

Selection of seed "Wheat. M. A. Carleton,. Yearbook, 1896, U. S. 
Dept Agr., p. 495. 

Selection of seed wheat according to size. F, Desprez, Jour. Agr. 
Prat, 59 (1895), No. 46, pp. 694-698; E. S. R., vn, p. 679. 

Selection of seed wheat rationally. N. Dak. Exp. Sta. Bui. 13. 

Size and weight of seed. ''Weight of seed in relation to production. " 
Arthur and Golden, Agr. ScL, 1891, v, pp. 117-122 (cited by B. T. 
Galloway in Agr. Sci., viii, p. 558); Haberlandt, Sind die Grcesten 
Samen auch immer das beste Saatgut? Piihling's Landw. Zeitung, 
1880, pp. 193-197 (abst. in Just's Botan. Jahrb. 8-1, p. 290); Hell- 
riegel, "Der Same," Beitrage zu den naturwissenschaftlichen 
Grundlagen des Ackerbaues, 1883, pp. 39-117; E. WoUny, Saat und 
Pflege der Land wirthschaftlichen, Kulturpflanzen, 1885, pp. 62-79; 
E. Wollny, Welches ist das beste Saatgut? Piihling's Landw. 
Zeitung, 1880, pp. 449-454; abst. in Just's Botan. Jahrb. 8-1, p. 290. 

Size of seed. Oesterreich Landw. Wochenbl., 1892, p. 98. 

Size of seed as an influence upon the growth of the plant— Experi- 
ment with radishes. B. T. Galloway, Agr. Sci., viii, pp. 557-567. 

Size of seed in relation to the production of protein in the offspring. 
H. Ebeling, Der Einfluss des Gewichts der Samen auf die Korper- 
production, etc. (inaug. diss.), pp. 65, Leipzig, 1896; abst in 
Beiheft zum Botanischen Centralblatt, 1895, pp. 537, 539. 

Size of seed in relation to yield. F. Desprez, Jour. Agr. Prat., 2 
(1897), No. 37, pp. 416-420; E. S. R., ix, p. 553. 

Small vs. large and immature vs. ripe seed. E. L. Sturtevant, 2d 
Ann. Rep. N. Y. State Exp. Sta., 1883, p. 39. 



HMmWMHP 



348 



THE INDUSTRIALIST. 



[June, '99 



Specific gravity and weight of wheat grains. Pammel and Stewart, 

Iowa Exp. Sta. Bui. 25, pp. 26-31; E. S. R., vi, p. 414. 
Specific gravity as a basis for the selection of wheat, oats, rye, barley 

and potatoes. Dr. A. Ruempler, Deut. Landw. Presse, xxm, 1896. 
Specific gravity as a means of determining the quality of the seed. 

D. G. Marek, Landw. Versuchs-St, xix, p. 40. 
Specific gravity of seed. Hellriegel, Beitrage zu den naturwissen- 

schaftlichen, etc., pp. 63, 116. 
Superior value of large, heavy seed. G. H. Hicks and John C. Dab- 

ney, Yearbook, 1896, U. S. Dept. Agr., pp. 305-322. 
Unripe seed. E. S. Goff, Garden and Forest, lu, p. 427; E. L. Sturte- 

vant, same, p. 354; J. C. Arthur, same, p. 392. 
Value of heavy seed wheat: Chemical investigation of seed wheat 

and of the wheat plant. H. Snyder, Minn. Exp. Sta. Rep., 1893, 

pp. 147-160; Minn. Exp. Sta. :6ul. 29, p. 148; E. S. R., vi, p. 723. 
Variation due to unripe seed. J. C. Arthur, Ind.Exp. Sta. Rep., 

1893, pp. 18-21. 
Variation in weight and specific gravity of seeds. Hellriegel, Grnnd- 

lagen des Ackerbaues, p. 42. 
Vitality of seed corn. Rural New-Yorker, 1896, p. 642. 
Vitality of seeds. Gard. Chron., ser. 3, 15 (1894), pp. 470-471; E. S. 

R., V, p. 1031; I. Giglioli, Nature, 52(1895), No. 1353, pp. 544, 545; 

E. S. R., vu, pp. 406-407; W. B. Hemsley, Nature, 52 (1895), May 2, 

pp. 5-7; same, Gard. Chron., ser. 3, 17(1895), pp. 614-615; E. S, 

R., vn, pp. 37, 38. 
Vitality tests of seeds. W. S. Devol, Ohio Exp. Sta. Ann. Rep.— 1st, 

pp. 113-116; 2d, pp. 149-lbl; 3d, pp. 186-203; 4th, pp, 136-185; 5th, 

pp. 234-258; 6th, pp. 283-285. 

Weight of seeds in relation to production. Arthur and Golden, Agr. 
Sci., V, p. 117. 

Weight of seeds of some garden vegetables and cereals. E. L. 
Sturtevant, Ann. Rep. N. Y. State Exp. Sta.— 1st (1882), p. 82; 2d 
(1883), p. 71. 

Wheat, comparative tests of selected seed. Minn. Exp. Sta. Bui. 23, 
Sept., 1892, pp. 147-166; E. S. R., iv, p. 410. 

THE SOIL AS A VARIANT. 

Abundance of nourishment produced a change in the roots of carrots 
and parsnips as observed by Vilmorin and Buckman. Darwin, 
"Animals and Plants under Domestication," n, p. 267. 



BBI 



June, '99.] PLANT BREEDING. 349 

Aeration of the soil in Holland. Warming, Oekologische Pflanzen- 
geographie, p. 45. 

Alkali and alkali soils. Cal. Exp. Sta. Rep. 1895-7, pp. 38-53. 

Alum influences the color of flowers of Hydrangea. Darwin, '*Ani- 
mals and Plants under Domestication," n, p. 267. 

Appetites of plants to be suited with proper soils and manure. Gard. 
Chron., 1853, p. 183; cited in Darwin's "Animals and Plants under 
Domestication, " n, p. 263. 

A study of the influence of soil conditions on plants. Contribution 
a r 6tude de 1' influence du milieu sur les v6getaux. E. Gain. Bui. 
Soc. Bot. France, 40 (1893), No. 2, pp. 142-144; No. 3. p. 145; E. S. 
R., V, p. 434. 

Changing the soil with each generation, a factor in seed variation. 
Raulin, Ann. Sci. Agron., ser. 2, ann. 2, 1 (1896), p. 311; E. S. R., 
vm, p. 288. 

Chemical composition of maize: Balland, Compt. rend., 122 (1896), p. 
1004;E. S. R., vra, p. 949. 

Chemical composition of wheat due to soil and climate. Balland, 
Compt. rend., 123 (1896), p. 1303; E. S. R., vm, pp. 949-950. 

Chemical nature of the soil as an influence causing plants to vary. 
Warming, Oekologische Pflanzengeographie, pp. 73-76. 

Chemical nature of the soil influences the seed of plants grown upon 
it. Raulin, Ann. Sci. Agron., ser. 2, 1 (1896), p. 410; Jour. Agr. 
Prat, 60 (1896), No. 30, p. 113; No. 31, p. 151; E. S. R., vm, p. 4. 

Chemical theory of the influence of soil on plants held by Unger, 
Sendtner, Schnizlein, NaegeU, Vallot, Fliche, Grandeau, Saint- 
Lager, Magnin and Contejean in late years. Warming, Oekolo- 
gische Paflnzengeographie, p. 74. 

Classification of soU particles by W. Knop. Warming, Oekologische 
Pflanzengeographie, p. 43. 

Color of apples changed by soil (or climate?). Darwin, "Animals and 
Plants under Domestication," ii, p. 264. 

Composition of the ashes of different woods. R. Harcourt, Ont. 
Agr. Col. and Exp. Farm Rep., 1897, pp. 27-31; E. S. R., ix, p. 435; 
E. S. R. X, p. 232. 

Cultivation of soil a cause of variation of wild plants when domesti- 
cated. Darwin, "Animals and Plants under Domestication, "n, p. 246. 

Depth of the surface soil and its relation to various agricultural 
operations. R. Heinrich, Zweiter Ber. Landw. Vers. -Sta. Ros- 
tock, 1894, pp. 35, 44; E. S. R., v, p. 662. 



350 THE INDUSTRIALIST. [June, '99 

Dry soil keeps variegated strawberry true while humid soil causes it 
to vary. Quoted from Verlot in Darwin's "Animals and Plants 
under Domestication, " ii, p. 264. 
Excessive food supply: Knight's Law stated. Darwin, "Animals 

and Plants under Domestication, " n, p. 244. 
Experiments in artificial soils by Prince Salm-Horstmar. Johnson, 

"How Crops Grow," p. 180. 
Experiments in water-culture. Johnson, "How Crops Grow, "pp. 180-6. 
Pertile soil attracts roots; the experiment of Duhamel. Physiological 

and Horticultural Papers of Thomas Andrew Knight, p. 158. 
Food requirements of tomatoes. W. Dyke, Jour. Hort., 49 (1897), 

No. 2538, pp. 425-426; E. S. R.,ix, p. 139. 
Greatest perfection of fruit acquired in peculiar soils and situations. 

PhysiologicalandHorticulturalPapersof T. A. Knight, p. 172. 
Growth of buckwheat plants in water culture. Nobbe, VersuchsSta., 

vn, p. 72; Johnson, "How Crops Grow," p. 184. 
Growth of oat plants in water culture. Versuchs-Sta., vm, pp. 190- 

215; Johnson, "How Crops Grow," p. 183. 
Heat of soil depends upon chemical composition. Warming, Oekolo- 

gische Pflanzengeographie, p. 57. • 

Heat of soil influences the form of subterranean parts: Prillieux's 

conclusion. Warming, Oekologische Pflanzengeographie, pp. 54-5. 

Increase of substance in soil caused an increase of the same substance 

in the plant. Warming, Oekologische Pflanzengeographie, p. 64. 

Influence of nutrition on the evolution of plants. P. Dangeard, 

Botaniste, 6 ser, 1898, No. 1, pp. 1, 63; E. S. R., x, p. 23. 

Influence of plant food on the quality and properties of fruit. H. E. 

Stockbridge. Ga. State Hort. Soc, 1897, pp. 20-25 ;E. S.R.,ix, p. 561. 

Influence of soil and season in causing the proportion of ash of the 

same kind of plant to vary. Wunder, Versuchs-Sta., iv, p. 266; 

cited in Johnson's "How Crops Grow," p. 156. 

Influence of soil on the culture of wheat. Rev. Sci. (Paris) 4, ser. 8 

(1897), No. 16, p. 504; E. S. R., ix, p. 639. 
Influenceof soiluponpeas. Second Ann. Rep. CorneU Exp. Sta., p. 208. 
Influence of the border of the sea on leaves. Pierre Lesage, Thesis 

pr6sent6es a la Faculte des Sciences de Paris. Paris, 1890. 
Influence of the earth upon vegetation. Charles Contejean, Geo- 

graphie Botanique, Paris, 1881, pp. 144. 
Influence of the humidity of the soil on the development of flax. D 
N. PryanishnikovandR. G. Trube, Izv. Moscow Skoelskhoz. Inst. 
3 (1897), II, pp. 49-51; E. S. R., ix, p. 819. 



June, '99.] 



PLANT BREEDING. 



351 



Influence of the nature of the soil upon different crops. Raulin, Ann, 

Scl. Agron., ser. 2, 1 (1896), No. 3, pp. 410424; E. S. R., vii, p. 305. 
Insects able to discover variations indiscernible by man Darwin, 

"Animals and Plants under Domestication," n, p. 265. 
Investigations on the influence of the physical properties of soils on 

the growth of crops. E. Wollny, Porsch. Agr. Phys. (WoUr.y), 20 

(1898), No. 3, pp. 291-344; E. S. R., x, p. 128. 
Investigations on the native vegetation of alkali lands. J. B. Davy, 

Cal. Exp. Sta. Rep., 1895 7, pp. 53-75; E. S. R., x, p. 220. 
Investigations relating to soil moisture. F. H. King, Wis. Exp. 

Sta. Rep., 1891, pp. 100-134; E. S. R., iv., p. 122. 
Isolation to increase food supply. Geo. Wilkins, wheat, thin seed- 
ing: one peck per acre advised. Gard. Chron., 1868, p. 905. 
Limestone soil a variant. R. Heinrich, Grundlagen zur Beurteilung 

der Acker kru me, p. 50. 
Moisture of soil. Warming, Oekologische Pflanzengeographie, p. 46. 
Notes on the salt-marsh plants of northern Kansas. J. H. Schaffner, 

Bot. Gaz., 25(1898), No. 4, pp. 255-260; E. S. R, x, p. 319. 
Oat plants grown in well water by Biruer and Lucanus. Versuchs- 

Sta., VIII, p. 154; Johnson, "How Crops Grow,'" p. 185. 
Observations on the growth of maize continuously oa the same land. 

Jenkins, Conn. Exp. Sta. Rep., 1894, pp. 245-253; E. S. R., vn, p. 198. 
On the improvement of retentive clays: Drainage of the so-called 

"hard pan "lands of southern Illinois. E. Davenport, 111. Exp. 

Sta. Bui. 46, pp. 357-362; E. S. R., ix, p. 33. 
On the influence of vegetable mold on the nitrogenous content of 

oats. H. W. Wiley, Jour. Am. Chem. Soc, 19(1897), No. H, pp 

605-614; E. S. R.,ix, p. 444. 
On the quantity of water-soluble substances in plants. E. Gain, Bui 

Soc. Bot. France, 41(1895), No. 1, pp. 53 67; E. S. R., vii, p. 187. 
Physical nature of the soil as an influence causing plants to vary 

Warming, Oekologische Pflanzengeographie, pp. 76-81. 
Physical properties of the soil. E. Wollny, E. S. R., vi, pp. 761-774 

853-863, 948-963. 
Physical theory of the influence of soil on plants held by Jules Thur 

man, Alph De Candolle, Celakovsky, Krasan, H. Von Post, Ker 

ner, Blytt, P. E. Mueller and Contejean in early life. Warming 

Oekologische Pflanzengeographie, p. 76-78. 
Plants grown in poor soil to prevent variation. Hardy & Son. 

Gard. Chron., 1856, p. 458; cited in Darwin's '^Animals and 

Plants under Domestication, " ii, p. 245. 



352 THE INDUSTRIALIST. [June, '99 

Plants not obligate as to soil. Warming, Oekologische Pflanzengeo 
graphie, p. 80. 

Poor soil keeps the type true. L. H. Bailey, "Survival of the Un- 
like, "p. 169. 

Proportionate feeding of plants: a process patented by Georges 
Truffaunt described be G. L. Paul. Gard. Chron. 3 ser. 22 (1897), 
No. 565, p. 284. 

QuaUty of wood, of fibers, and of drugs caused to vary by different 
soils and climates. Darwin, "Animals and Plants under Domesti- 
cation," n, p. 264. 

Relation between the composition of the soil and the crop. (Korres- 

pondierende Bodenund Ernteanalysen.) P. Doersthng, Deut. 

Landw. Presse, 21 (1894), No. 8, p. 64; E. S. R., v, p. 819. 
Relative sensitiveness of plants to acidity in soils. W. Maxwell, 

Jour. Am. Chem. Soc, 20 (1898), No. 2, 103-107. 
Results in thinning fruit in 1897. Canada Hort., 21(1898), No. 4, p. 147. 
Salt injurious to plants. Dr. A. Stood, Landwirthschafiliche Ver- 

suchs-Stationen, xxxvi, pp. 113-118. 

Salty soil causes plants to develop fleshy leaves and translucent 
tissue. Warming, Oekologische Pflanzengeographie, p. 63. 

Selective ability of plants as to ash ingredients. Herapath, Quar. 
Jour. Chem. Soc, n, p. 20; cited in Johnson's "How Crops Grow," 
p. 156. 

Separate growth the first step in cultivation. Darwin, "Animals 
and Plants under Domestication," n, p. 244. 

Soil and suitable varieties of wheat. Col. Le Couteure, cited in Dar- 
win's "Animals and Plants under Domestication," i, p. 334. 

Soil as a variant: Influence of environment in the origination of 
plant varieties. H. J. Webber, Yearbook, 1896, U. S. Dept. Agr 
pp. 89-106; E. S. R., ix, p. 527. 

Soil a variant of wheat: Col. Le Couteure 's statement as to varieties 
found in a single field. Darwin, "Animals and Plants under Do- 
mestication, " I, p. 332. 

Soil caused varieties of verbena to vary. Robson, Jour. Hort., Feb. 
13, 1866, p. 122; cited in Darwin's "Animals and Plants under Do- 
mestication, " n, p. 263. 

Soil causing variation in carnations and picotees. Gard. Chron., 
1850, p. 183; cited in Darwin's "Animals and Plants under Domes- 
mestication, " n, p. 262. 



June, '99.] PLANT BREEDING. 353 

Soil causing variation in protein in American cereals. "An Investi- 
gation of the Composition of American Wheat and Corn. ' ' Clifford 

Richardson, U. S. Dept. Agr., Chem. Div., Buls. 1, 4, 9. 
Soil elements, ten: A lack of any will cause a lack of the same in the 

plant. Warming, Oekologische Pflanzengeographie, p. 62. 
Soil influences the length and form of roots. Warming, Oekologische 

Pflanzengeographie, p. 62. 
Soil taken up by plants in small quantity. Knight, "Physiological and 

Horticultural Papers, " p. 212. 
Some physical properties of soils in their relations to moisture and 

crop distribution. M. Whitney, U. S. Dept. Agr., Weather Bureau, 

Bui. No. 4; E. S. R., iv, pp. 17, 371. 
Specific diet for each family and every species of plant. Warming, 

Oekologisehe Pflanzengeographie, p. 65. 
Subsoiling. N. E. Hansen, S. Dak.Exp.Sta. Bul.54;E.S.R.,ix, p.233. 
Sugar-beet investigations: Different soils gave different percent- 
ages of sugar, Cornell Exp. Sta. Bui. 143, pp. 493-574. 
Tenacity of soil influences the form of the subterranean parts. 

Warming, Oekologische Pflanzengeographie, p. 44. 
The best density of nutrient solutions. Johnson, "How Crops 

Grow," p. 185. 
The culture and treatment of tobacco. J. Nessler, Landw. Vers- 

Sta. 40, pp. 395-438; E. S. R., iv, pp. 302-310. 
The effect of certain methods of soil treatment upon the corn crop. 

T. L. Lyon, Neb. Exp. Sta. Bui. 54., pp. 77-89; E. R. S., x, p. 428. 
The effect of the rate or distance of planting on the quantity and 

quality of the maize crop. S. W. Johnson, Conn. Exp. Sta. Rep., 

1889; E. S. R., n, pp. 476-481. 
The importance of mineral hu mates as nutritive medium for plants. 

G. Nefedov, Selsk. Khoz. i Lyesov., 184(1897), Jan., pp. 141-163. 
The influence of water on the growth of plants in soils of various 

physical properties. E. Wollny, Forsch. Geb. Agr. Physik., 15 

(1892), pp. 427-432; E. S. R., iv, p. 685. 
The most fertile soils do not produce seeds that are the most prolific. 

E. Gain, Rev. g^n. Bot., 8(1896), p. 303; E. S. R., vm, p. 228; 

vn, p. 847. 
The real value of natural plant food. L. L. Van Slyke, N. Y. State 

Exp. Sta. Rep;, 1896, pp. 119-124; E. S. R., x, p. 235. 
The relation of the physical properties of the soil to the cultivation 

of plants. Edward Wollny, E. S. R., iv, pp. 528-543, 627-641. 




354 THE INDUSTRIALIST. [June, '99 

Thick and thin seeding of wheat affects quality. Patrick Shirreff, 

Gard. Chron., 1873, p. 899. 
Thinning fruit. Canada Hort. 21 (1898), No. 7, p. 264-266; reprinted 

from U. S. Dept. Agr. Farmer's Bui. 73. 
Thin planting of corn increased the protein content. Conn, Exp. 

Sta. Reps., 1889 and 1890. 
Tobacco soils of the U.S. M. Whitney, U. S, Dtept. Agr., Div. of 

Soils, Bui. 11; E. S. R., ix, p. 1035. 
Too much dilution of nutrient solution fatal to growth, Nobbe, 

Versuchs-Sta., vm., p. 337; Johnson, "How Crops Grow," p. 185. 
Variation in ash constituents in different individuals of the same 

variety growing upon the same soil. Pierre, Jahresbericht iiber 

Agriculturchemie, m, p. 125; cited in Johnson's "How Crops 

Grow, "p. 156. 
Variation in form of red cedar due to soil. H. J. Webber, "In- 
fluence of Environment in the Origination of Plant Varieties." 

Yearbook, 1896, U.S. Dept. Agr., pp. 94 95. 
Variations in plants of the same genus inhabiting limestone and shale 

mountains as observed by Kerner . Warming, Oekologische Pflan- 

zengeographie, pp. 62-64. 

Varieties of oats due to soil. Gard. Chron. and Agr. Gazette, 1850, 
PI 204-219. 

.Varitiies of wheat due to soil. Le Couteure, "On Varieties of 
Wheat," introduction, p. 7; Marshall, "Rural Economy of York- 
shire, "ii, p. 9. 

Variation of wheat grains when transported from southern France 

to Paris and vice versa. Darwin, "Animals and Plants under 

Domestication, " i, p. 334 . 
Variegated leaves of Pelargonium caused by soil. Beaton, Jour. 

Hort., 1861, pp. 64, 309; cited in Darwin's "Animals and Plants 

under Domestication," ii, p. 263. 
Water in the soil: Recherches sur le |^|Ie physiologique de I'eau dans 

la vegetation. Ann. Sci. Nat. Boi., 1895; Modes d'action de I'eau 

du sol sur la vegetation, Rev. gen. Bot., 7 (1895), pp. 71-138. 
Wheat kept true only in good land . Metzger, Getreidearten, 1841 

pp. 66, 91, 92, 116, 117; cited in Darwin's "Animals and Plants 

under Domestication," i, pp. 332-333. 
Wheat variable when taken from one kind of soil to another . Darwin, 

"Animals and Plants under Domestication," i, p. 333. 

Wolff'snutrient solution— how to prepare it. Johnson, "How Crops 
Grow," pp. 182-183, 

(• To be continued. )• 



June, '99.] 355 



CONSEQUENCES OF THE REFGRHATION.* 
A HIstorico-Literary Study}— Reflections for Later Times.. 

BY DUREN J. H. WARD* 

LONG before the time of Luther, Church and State had become 
thoroly assimilated in every political body of Europe. Every 
institution was blended in its very nature with the church, and Europe 
was well-nigh in the bonds of an absolute theocracy. To such an ex- 
tent had this assimilation gone on that a shock of the doctrine of the 
Church could not fail to convulse society in every part. The pope 
asserted a two-fold subjection of every soul in Christendom — as 
spiritual head dominating thru the hierarchy; indirectly as temporal 
head swaying the kings of nations by the Holy Roman Empire. The 
feeble monarchs of Prance, England, Sweden, Denmark, and the 
princes of the small states and free cities of Germany, had for cen- 
turies made but an ineffectual resistance to papal encroachment. 
But at the beginning of the sixteenth century, a change brought 
about by the growth of a more national spirit presented a formidable 
front to the tiara which was now become dizzy by its long sui "(^ss- 
ful ascendency. »r 

Altho the Reformation is a great and dominant cause in modern 
history, it must not be forgotten that, like all other events, it wa» 
itself an effect of previous causes. It is but an arc of the ever-aspir- 
ing human ideal approaching the moral asymptote; it is but one 
mighty throe of writhing and struggling humanity to free itself 
from the tyranny of moral bondage; it is but one of the continued 
succession of reformations in the progress of civilization, some — in- 
deed most of them — are silent and slow, this one loud, quick, power- 
ful and brilliant. The fuse tha was lighted in the mind of Wiclif 
burned on and on, till, reaching a magazine in Luther, it rent the 
world of superstition by an explosion which threw the light of 
knowledge over all succeeding ages. 

The two objects most dear to the heart of man are the maintenance 
of his social rights and the independence of his religious opinions — 
liberty of civil action and liberty of conscience. They nearly equal 
the sum of existence. His enthusiasm knows no limits at the hope 

♦This article flret appeared in the Dover ( N. H.) Weekly Morning Star. It is now slightly re- 
vised and a better title given. 



m 



356 



THE INDUSTRIALIST. 



[June, '99 



of their recovery; his despair is unfathomable at the prospect of 
their loss. Such hope and prospect stared in the face the nations of 
Europe at the beginning of the sixteenth century. The flood of 
ignorance which the barbaric inundation swept over the already 
diluted mind of southern Europe, left a solution so weak as scarcely 
to contain a crystal of improvement. Gradually, as the reagent of 
time did its work, the scanty knowledge crystallized in the form of a 
dull scholasticism in the cloisters of monks. For centuries, "study 
was rendered as inaccessible as possible to the laity : that of ancient 
languages [except Latin] was treated as a monstrosity and an idola- 
try." "Roman Catholicism was diametrically opposed to the prog- 
ress of knowledge." (See Villers, -'Spirit and Influence of the 
Reformation," pp. 89, 186.) But day infallibly follows night. The 
sun of knowledge must arise. Its light reveals the ridiculous 
garb and antics of men in mental darkness. The irrepressible 
tendency to know was rapidly giving itself the means in the newly 
founded universities. The unveiling of a new world had piqued 
inquisitiveness, and the discovery of the art of printing had 
furnished the means of its gratification to millions. Prom the banks 
of the Vistula, Copernicus had spied out the courses of the heavenly 
orbs, and Kepler and Newton afterward furnished their laws, 
neither of which have pontifical bulls been able to revoke. 

Not a little fuel was added to the fire of excitement by the keen 
satires of Erasmus of Rotterdam. His mirth-making book, "The 
Praise of Polly, " was directed against the sensuality and stupidity 
of the clergy. Ulrich von Hutten, a young Pranconian nobleman of 
ardent spirits and tine ability, warrior, poet, theologian, and liter- 
ateur, heaped mountains of ridicule upon the clerical body by his 
"Letters of Obscure Men." 

At this period of the drama there came upon the stage one of the 
foremost actors of all history, Martin Luther, a monk, priest, 
doctor of theology, and professor in the new university of Wit- . 
tenberg, a man of tremendous earnestness, undaunted courage, 
immovable firmness, moral uprightpess, and warmly devoted 
to the study of the "New Learning." To the reflecting stu- 
dent of history, what momentous consequences hang upon the 
character of this man ! Had the papacy been more prudent, had 
the princes of Germany been more- indifferent, had Luther been less 
inflexible, the child of Protestantism might have been strangled in its 
cradle. So easy is it to doze away life, what but such fortuitous 



June, '99.] 



THE REFORMATION. 



357 



combination of circumstances could have saved Europe from the 
calamity of a universal monarchy or the superstition of poor be- 
nighted Spain ! 

Speaking of the state of the European mind before the Reforma- 
tion, Mr. Froude says: 

The theories and ceremonies of the Catholic Church suited well with an age 
in which little was known and much was imagined; when Jsuperstition was 
active and science was not yet born. 

But times change. These ceremonies were not living, but dead. 
Religion had lost its hold on the people. The people saw that the 
prelates did not believe their own teaching, and why should they? 
But could not an infallible Church have improved things? It might 
indeed, but reform was the last thing which it wanted. It tried (but 
too late) to cover its errors and rally its decaying energies. Twenty- 
five years after the explosion at Wittenberg, a solemn conclave of 
theological dignitaries at Trent voted the doctrines of heavenly truth 
(?)and supported them by the invincible arguments of fire and fagot. 
But the spirit of liberty and independence which had burst open the 
gateway of superstition had fled so far and gained so many adher- 
ents that its recall was now ludicrous. In vain did pope and bishop 
in bigoted seclusion thunder their protests and proscriptions. And 
since the dawn of reform, bulls of anathema have issued from Rome 
against every pubhshed work of doctrine, philosophy, science, his- 
tory or general literature which could be supposed directly or in- 
directly to counteract popish assertions or curtail popish authority*^ 
A single illustration of this narrow and oppressive spirit. Near the 
close of the seventeenth century the missionary LeOomte pubhshed 
his ^^Nouveaux Memoires sur I'etat present de la Chine,'' in which he 
had the candor to say what he thought, namely, that "the Chinese 
had adored the true God for two thousand years ; that among the 
nations, they were the first who had sacrificed to their Creator and 
taught a true moraUty. " (See Villers, p. 191.) Such a clamor as re- 
sulted from this pubhcation is to us inconceivable. The Sorbonne of 
Paris condemned the book and the feeble French Parliament ordered 
the hangman to tear and burn it! 

For a time', during the intense excitement of men over religious 
topics, during the heat of the Reformation struggle, the studies in 
which the humanists, or lovers of advanced thought, were so much 
delighted, attracted much less attention than in the period just pre- 
ceding the breaking out of the trouble between Luther and the pope. 



nr 



858 



TpE INDUSTRIALIST. 



[June, '99 



Medieval philosophy was the handmaid of theology, and all knowl- 
edge was the abused monopoly of the clergy. Their greatest work 
for the thousand years preceding the Reformation period was to 
bridge the chasm between ancient and modern thought, to preserve 
and transmit thru monasticism the ancient authors, sacred and pro- 
fane, who now survive. 

Yet even before the granaries of literature in Constantinople had 
been sown broadcast over the world, a little of the seed of thought had 
been scattered here and there and gave promise of a harvest; and it 
can hardly be doubted that if Constantinople had not fallen, as it did, 
the revival of letters and consequent religious reformation would 
have taken place. But the permanent results of all this intellectual 
advantage had not been secured but for the reformation in moral and 
religious conceptions. The •' Revival of Learning" would in all 
probability have terminated in the patronage of princes and in 
homage to genius and taste. There were real indications of a com- 
ing fruitage from the growth, ripening, and seed sowing of such 
minds as Wiclif, Dante, Petrarch and Boccaccio. 

THE REFORMATIONAL IDEA. 

Before the Reformation, men's minds were bound. The Reform- 
ation was a process of unbinding from the restraints of -the hierarchy 
of the Church and from the superstitions of men's own minds. 
When men felt free they thought; when they thought they stirred 
up others to think. Tho the Reformation began ostensibly in an 
attempt to substitute Bible authority for pope, yet its essential prin- 
ciple was freedom of mind: the right and duty of each man to think 
for himself. Against the results of this, Catholic writers loudly in- 
veigh. Fletcher, Alzog, McQuaid, Capel, and others ascribe to the 
principles of the Reformation all the atheism and infidelity of 
modern Europe and America. Grimke replies to this: 

Grant it, and so we may say that without Christanity, the countless heresies 

of the primitive Church would never have existed; without the liberty of the 

press, its licentiousness would be unknown; 

Nor can they 
Be free to keep the path who are not free to stray. 

In ancient Egypt the artists were limited, by the laws of religion, 
in the colors that they might use, and as a result painting never 
reached excellence, but remained coarse and unrefined. In like 
manner, before the sixteenth century, there were multitudes of 
abuses adverse to the improvement of society. The Reformation 



June, '99.] THE REFORMATION. 359 

did much to remove these and inspire the minds of men with new 
activity. In the north of Europe it called forth the powers of hu- 
manity, while in the south, the Reformation not having taken root, 
the Renaissance spirit was arrested and the promised glory of Italy 
and Spain was smothered. In those countries the greater dread of 
adopting Protestant ideas permitted the government to pass more 
completely into the hands of the Roman Catholic clergy, and they, 
being armed with the power, grew more jealous and intolerant. In 
the times just preceding and during the Reformation, there 
breathed a spirit of life and progression in Italy and Spain which 
subserviency and long degeneracy have rendered their people to-day 
incompetent to repeat, even if it should be tolerated. 

Such a spirit of practical and speculative investigation had never 
before prevailed in the world. Ancient inquiry was generally theo- 
retical, and employed only a very limited part of the community. 
It had its "Augustan age," extending perhaps from Thales to 
Seneca; but it perished, leaving little that tended to the substantial 
improvement of the people. The speculations resulting from the 
Reformation have taken a wonderfully practical turn. By this have 
the people received "beauty for ashes, the oil of joy for mourning, 
the garment of praise for the spirit of heaviness." Thru this the 
modern world has come "to live and move and have its being." 

EFFECT OF THE REFORMATION ON PHILOSOPHY. 

This general awakening could not do otherwise than arouse the 
philosophical spirit and give it new form and being. Probably the 
the man first impressed with the need of an improvement in philos- 
ophy was Melancthon, whose name we justly place second in refor- 
mational honors. He says, "I desire a sound philosophy, not those 
empty words to which nothing real corresponds." The reformers 
broke the chains of authority and thus allowed themselves and 
others to speculate freely concerning God, his works, and their re- 
lations. They reversed the doctrine of Anselm, which was, "Not to 
understand that I may believe, but to believe that I may under- 
stand." They would understand before they believed. They 
started the tendency to examine the facts and then deduce a theory, 
as opposed to the old method of being previously committed to a 
theory and then reading its proof from the facts, whether the facts 
sustained it or not. As some one has tersely said, "If the facts were 
not in accordance, then so much the worse for the facts." Men 



860 



THE INDUSTRIALIST. 



[June, '99 



tried to think in the Middle Ages and spent much time in intellect- 
ual gymnastics; but that curse of all the ages, the ban of heresy, 
confined all mental exertion within the limits marked out by the 
Church. Hence the world is disgraced by the spectacle of all 
Christendom engaged in the prattle of children for a thousand years. 

The legitimate result of this mental emancipation was the devel- 
opment of that highest of philosophical sciences, natural theology, 
an undreamed-of idea in pre-reformational Christendom. The seed 
planted by the reformers, having its germ inMelancthon's work on 
Physics, has produced abundant fruit in the works of later think- 
ers. Following naturally in the train of this more excellent method 
of theological conceptions, came a better philosophy of human life. 
Inquiring into the nature of man, we have more nearly ascertained 
his needs and how to meet them. With some latitude for the work 
of the ancients, it may be said that moral philosophy dates from the 
Reformation. Here, too, Melancthon paved the way in his "Ele- 
ments of Ethics" in 1550. Forsaking Aristotle, and refuting Epicu- 
rus and the Stoics, he defines virtue to be "obedience of the will to 
such rules of action as are in practical accordance with the com- 
mand of God. " 

Until very recently it may be truly said that no branch of science 
has been cultivated with so much eagerness and success, by Ger- 
man, French and English thinkers, as the apphcation of philosophy 
to morality. How encouraging the change! How vastly more im- 
portant to determine, first, what virtue and duty are, before ascer- 
taining the number of angels that can stand upon the point of a 
needle, whether God could cause himself to die, or whether Christ 
could have appeared as a squash! If the scholastic philosophers 
reasoned of rights at all, it was always the rights of the poor, down- 
trodden, and abused (?) pope and clergy, never those of the people. 
And so with indomitable perseverance and dialectic quibbling, as 
silly as persistent, they whiled away the centuries. 

The new spirit drew from monastic archives the manuscripts of 
Aristotle coated with the dust of centuries. Up to this time, the 
monkish logicians thought their systems were founded upon his. It 
had never occurred to any of them in two score generations that there 
might be an advantage in each studying him for himself. Aroused 
by the new spirit, men took down the books and examined them. 
This revealed to a deluded world the fact that the revered system of 
the schoolmen had scarcely any resemblance to that of the "Stag- 



June, '99.] THE REFORMATION. 361 

irite." By centuries of devotion to the idea of a political Church 
which was infallible in its own eyes, the Christian world had been 
gradually lulled into intellectual stupor. At the time of which we 
are speaking, this had resulted very nearly in spiritual death. The 
new infusion of a more healthful method of looking at things brought 
with it a new spiritual life to the many who embraced it. The 
appetite of reason was afterwards treated with the philosophies of 
Pythagoras, Plato, Seneca, Marcus Aurelius, and the rest of the 
Greek and Roman thinkers. This diet and atmosphere proved so 
healthful that an age of philosophers followed. Thus the race is 
blessed with the lives of Bacon, DesCartes, Hobbes, Grotius, 
Spinoza, Gassendi, Pascal, Malebranche, Butler, Locke, Leibnitz, 
Wolf, Bayle, Berkeley, Hume, Kant, Hegel, etc. 

EFFECT OF THE REFORMATION ON EDUCATION. 

Previous to the time of the Reformation, men seldom had the 
courage to look a new truth in the face. Speculative thought was 
not compatible with the immutable principles of scholastic theology. 
The creduhty of men had reached a climax in the behef in the teach- 
ings of priestcraft, and thus from accumulated incapacity thru silly 
faith, and under mortal fear lest it should tread on holy ground, 
the mind of man remained almost stationary for ages. Proscription, 
then as now, was fatal to all free and manly exertion. Ecclesiasti- 
cism has always been a dominating power, and when strong enough 
this spirit makes an abject slave of mind. But with the Reforma- 
tion begins a new era in the educational history of Europe. In fact 
it is the great era in the history of education. The works of an- 
tiquity being unearthed, the problems which moved the ancient mind 
now moved the modern. Hitherto men had been led by authority, 
now it beamed upon them that a man's individual judgment deter- 
mined the responsibiUty of his faith and practise. It became, there- 
fore, a matter of great moment, that these convictions of individual 
judgment should be rightly and wisely formed. Hence, if all were to 
exercise their private judgments, all must be educated to the ca- 
pacity of an intelligent exercise of them: i. e., if universal exercise 
of judgment, then universal education. Without this the Reforma- 
tion was seen to be a gigantic blunder. This was indeed one real 
difference between the traditional view of the Church and that of 
Protestantism. 

But reformers generally are liable to fail in discerning the effects 



362 



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[June, '99 



of their measures on the minds of those less informed and less im- 
bued with their spirit than they. Almost every person is a would- 
be reformer (?) to the views which he holds. Yet each forgets to 
thoroly extend in thought his theory as it would seem in general 
practise. Perhaps this was well in the case of the early reformers. 
Foresight of the result of their efforts would probably have been at 
the expense of courage to undertake. Thus, theoretically, there was 
opened up the notion of apossible and a necessary universal education. 
Every effort put forth for this end in modern times finds its begin- 
ning here. Luther proclaimed that the education of the people was 
a crying want of his day, and he wrote letters to the various town 
authorities urging attention to this necessity. In England the same 
object was earnestly labored for. Many bequests were made. So 
in Scotland we have the efforts of John Knox and his coadjutors to 
establish parochial schools and churches in every parish in the king- 
dom. In Germany during the last three centuries more than 
twenty universities have been founded, three-fourths of which are 
Protestant. Notwithstanding the fact that the Catholic population 
is double the Protestant in Germany (including Austria), yet there 
are nineteen Protestant universities and only seventeen Catholic. 
Such facts show that Protestants realize that the very existence of 
their "ism " depends on their being the best informed. But how 
was this unforeseen and prodigious necessity to be brought about — 
of making every class from royalty to lowest peasantry capable of a 
judgment of its own? The question is still waiting for a full answer 
after three hundred years of effort. But an answer there must be; 
the security, comfort, and development of the race depend upon it. 
Education is now believed to be a question of national policy, a 
necessity to the people, and the business of every individual. For a 
long time naturally, on account of the revival of antiquity, antiquity 
was supposed to furnish the answer. But finally, that spirit of in- 
quiry which had overstepped the bounds of authority, had also re- 
explored (as was supposed) the fields of ancient research. Then it 
spread into the fields of original investigation. The grammar, logic 
and rhetoric of Galen, Celsus and Aristotle no longer gave satis- 
faction. Comenius, Bacon, Stourm, Locke, Milton and others changed 
the methods of teaching and laid the foundation of a better system 
of education. Emulating their example, the Fenelons, La Chalotais, 
Schlaezers, Pestalozzi, Proebel and Spencer have given us our grand 
modern educational methods and principles. During this time also, 



June, '99.] 



THE REFORMATION. 



363 



the world has been furnished with new thought on which to use its 
better educational theories. The world has gotten into the habit of 
consulting the book of nature as well as the decretals of the Church 
of Rome and the classics of the Greek and Latin languages. If 
Grimke's statement made in 1827 was true then, it is twice true now: 

More has been done in three centuries by the Protestants, in the profound, 
comprehensive, exact, rational and liberal development, culture and application 
of every department of knowledge, both theoretical and practical, with a view 
to public and private improvement, than has been done by all the rest of the 
world, both ancient and modern, since the days of Lycurgus. 

EFFECT ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF PHYSICAL SCIENCE. 

In recalling the intellectual consequences of this great historical 
movement, we naturally come next to that most wonderful of all 
developments, modern physical science. From the time of its un- 
shackling, the mind of man seems to have been tending toward a 
more practical use of its powers. At least the fact appears that the 
more speculative branches of knowledge have first received atten- 
tion. It may be that a higher degree of speculative and reasoning 
power is necessary before man can discern the physical forces of 
nature and turn them to his advantage. However the case may be, 
since he has acquired the knack, his successes have been a constant 
source of surprise, delight, and added comfort to him. As we look 
about our homes and land, we see them crowded with articles of 
convenience scarcely any of which, in their present perfection at 
least, antedate the Reformation. These are but the tangible results 
of our systematic thought, which we call science. 

The science of the ancients ends with theory; the science of our 
age has only begun when.it has theory. The modern mind insists 
on verification and reduction to practise. This reverence for fact 
and the prevaiUng trust in the universahty of natural laws have 
wrought and are working wonders in physical science. It would re- 
quire nothing less than a library to describe the post- refer mational 
achievements in physics, chemistry, biology, astronomy, history, and 
in the agricultural, mechanic and fine arts. Since Luther nailed his 
theses to the church door at Wittenberg how changed has been the 
life of the world ! Societies for the advancement of all that pertains 
to the material welfare of man have been organized in every part of 
the globe where the refer mational idea could work unmolested. 
Such gatherings as the Royal Society of England, the French Acad- 
emy of Sciences, and multitudes more of similar character, would 



864 THE INDUSTRIALIST. [June, '99 

have been impossible before on account of popish interference, even 
if other circumstances had made them possible. Again and again 
has this statement been proved by the attitude of the Church of 
Rome to the advances which have been made where it has had more 
or less power of interference. It seems almost as tho it had set its 
face resolutely against enlightenment and was determined that the 
people should r^emain in ignorance. The shout of "infidel, atheist, 
enemy of God!" has been raised against every man who has dared 
to publish to the world the results of his most careful investigations. 
So it was with the earlier conclusions of science, and so it continues 
to be even now. When Galileo with his newly-invented telescope 
discoveted the moons of Jupiter, he was told by the priests that it was 
impossible, because there were only seven openings to a man's head! 
What connection this has with the number of planets in the solar 
system is hard for the modern mind to perceive. Because he said 
the world moved, he was summoned to Rome, threatened, tried, con- 
demned, and forbidden under pain of death from further advocacy 
of the Copernican theory, and compelled to live the remainder of his 
life in the strictest retirement. Copernicus himself, after twenty- 
three years of careful study of the heavens and of all previous astro- 
nomical systems, waited yet thirteen years longer to avoid "the 
baleful tooth of calumny," before he proclaimed (1543) that our little 
world is not the center of the universe. Both the book and the ever- 
certain condemnation came too late for him to rejoice or suffer on 
their account. When in a half- unconscious state a few hours before 
he drew the last breath of his busy life, a copy of his great work was 
placed in his hands. He never knew how great it was. No work of 
modern times has so much extended the range of human intellect, or 
so increased in the minds of men the thought of the majesty of God. 
That was a great day in the progress of human kind when men 
realized that the power and wisdom of God were not circumscribed 
by one little world. 

Thus thru such difficulties as these have the grandest achieve- 
ments been accomplished. The world as a whole is perhaps too much 
given to condemning the new and clinging to the old. It would be 
difficult to find any great step of advancement which has not re- 
ceived an inconceivable amount of opposition. The great inventions 
of recent times have not been exceptions. The application of the 
powers of steam and electricity for the assistance of human agency 
are current instances. Dogmatic ecclesiasticism and superstitious 



June, '99.] THE REFORMATION. 365 

fear have ever formed, and so long as they remain, ever will form, 
well-nigh irresistible barriers to progress. But since the 
bhndfold of authority was snatched from before the eyes of the 
Christian world, it has seemed as if there was no limit to the de- 
vices which the cunning of intellect has conceived and the ready hand 
has fashioned. Along with an impartial and genuine increase of 
knowledge always comes an increase of faith in the ways of Provi- 
dence, and Ukewise a belief that the true life of man consists in con- 
tinued advancement. 

EFFECT OF THE REFORMATION ON THE STUDY OF LANGUAGES. 

The impulse given to the study of Scripture by the reformers re- 
sulted in an assiduous study of the Hebrew and Greek languages. 
These attainments served as a key to unlock other departments- 
history, law, antiquity, geography, as well as theology. Before the 
days of the great reformers, Hebrew and Greek were almost en- 
tirely neglected, and even condemned by university authorities and 
doctors of the Church as a sure path to heresy. The opponents of 
Reuchlin had never seen a Greek Testament, and Hebrew was sup- 
posed to be a cunningly devised language of sorcerers. The 
Bible being recognized as the only rule of faith, it became necessary 
for every clergyman to know it in the original and for the laity to 
possess it in the vernacular. We may gather some idea of the pre- 
vailing ignorance of -the clergy as to these languages in ReuchUn's 
time from what Heresbach relates in his "Orationes de Laudibus- 
Literatis Grsecis. " He heard a monk tell his audience: 

They [the heretics! have introduced a new language called the Greek: this 
must be shunned. It occasions nothing but heresies. Here and there these 
people have a book in that language, called the New Testament. This book is 
full of stones and adders. Another language is starting up-the Hebrew. Those 
that learn it are sure to become Jews. 

One result of the taste created was an extensive search for manu- 
scripts. This labor was richly rewarded. With every success has- 
come increased zeal for philological inquiry and the consequent 
intellectual advancement. The impetus given by the Reformation to- 
philological study has ever since formed the basis of university 

education. 

Upon the development of modern languages, it must also be 
noticed, has the effect of the Reformation been most salutary. Be- 
fore the sixteenth century a learned Latin jargon was the language 
of schools and books. No nation can have a literature without a. 







366 



THE INDUSTRIALIST. 



[June, '99 



language of its own. Even should its thinkers write, its people 
could not read their productions. Some great and universally- 
interesting event, a favorite topic for all, exciting all, was needed to 
stir the people to talk and the thinkers to write. This want the 
Reformation met. It was a marshaling of great ideas, and such a 
cause must have a great field of operation and great forces to 
support it Hence, instinctively, the reformers, at the very begin- 
ning, made direct appeal to the people. To do this, of course, they 
must use the language of the people. During the long struggle 
between papists and reformers in Germany, Switzerland, France, 
Netherlands, England and Scotland the different languages were 
elaborated, purified, and embeUished in style. The German and 
English Bibles remain grand literary monuments of this period. 

The muses, too, partook of the spirit of the times, and poetry in 
unprecedented profusion poured forth in the form of dramatic, epic, 
and lyric works in the languages of the people. In England the 
"Elizabethan Age " enriched our literature with numerous immortal 
productions. To it we are indebted for our Spenser, Shakespeare 
and Milton. 

EFFECT OF THE REFORMATION ON THE STUDY OF HISTORY. 

The impulse given by the Reformation to the study of history is 
indeed very noteworthy. So much so that before that great move- 
ment we do not expect to find more than the material for history, 
and oftentimes poor material at that. The pretenses in the shape of 
annals, chronicles, etc., of the Middle Ages are almost invariably de- 
void of the scrutinizing criticism of modern historical productions. 
The superstitions and ignorance of those who kept the records 
caused them to mistake the untrue for the true, the wrong cause for 
the real, the supernatural for the natural. Then again in the case of 
church chroniclers, their enthusiasm for their cause made them blind 
to the importance of other things, and, in many instances, excess- 
ively dogmatic in their treatment of the views of others. To such 
an extent was this carried for hundreds of years that the writings 
of men who were supposed to differ from the common views were 
destroyed, sometimes even their names were suppressed, and his- 
tory was treated as tho they never existed. Sometimes again when 
a particular doctrine or practise was seen to lack the historical sup- 
port which its advocates desired, documents were boldly and auda- 
ciously forged, assigned to some high authority in the age of the 



June, '99.] THE REFX3RMATI0N. 367 

supposed origin of the doctrine or practise, and passed on into his- 
tory as real. By such methods we now account for such writings as 
the Clementine Homilies, the Apostles' Creed, the Apocryphal and 
some other books of the New Testament, the document relating to the 
Donation of Constantine, etc. By such treatment the true under- 
standing of the past has become irreparably confused. Nor are we 
sure that we have yet eliminated, anywhere nearly, all such errors, 
let alone the impossibility of recovering the numerous documents 
that have been fraudulently destroyed or accidentally lost. 

But since the times of the Reformation a new historical attitude 
has begun to grow. Its spirit has given the discernment which is 
helping us to seize the "clew to the labyrinth of ages." Thru what 
we term the "philosophy of history" we believe there is now dis- 
covered a progressive tendency of humanity; that the race, like each 
individual, has a childhood and a manhood ; and that the knowledge 
of its childhood and youth is neither satisfactory nor sufficient for the 
stage of manhood development. The time has nearly passed when, 
men shall think that they have reached a finality in anything per- 
taining to doctrine or practise. From the scattered facts of human 
conduct we draw great precepts, lessons, and prophecies. We look 
forward to ages that will regard our comparatively great advance- 
ment with feelings akin to pity. 

The linguistic enthusiasm spoken of in the previous section has 
led to very extensive research in what may be collectively termed 
"Orientalism." Instead of basing Scriptural interpretations upon 
"traditions, passages from the holy fathers, decisions of councils, 
pontifical bulls, decretals, charters, and other historical monuments 
true or counterfeit," Protestant theologians "were obliged to inves- 
tigate and attain exact knowledge of the places, manners, events, 
ideas, whole intellectual culture, and the political and private state 
of the different nations during the period when this prophet or 
that evangelist had written." (Villers, p. 195.) Thus with wonderful 
zeal have the sacred and classic historians and poets been traced 
thru Egyptian, Arabian, Syriac, Chaldean, Samaritan, Persian, 
Greek, and Roman antiquities. Incalculable service was rendered 
in this direction by all the reformers ; and, up to the present time, 
the study of all that helps to the understanding of ancient literature 
has gone on with increasing interest. In fact, so extensive had been 
the work done by Protestants, that Villers said (p. 201) at the be- 
ginning of this century: 



868 



THE INDUSTRIALIST. 



[June, '99 



Whoever is anxious to be well informed in history, in classical literature, 
in philosophy, can use no better method than a course of Protestant theology. 

EFFECT OF THE REFORMATION ON ECONOMIC QUESTIONS. 

Our previous inquiry has seemed to indicate that the Reformation 
was the impulse which aroused a very great activity in several fields 
of thought. A similar activity to that which has been already noticed 
took place in the realm of economic subjects. An incalculable 
amount of literature upon questions of this character has been pro- 
duced. This phase of the moment was late in starting (about 1650), 
and made little headway for nearly one hundred and fifty years more. 
In our own century it has come forward with great rapidity. It has 
become the chief topic of the time, and will doubtless engross a large 
part of popular interest for many years to come. The result upon 
nations can best be seen by statistical comparisons of Protestant 
with Catholic countries. The present and past condition of Italy, 
Spain, Portugal, and Austria compared with that of England, Scot- 
land, Holland, and Germany tells the story. On the one hand, 
poverty, indolence, and vice are the most conspicuous features; on 
the other, some degree of comfort, industry, and virtue greet us on 
every side. It is ascertained from statistics that the number of 
criminals in Catholic and Protestant countries is in the ratio of four 
to one. What contrasts in agriculture, rural economy, and local 
government meet the traveler in these lands! Where the mind and 
hand of man are free, there knowledge and activity are common. 
Says Villers again, in passing thru Germany and Switzerland, and 
speaking of their state a century ago: 

Does the traveler meet with a miserable mud cottage, covered with thatch, 
the fields badly kept, wretched, rude peasants, and many beggars ; he will be in 
little danger of error if he conjecture that he is in a Catholic country. If on 
the contrary, neat, pleasant houses are seen, offering the spectacle of aflluence 
and industry, the fields well inclosed, a culture well understood, it is very 
probable that he is among Protestants, Anabaptists or Mennonites. (P. 214.) 

Macaulay, who will not be accused of partisan leaning toward dog- 
matic Protestantism, corroborates this view. He tells us that under 
the sway of the Church of Rome — 

The loveliest and most fertile provinces of Europe have been sunk in 
poverty, in political servitude, and in intellectual torpor; while Protestant 
countries, once proverbial for sterility and barbarism, have been turned by 
skill and industry into gardens, and can boast of a long list of heroes and 
statesmen, philosophers and poets. Whoever knowing what Italy and Scot- 
land naturally are, and what four hundred years ago they actually were, shall 
now compare the country round Rome with that round Edinburg, will be able 



June, '99.J THE REFORMATION. 369 

to form some judgment as to the tendency of papal domination. . . . The 
Protestants of the United States have left far behind them the Roman Catholics 
of Mexico, Peru, and Brazil. The Roman Catholics of Lower Canada remain 
Inert, while the whole continent round them is in a ferment with Protestant 
activity and enterprise. (Hist, of Eng. i, 45.) 

Carlyle, in his inimitable way, writing upon the influence of the 

Protestant principle, says: ' 

Austria was once full of Protestants, but the hide-bound Flemish-Spanish 
Kaiser element presiding over it, obstinately for two centuries, kept saying, 
*'No, we, with our dull, obstinate, Ciraburgis imderlip, and lazy eyes, with our 
ponderous Austrian depth of habituality and indolence of intellect, we prefer 
steady darkness to uncertain new light!" and all men may see where Austria 
now is. (Hist, of Fred. II, I, 202.) 

JESUITISM. 

A very peculiar intellectual result of the Reformation is to be 
found in the work done by the Society of Jesus founded by Ignatius 
Loyola. At almost the same moment of Duther's advance upon the 
stage of history from the North, Loyola comes from the South. 
The one from wideawake, outspoken Saxony; the other from 
sleepy, insidious Spain; yet both curiously animated by untiring 
2eal. One, the open advocate of liberty and reform; the other, the 
secret instrument of bigoted intolerance. Altho it can hardly be 
said that the order of Jesuits had its origin in the reformational 
movement, yet it was turned at once into a counteracting force 
Against the supposed object of the Reformation. It took on much of 
the educational spirit of the age. The schools under its control 
helped much to spread the taste for philological and mathematical 
studies. Europe had tasted of the tree of knowledge. In fact the 
■desire for knowledge was so wide-spread that it was no longer safe 
to oppose it openly. The next best thing was to get possession of the 
knowledge and guide it in the interests of the hierarchy. Against 
the plain facts of the reformers they opposed crafty, dogmatic ex- 
planation, and the ignorant were lulled again into security. In this 
underhanded manner the people were also taught to hate the new 
views of religion. On the one hand, the Jesuits manifested incon- 
<}eivable talent in the cultivation and perfection of those branches 
of knowledge which threatened not the least danger to the hierarch- 
ical system. On the other hand, they exhibited an opposition just as 
decisive against the study of those branches which might throw 
light upon the misdeeds of the Church, or in any way incite the peo- 
ple to a desire for liberty and a disposition to shake off the despot- 
ism of the papal system. The Jesuits hoped by perfection in such 



370 



THE INDUSTRIALIST, 



[June, '99 



branches as mathematics and languages to obtain the reputation of 
being the oldest and most learned scholars of Christendom, and 
thus to clear the Church of the reproach of the reformers. Pos- 
sessed of this celebrity, they trusted they would be able to direct 
the study of history, science, philosophy and theology at pleasure. 
It is not too much to say that the Jesuits strove eagerly to make 
difficult, ridiculous, and forgotten all those studies which tended to 
moral enlightenment. Jesuitism has sent forth from its schools 
many line Latin scholars, skilful translators and grammarians, 
great dialecticians and eminent orators. Besides -it has no doubt 
acted as a wonderful stimulant to make the Protestant ranks labor 
more vigorously to check the power of Catholicism so greatly aug- 
mented by Jesuitism. Nevertheless, it is to be lamented that the 
Jesuits proved a mighty force in suppressing liberty, and in this 
■way the spread of intelligence. Consequently those countries where 
they became strong — Italy, Spain, and Portugal — still wander in 
the darkness of medieval ignorance and superstition. Thru its cen- 
sorship of the press and its book-police, Jesuitism achieved wonders 
in suppressing Protestant thought. For example, it is known that 
hundreds of thousands of copies of the little book called "Of the 
Benefitof Christ's Death," were circulated in Italy for the purpose 
of popularizing the Lutheran doctrine of "Justification by Faith," 
and it has been translated into many languages; but it was so ut- 
terly blotted out that when Ranke wrote his "History of the Popes" 
in 1834, he said no trace of the work existed, Hausser tells us that 
since then three copies of it have been found and thousands pub- 
lished again. 

PROTESTANT SECTS. 

The liberty of opinion to which the Reformation gave birth, itself 
became the parent of numerous denominations of Protestantism. 
These children, inheriting the spirit of authority and intolerance 
from grandmother Rome, have proved a very quarrelsome family. 
Down to the present moment the peace of the Christian world has been 
repeatedly broken by denominational bickerings. Men seem very 
slow to learn the lesson of charity, that the same demand which they 
make from others should in turn be granted by them; in other 
words, that the truest and purest Christian liberty grants each man 
the right of forming a sort of denomination in himself if he so 
chooses. 

The first reformers clung to the hope of ecclesiastical unity thru 



June, '99.] 



THE REFORMATION. 



371 



a settlement of all difficulties by a general council. (This thought 
has been again revived in the now prevailing movement for "church 
unity.") Next came the effort to reform the "national churches" 
by abolishing abuses and reconstituting creed, polity, and ritual. 
But soon irreconcilable divisions arose. Notwithstanding all, "it is 
better to dispute on religion than to agree quietly not to have any;" 
or to differ in opinion than to have no opinion at all. 

Surely nothing but uncharitable bigotry would look upon the 
newly liberated Reason with other expectation than that of seeing 
frequent mistakes. After so long captivity in the prison-house of 
scholasticism, the doors are burst, the chains are struck off, and 
Reason totters forth, pale, emaciated, and unsteady in step. No 
longer held by the shackles of authority, she is bewildered. The 
unaccustomed light of knowledge blinds her eyes. Her brain be- 
comes dizzy, and for a time her gait is very erratic. "Better have 
left her in the ignorant bliss of her prison quarters/' tauntingly and 
lamentingly exclaims the ultramontanist, "A thousand times, NO, '^ 
shouts the modern advocate of liberty of opinion, "Let Reason be 
free, she will gain strength by exercise !' ' And so it has proved. 
Enough has been accomplished since thought has been free to show 
the unpardonable wrong inflicted upon humanity for ages by a bigoted 
and selfish popish hierarchy. 

From the liberty claimed and as-serted by Luther in 
the face of the most degrading tyranny the world has 
ever tolerated, have followed an age of higher philoso- 
phy, a new spirit in literature, the scientific method, a 
real history of the past, a beginning toward universal 
education and free schools, the first stages of a political 
and economic sympathy, our national independence, our 
civil and religious liberty, our unmolested press, our 
marvelous national enterprise, our glorious past, and 
our hope of a still more glorious future. 
Who could draw even the outline of the past and future changes 
upon the moral face of the globe caused by the mutual indignation of 
two Saxon monks? And when will these changes cease? Certainly, 
not till every tottering throne of temporal and spiritual despotism 
shall have hopelessly fallen and broken, *«Eye hath not seen, nor 
ear heard, neither have entered into the heart of man the things 
which are prepared" for the world when Reason and Love shall sit 
side by side and together reign. 



372 [June, '99 



MUNICIPAL LIBERTY. III. 

BY FRANK PARSONS. 

THE cure for the evils of excessive dependence is a reasonable 
independence. The remedy for municipal subjection is munici- 
pal sovereignty. Home rule for cities and towns in respect to 
distinctly local concerns is a very much needed reform. A city 
should be free to manage its local business without interference, and 
should be free to act outside the distinctive local sphere so long as it 
does not infringe a positive law of state or nation. 

The best method of establishing home rule would be thru con- 
stitutional provisions: 

1. Drawing a line between state affairs and local interests as 
clearly as the line between state and federal interests is drawn in the 
national constitution ; 

2. Excluding the legislature from the field of local municipal 
business, so that the city may be sovereign in its own peculiar sphere, 
just as the state and nation are sovereign in their spheres — free to 
act in its own concerns, subject only to broad limitations such as 
those applied to states in the federal constitution; 

3. Affording proper safeguards against special legislation, even 
in matters wherein municipal life merges into state life; 

4. Guaranteeing the local selection of local officers ; and 

5. Securing to every city and town the right to do any act what- 
ever, whether inside the field of local sovereignty or beyond it, so 
long as it does not conflict with state or national law — reversing the 
present rule, and instead of the principle that a city can do nothing 
without permission, establishing the principle that a city can do any- 
thing unless forbidden— a difference as great as that between servi- 
tude and liberty. 

Thus may be secured a reasonable independence for municipalities 
from improper legislative control. But civil service reform, and the 
initiative and referendum upon ordinances and charter provisions, 
must be established also, else freedom from legislative bossing may 
mean subjection to councils and local politicians. The substitution 
of mayor and council or mayor and aldermen for governor and legis- 
lature would generally be of some benefit, since mayor and 
aldermen and councilmen belong in the city they rule, and under- 



June, '99.] MUNICIPAL LIBERTY. 373 

stand something of its condition, are elected by the citizens 
of the city, and have interests thru which they can be made 
to feel the local public sentiment to some extent; while the state 
legislature is almost wholly composed of men from other cities and 
towns, who have little or no acquaintance with the city under 
consideration, do not understand its needs, have no direct interest in 
it, were not elected by its citizens, and do not feel the slightest re- 
sponsibility to them. Nevertheless, home rule without the referen- 
dum would still be government by the few, and tho government of 
local business by a few who live in, understand, and are elected by 
the city, is likely as a rule to be superior to government of local 
business by a few who don't live in nor understand nor owe allegi- 
ance to the city, yet government by a few in any form is likely to be 
far less honest, just, progressive and beneficent than government by 
the whole body of American citizenship. 

Under such home-rule provisions, each city and town might 
make its own charter, choose its own officers and govern itself, 
subject only to broad limitations of state and national law. Nothing 
could do more than such local self-government for the cause of 
municipal progress and purity. And on that cause hangs the future 
of the republic. A hundred years ago only one-thirtieth of the pop- 
ulation of the United States dwelt in cities. In 1890, one-third of 
our people were in cities of more than 8000 inhabitants. It will not 
be long before half the people live in cities, and when we include the 
towns, it appears that municipal problems already affect directly at 
least five-sixths of our people, and, indirectly, but nevertheless most 
vitally, all the rest. 

Dr. Shaw, who is probably the highest authority on municipal 
government on this side of the sea, or perhaps in the world, has ex- 
pressed himself in these strong words: 

Good government and progress in our larger cities will be greatly aided by 
the extension of their powers of local self-government, or the establishment of 
municipal home rule, so that the people may feel that they have their own mu- 
nicipal welfare clearly and definitely in their own hands. 

And again, discussing the New York Charter— 

We shall never reach a permanent basis in this country until we have at- 
tained simplicity and unity, so that the people of a large town may feel that 
they have their own municipal weal or woe clearly and definitely in their own 
hands. Then a strong public opinion will arise to protect such municipal home rule, and , 
with or without constitutional safeguards, we shall find that municipal govern- 
ment will go on steadily. 



M\ 



374 THE INDUSTRIALIST. [June, '99 

On the way toward the sohd independence outlined above, a num- 
ber of partial reforms may be of advantage. When it is not possible 
to get a whole loaf, half a loaf is better than none. 

A. Constitutional provisions may be adopted covering part of the 
ground. This has been done to a considerable extent already. 

B. The Michigan Doctrine may be followed by the courts of other 
states. Efforts to secure such rulings even if unsuccessful cannot 
fail to do good by directing attention to the fundamental importance 
of local self-government and the weighty opinions of Judge Cooley 
and others. 

C. Broad statutes may be passed giving cities larger powers, es- 
pecially in regard to the granting of franchises, and the right to own 
and operate local business enterprises. A considerable movement has 
taken place in this direction in the last few years, but it often requires 
a hard fight to pass such bills; and they are apt to be narrowed in 
scope, gorged with wind and red tape, and assassinated with in- 
genious amendments and limitations. Moreover they are subject to 
legislative alteration or repeal. In spite of all their imperfections, 
however, they are very important aids while on the way to solid con- 
stitutional measures, and the growth of public sentiment around 
them gives them, in the course of time, a practical stability much 
greater than that which they possess theoretically. 

The principle of local consent is recognized in 15 constitutions. 
Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, and Wyoming require 
local consent as a prerequisite to the incorporation of a city. New 
York, West Virginia, Illinois, Missouri, Nebraska, South Dakota, 
South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Kentucky, Idaho, Colorado and 
Wyoming require local consent for the construction of a street rail- 
way. In some states the provisions are broader, Kentucky does not 
permit the construction of any street-railway, gas, water, steam- 
heating, telephone or electric-light system in city or town without 
its assent. South Carolina requires local consent for street rail- 
ways, telegraph, telephone, electric light, water and gas. Wyoming 
requires such consent for the first four just named, and South Da- 
kota for the first three. 

By South Carolina's constitution (1895) cities and towns are em- 
powered to build or buy water-works or light plants and supply the 
inhabitants on a majority vote of the people. 

In Massachusetts, New York, Pennsylvania, Minnesota, Wiscon- 
sin, Iowa, Indiana, Michigan, Kentucky, Kansas and other states, 



June, '99.] 



MUNICIPAL LIBERTY. 



375 



laws have been passed giving municipalities the power to grant 
street franchises, and to build or buy municipal public utilities such 
as water -works, gasworks, electric plants, etc. 

Five states have given municipalities the right to make their own 
charters: Missouri in 1875; California, 1879; Washington, 1890; 
Minnesota, 1896 ; and Louisiana in 1896 — the first four by constitu- 
tional provisions, Louisiana by statute. In Missouri the provision 
applies to cities over 100,000 population; in Washington to cities over 
20,000; in California to cities over 3,500; and in Minnesota to all 
municipalities. The Louisiana statute adopts a rule precisely oppo- 
site to the Missouri principle, and permits all municipalities except 
New Orleans to make their own charters. 

In Missouri the city elects 13 freeholders who prepare a charter 
which is submitted to the people, and if ratified by four-fifths of the 
qualified electors voting, it becomes the charter of the city. St. 
Louis was given special authority to adopt a charter by a majority 
vote. Amendments may be submitted by the legislative authorities 
of the city and adopted by a two- thirds referendum vote. 

In Minnesota the charter is prepared by a board of 15 freeholders 
appointed by thedistrictjudge,and must beadopted by afour-sevenths 
vote of the people. Amendments by a three-fifths vote. By a statute 
of 1897 freeholders are to be appointed whenever 8 per cent of the 
voters of the city or town petition to that effect, and the legislature 
of 1897 proposed a new amendment to the constitution providing that 
charter amendments should be submitted to the people on a 5-per- 
cent petition of the voters. 

In Washington the legislative authority of the city may order the 
election of 15 freeholders to prepare a charter to be adopted by 
majority vote of the people. Amendments are proposed by councils 
and adopted by majority referendum vote. By statute the city 
council must order an election of freeholders upon a petition of one- 
fourth of the voters of the city. 

In California 15 freeholders are elected to make the charter, which 
must be adopted by a majority vote at the polls and approved by the 
legislature. Amendments at intervals of not less than two years, 
submitted by the legislative authority of the city, are ratified by a 
two- thirds vote at the polls, and approved by the legislature. 

In Louisiana, on petition of a majority of the property owners of 
any city or town (except New Orleans) praying a referendum on a 
new charter, a copy of which must accompany the petition, the mayor 



376 



THE INDUSTRIALIST. 



[June, '99 



and council shall submit the proposed charter to a referendum vote, 
and if adopted, it is to be the organic law of the municipality. 

In all the states named the home-made charters are subject to the 
laws and constitution of the state. Under these provisions St. Louis, 
Kansas City, San Francisco, Sacramento, Oakland, Los Angeles, 
Stockton, San Diego, Seattle, Tacoma, etc., have established charters 
of their own making. 

The St. Louis charter gives the city power to grant franchises, 
construct street railways, buy and hold property, real and personal, 
to be used for the erection of water-works or gas-works to supply the 
city with water or light, for the establishment of hospitals, poor- 
houses, etc., or for any other purpose-, secures the local election or 
appointment of the city officers required by the charter; and provides 
that amendments to the charter shall be submitted to the people sep- 
arately. The people have no initiative, however, as to amendments, 
and neither initiative nor referendum as to ordinances. 

In the Los Angeles charter the 23d corporate power is as follows: 

To exercise all municipal powers necessary to the complete and efficient man- 
agement and control of the municipal property, and for the efficient administra- 
tion of the municipal government, whether such powers be expressly enumerated 
or not, except such powers as are forbidden or are controlled by general law. 

That is mildly suggestive of the reversal of the present legal 
theory spoken of at the beginning of the section about remedies, but 
the explicit separation of municipal and state affairs, and the ex- 
clusion of the legislature from the distinctively municipal field are 
still missing. 

The most progressive charter of all, in some respects, is the one 
adopted by the voters of San Francisco, in May, 1898. It contains 
strong civil service rules, declares for public ownership and opera- 
tion of street railways, water, gas, electric- light plants, telephone 
systems, etc., announces the pohcy of gradual absorption of all such 
monopolies, provides for a popular initiative and referendum upon 
these questions, and upon ordinances of all sorts, and upon amend- 
ments to the charter— a petition signed by a number of voters equal 
to 15 per cent of the votes cast at the last preceding election being 
sufficient for any initiative or referendum. The charter is not 
equally good in all its parts, but these admirable provisions make it 
possible for the people to mold the charter easily to any form they 
desire. The people of San Francisco appear to have their own des- 
tiny more completely in their own hands than the people of any other 



June, '99.] 



MUNICIPAL LIBERTY. 



377 



large city in the country. Their control is subject only to general 
laws, and the approval of the legislature to charter amendments 
•which, it is said, is not likely to be withheld in the c&se of any rea- 
sonable amendment. 

CONCLUSIONS. 

In going over the laws and constitutions of our 45 states, from 
early times to the present year, a few conclusions of special breadth 
and moment have forced themselves upon my attention. 

1. There is a powerful trend toward careful definition, regulation 
and limitation of legislative power. 

2. There has been in recent years a tremendous and ever-accel- 
erating movement toward legislation favorable to public ownership 
and operation of local utilities, particularly those that involve a spe- 
cial or privileged use of the streets. 

3. There has been an equally emphatic movement toward a fuller 
recognition of the principles of local consent, and the right of the 
the people to be consulted about im.portant measures and vote di- 
rectly upon them, and the correlative right to initiate legislation if 
they so desire. 

4. The local right to grant local franchises, elect local oflicers, and 
manage local property, and the right of municipaUties to frame their 
own charters have also received recognition. 

Such are some of the principal streams that make up the current 
of enactment that is moving toward municipal liberty and independ- 
ence in respect to local'affairs. And yet it must be admitted that no 
real home rule has been established beyond the reach of legislative 
interference. Legislatures still have power to alter or abolish 
charters, and may practically annul even freehold charters, for they 
are expressly subject, by constitutional proviso, to the general 
laws of the state. We have as yet no setting apart of a local field 
from which state legislation shall be excluded, as national legislation 
is excluded from state interests. Some of our states have made a 
splendid beginning, but the end is not yet. 



378 



[June, '99 



THE REGENTS' INVESTIGATION. 

BY PRANK PARSONS. 

TT being assumed that the readers of The Industrialist would 
J- naturally expect to know something of the regents ' investigation, 
the duty was assigned me, some time ago, to keep track of the matter 
and write an account of it, as cleai: and fair as possible, bringing to- 
gether the essential elements of the charges, evidence, findings, etc., 
to give a birdseye view of the whole affair. I am aware that the un- 
dertaking is a delicate one, and I have endeavored to make my con- 
densations and selections in such a way that the persons making the 
charges, findings, etc., would recognize my abridgment as a fair rep- 
resentation of the substance of their statements. One part of the 
duty mentioned above I have not been able to comply with, since the 
evidence in the case, with some small exceptions, is not yet available 
for precise quotation, the testimony being still entombed in short- 
hand. 

FIRST CHARGE. 

(a) Dining kitchen operated by the funds of the College in viola- 
tion of law. 

Majority Finding.— There was no warrant or authority of law 
authorizing the operation and maintenance of said dining hall or of 
the bookstore. ... We are unable to state whether or not said 
dining hall was operated at a loss to the funds of the institution. 

Minority Eeport.~The evidence shows that the dining hall was 
self-sustaining, and has in no way been a detriment to the state, but 
has been a benefit to the students. Charge not sustained. 



The minority report says nothing directly about the legality of 
the dining hall, but apparently proceeds to its conclusion of "change 
not sustained" upon the ground that when an act of regents, which 
is neither expressly authorized nor expressly forbidden by law, 
proves beneficial to students and not detrimental to the state, it can- 
not be said to be in violation of law. 



(6) Fifteen dollars a month unlawfuUy and wrongfully paid out 
of the college treasury, to Regent Limbocker for services as pur- 
chasmg agent for the dining haU. 



June, '99.] THE INVESTIGATION. 379 

Majority Finding. — The board of which he was a member employed 
said Limbocker as purchasing agent for said dining hall at a salary 
of $15 a month. 

Minority Report. — The salary paid to said Limbocker was earned 
and wholly paid out of the revenues produced by the dining haU. 
Charge not sustained. 

Webb's statutes (vol. 1, p. 584, §7) provide: 

No one connected with the College as professor, tutor, teacher, or employee, 
shall be a regent. 

And again (vol. 2, p. 369, §400): 

All officers holding and exercising any office of trust or profit under and by 
virtue of any law of the state, are hereby prohibited from taking any contract, 
or performing or doing . . .for their own profit, any work in and about the of- 
fice holden by them, or in or about any work over which they have in whole or 
in part the supervision, direction or control. 

It was argued by the defense that these provisions excluded the 
employment of a regent as treasurer or as loan commissioner as 
much as an employment for service as purchasing agent; that it is 
nevertheless an established custom to employ one of the regents as 
treasurer and another as loan commissioner at reasonable compen- 
sation; and that all such employments, tho a breach of the letter of 
the law, are free from any conflict with its spirit and purpose, which 
is to prevent the use of official power for speculative ends or unfair 

private profit. 

Blackstone says that the reason of the law is the law, but it is 
sometimes a difficult thing to tell just where the reason and the let- 
ter of the law join hands. 

(c) Regent Limbocker furnished to said College supplies at and 
above the regular market price of such supplies, (at the trial it ap- 
peared that the word "supplies" iu the charge meant fireioood.) 

^lajority Finding .—Chd^v^Q not sustained by the evidence. 

Minority Report.— The evidence shows that Limbocker sold no 
wood to the College; but, instead, he permitted green wood pre- 
viously purchased for the College to be exchanged for dry wood 
taken from his own wood-pile, which dry wood was delivered at the 
College at no extra cost to the institution and at no profit to the said 

Limbocker. 

(d) Regent Hoffman furnished said College supplies from his mUl 

at and above the market value thereof. 



380 THE INDUSTRIALIST. [June, '99 

Majority Finding. — Regent Hoffman, at the solicitation of members 
of the faculty at said College, did furnish flour and bran to said Col- 
lege, but in so far as he is charged with furnishing these articles at 
a price above the market price we find that the charge is not sus- 
tained by the evidence. 

Minority Report— The evidence shows that without the knowledge 
of Regent Hoffman the College bought a shipment of bran from the 
firm of C. Hoffman & Son, saving $25 to $30 thereby. The evidence 
also shows that the superintendent of the dining hall urged Regent 
Hoffman to furnish the dining hall with whole wheat flour, since it 
could not be obtained elsewhere at the time, and that said Hoffman 
ordered the firm of C. Hoffman & Son to furnish said flour at the 
lowest wholesale price. 

Webb's statutes (vol. 2, p. 369, §400, above cited) prohibit all the 
aforesaid officers — 

From furnishing any materials used in any such work [see preceding quo- 
tation] and from furnishing for the use of any institution ... or other 
interest, the protection of which interest is a part of the duties of his office, 
any firewood, clothing, materials for building, or other thing required by such 
institution ... or other interest. 

SECOND CHARGE. 

Business of vital importance transacted by the regents secretly 
and unlawfully without a quorum, with a full intent and purpose of 
thwarting the will of the majority of the members of said board ; 
meetings held at the hotel in Manhattan and afterwards entered on 
the records at the College; and the records purported to show that 
that a quorum was present. 

Majority Finding.— The meetings alleged to have been held on the 
2d, 3d, 5th and 6th days of July, 1897, were held without any quorum 
being present at any of said meetings, and teachers were h'red, 
salaries were fixed, appropriations of money were made, and a vast 
amount of other business was transacted during said time. The 
minutes of said meeting held on the 2d day of July, 1897, recite that 
the ''Board met," when in fact and in truth only three members of 
the board met; but the minutes of July 3, 5 and 6, show that no 
quorum was present and no business transacted except to adjourn. 
We further find that at the September, 1897, meeting of the said 
Board of Regents a resolution was passed approving the minutes of 
the said meeting as held on June 30 and ending July 6, inclusive; 



June, '99.] 



THE INVESTIGATION. 



381 



and alleging that each and every part thereof was adopted and made 
a part of the regular action of the board at said meeting, and 
thereby declaring the same to be fully ratified and confirmed as 
done at said July meeting. We further find that the allegation 
charging that preliminary meetings were held at the hotel in Man- 
hattan and afterwards transferred and entered upon the records of 
the College is not sustained by the evidence. 

Minority Report. — The evidence shows that the Board of Regents 
met with a quorum present on the afternoon of June 30, 1897, and 
continued in session as a quorum until the evening of July 1, at 
which time the board regularly adjourned to meet at 8 o'clock on the 
morning of July 2, 1897; that during the night following July 1, 1897, 
Regents Daughters and Noe, for the apparent purpose of breaking 
the quorum, left Manhattan and failed to appear at the regular ap- 
pointed time for the meeting on ihe morning of July 2, 1897; that at 
that time it was necessary to engage professors for the ensuing col- 
lege year; to prepare for immediate publication of the college annual 
catalog, and otherwise to prepare for the opening of the college year; 
that the regents remaining, namely, C. B. Hoffman, J. N. Lim- 
bocker and T. J. Hudson met at the appointed time and usual place 
of holding regents' meetings and that they proceeded to transact 
such business as in their judgment ought to be done, and this after 
consultation with the retiring president, Dr. Fairchild, intending to 
have their action ratified at a subsequent meeting of the regents; that 
the business then transacted by the three regents above named had 
been at the commencement early in June of said year discussed and 
agreed upon by the above-named regents and Regent Harrison Kel- 
ley and Regent Mrs. St. John, except as to the person to be em- 
ployed as professor of mathematics, upon which there was some dis- 
agreement; and that upon request of Regent Kelley, action on the 
mathematical appointment had been deferred until the meeting to 
be held the 30th of June, 1897, causing the entire report of the com- 
mittee on employees to go over; and it further appeared in the testi- 
mony that on July 2, Regent Kelley was on his death bed and could 
not be present; that thereafter, namely, on September 1, 1897, the 
Board of Regents met in regular session with a quorum present and 
that the minutes and proceedings of July 2, 1897, were fully ratified 
and adopted. 

THIRD CHARGE. 

(a) Perversion of the College to the teaching of sociahsm and 



If 



382 THE INDUSTRIALIST. [June, '99 

political doctrines; use of college funds to print and disseminate 
socialistic and political doctrines and theories; changing Indus- 
trialist into a monthly wherein were taught socialistic views and 
political doctrines and political heresies; use of College with con- 
nivance of Hoffman and Limbocker for the purpose of distributing 
populist pamphlets to the students. 

Majority i^mdmgr. —Allegations not sustained by the evidence. 
Minority Report. — Ditto. 

(b) That said Limbocker and Hoffman sent out, in 1897, a state- 
ment of reasons for the reorganization, which statement purported 
to have been done by authority of the Board of Regents, and pur- 
ported to be signed by every member of the board, then in office, 
whereas in truth said statement was prepared by said Limbocker 
and Hoffman, with others, less than a quorum of the said board, and 
was printed and circulated with the signatures of C. R. Noe, C. B. 
Daughters and Susan St. John without their knowledge or consent 
and did not express their views. 

Majority Finding.— ^^id. manifesto purported to be the act of all 
the Board of Regents, when in fact the only regents present and 
giving sanction to it were Regents Hoffman, Hudson and Limbocker. 

Minority /JeporL— Evidence does not show that the statement pur- 
ported to be signed by anybody. ... The statement was pub- 
hshed by authority of a majority of the regents. (It appeared that 
a copy of the statement had been sent to Regent Kelley and a letter 
had been received from him endorsing the said statement and its 
publication before it was published.) 



A copy of the statement was introduced in evidence. There were 
no signatures to it, but the names of the regents, and those of the 
secretary and assistant secretary, preceded the statement-the list 
being the same as that then ordinarily used at the head of the first 
column in each issue of The Industrialist. The first appearance of 
said statement was in The Industrialist. The statement in evi- 
dence did not claim to be unanimous, but said "The Board of Re- 
gents. . . . submit the following statement of reasons," etc. 

fourth charge. 
(a) The eleventh biennial report shows an expenditure by the 



June, '99. 



THE INVESTIGATION. 



383 



board of $739.32 above the amount received by it during the year, 
such overexpenditure being in violation of law. 
Majority Findinr/. — Charge sustained. 



A copy of the biennial report was put in evidence, showing on 
page 18 a deficit of $739.32 as the college accounts stood June 30, 
1898; but in a note below the table, on the same page, the report says: 

State warrant No. 161, amount $18;")0, was issued by the state treasurer on 
July 6, lfe98: of this amount $810 was for interest accrued and paid prior to 
June 30, 1898, and should have been credited to income fund for fiscal year 
1897-8. 

No evidence was introduced to contradict this note, yet the im- 
portant statement it contains is not mentioned in either the 
majority or minority report; at least there is no mention of it in the 
printed copies of those reports in my possession. 



(b) Said board repoi-ted an expenditure of $40,736.67 for teachers' 
wages for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1898, whereas in fact there 
was paid to said professors a large sum in excess of that reported, 
and said report was made with the intent and purpose of deceiving 
the governor of the state of Kansas and the people at large. 

Majority Finding. — In the matter of the payment of teachers, we 
find that on pages 3 and 4 of the eleventh biennial report of said 
Board of Regents, in next to the last column thereof, the total 
amount paid is fixed at $40,736.67, when in factand in truth, owing to 
a change in the date of the school years from September 1 to June 
30, in order to make the school years correspond with the fiscal 
years, a much larger sum of money was paid than that purported. 
We further find, that in some instances, owing to the discharge 
of certain teachers and the employment of others, the salaries 
for July and August, 1897, were doubled and salaries were paid 
in such cases to two persons occupying the same position for the 
same time. 

Minority Report. — The evidence shows that the gross receipts and 
expenditures were correctly stated in the report and that the partic- 
ular matter complained of grew out of a change in the college year to 
make it conform to the fiscal year, which ended June 30, while the 
college year had ended August 31. 

The result was that the College year to which the "Salary Table" 
(p. 3 of the biennial report) has reference was only a 10-month year, 



384 THE INDUSTRIALIST. [June, '99 

from Sept. 1, '97, to June 80, '98 — the amounts paid professors for 
July and August, '97, belong to the school year of 1896-7, but are in- 
cluded in the total expenditures for the ^sca^ year 1897-8 shown on p. 
18 of the report. 

It seems that tlie "Salary Table " (p. 3) would have been rendered 
much clearer by a statement in immediate connection with it that 
the change in the ending of the college year had reduced the school 
year for 1897-8 to 10 months, and that the salaries named in the table 
related to that 10- month year. It would then have been clear that no 
one really received double pay — the pay of any professor, X, for 
July and August, '97, being part of his salary for the year Sept. 1, 
'96, to Aug, 31, '97; the next year running only from Sept. 1, 
'97, to June 80, '98, X received his whole school-year's pay in that 
time; otherwise, a professor leaving or being dismissed at the 
end of the new year (June 80) might have lost two-twelfths of the 
pay for his year's work, which in many cases was chiefly or wholly 
done between Sept. 1 and June 30. 

FIFTH CHARGE. 

The sum of $200 appropriated in 1897-8 for an agricultural mu- 
seum was misappropriated and used for other purposes; no agricul- 
tural museum was ever constructed at any time. 

Majority Finding.— That the sum of $200 was appropriated by the 
legislature of 1897, for an agricultural museum, and that the sum of 
about $125 of said appropriation was expended for the benefit 
of the agricultural museum; that plans had been drawn for the ex- 
penditure of the remainder of said appropriation; that a short time 
before said balance should lapse to the state, a voucher was made 
out, duly certified and approved by the treasurer of the Board of 
Regents, C. B. Hoffman, and said balance of about $75 was drawn 
from the state treasury and the same placed to the credit of the 
general funds of the College. The work for which the said $75 was 
drawn was not completed nor commenced at the time the same was 
drawn and has not been completed or finished since that time. 

Minority Beport— The evidence disclosed that the Agricultural 
department of the College has a farm museum and that about $128.00 
was actually used in building up such museum; that the remainder 
of the fund amounting to some $72.00 had been actuaUy contracted 
by the professor of agriculture to be expended for cases to be made 
hy the Mechanical department of the College for the agricultural 




June, "99. ] 



THE INVESTIGATION. 



385 



museum, but that, owing to the resignation of the professor of 
mechanics and engineering, said cases were not completed by June 
30 and that in accordance with the estabhshed custom of the College 
and to prevent the lapsing of said appropriation said fund was 
drawn by the proper department heads. 



It was in evidence that the voucher to save lapsing of the $72 was 
drawn after consultation with the secretary, who had had 18 years 
experience in the institution, and who said that it was the established 
custom to proceed in that manner to save a lapse in case of work con- 
tracted for but not completed at the close of the year. The money 
was drawn by tilling in the blanks of a form, the printed part of 
which contained the words "due and unpaid." It appeared that the 
$72 is ready to be paid over to the Mechanical department on com- 
pletion of the cases. 

SIXTH CHARGE. 

Paying I. D. Graham, secretary and instructor, $1400 a year in- 
stead of $1200 allowed by law for secretary and instructor ; and pay- 
ing Wm. C. Lee $800 a year as stenographer in executive office, 
instead of $420 allowed by law for such stenographer, with the 
intent of evading the law, then and there knowing the same to be 
contrary to law. 

Majority Finding. — Said Graham was paid $1400 for 1897-8 instead 
of $1200 as provided for secretary and instructor by the session 
laws of 1897. His title was changed to read "Secretary and pro- 
fessor of bookkeeping, commercial law and accounts, " instead of 
"Secretary and instructor," but his duties and labors were not 
greater than those previously performed in said position. 

The said Lee was paid $800, instead of $420 as provided by law, 
for the stenographer in the executive office. His title was changed 
to "private secretary to the president," but his labors and duties 
were not changed and he only performed the duties and services of 
stenographer. 

Minority Report. — The duties and especially the responsibilities of 
said Graham were increased, and the said Lee was employed not only 
as stenographer in the executive office but as private secretary to the 
president and instructor in the College, and his duties and responsi- 
bilities were enlarged beyond those of an ordinary stenographer. 



886 



THE INDUSTRIALIST. 



[June, '99 



SEVENTH CHARGE. 

Employing incompetent president who delegated various execu- 
tive duties to committees of the faculty, thru the dissensions and in- 
competency of which the work of said College became disorganized 
and inefficiently performed, to the great injury of the College and of 
the students, and said Hoif man and Limbocker well knew at all times 
the inefficiency and incompetency of the president. 

Majority Finding. — Not investigated and no evidence offered. 

Minority Report — Agree with majority, that this charge was not 
investigated and no evidence offered, and believe it was not worthy 
of consideration. 

EIGHTH CHARGE. 

Said Hoffman as treasurer unlawfully and wrongfully delayed pay- 
ment of claims from 10 to 30 days. While the treasury was suppHed 
with sufficient funds for the payment of all claims properly made out 
against said College, the said Hoffman corruptly, wilfully and inten- 
tionally failed and neglected to pay the claims against the College at 
the time they were presented to him for payment. 

Majority Finding. — Charge not sustained by evidence. 

Minority Report. — Ditto. 

ADDITIONAL FINDINGS. 

The committee found upon two other matters which were not 
mentioned in the charges. 

Ninth Finding. — Board records kept by the president on loose 
sheets so marked, marred, interlined and erased as to be of question- 
able value. Minutes not transferred to permanent record book till 
after the investigation began. Said keeping of the records was 
with full knowledge of the board. 

Minority Report. — Evidence shows minutes were taken down in 
abbreviated longhand and afterwards copied on sheets in typewrit- 
ing, in which form they were amended and adopted by the board, 
which wholly accounts for their marked and interlined condition. 
It appeared that the delay in copying into the permanent record 
book was caused by the consideration of a plan for doing the work 
by typewriter, which proved difficult but was finally pushed thru 
just prior to the beginning of the investigation (after it had been 
ordered) so that the investigating committee might have ready ref- 
erence to said minutes (more ready reference than was afforded by the 
loose sheets or the abbreviated minutes, all of which were submitted 
upon request and were compared with the permanent record). 



June, '99.] THE INVESTIGATION. 387 

Tenth Finding. — On or about January 7, 1899, the board authorized 
and directed the president to enter into written contracts with a 
large number of the faculty for two years ending June 30, 1901, 

Minority Report. — Said contract provision was adopted by regents 
whose terms ran till 1901, and who constituted a majority of the 
board, their action being intended to secure the College against loss 
of service. 

The charges were preferred hy H. A. Perkins. The majority re- 
port was signed by G. H. Lamb, Z. L. Wise, Thos. J. Flannelly, and 
R. B. Ward, the republican members of the investigating committee. 
The minority report was signed by T. C. Rodgers, the populist 
member. 

With the ten findings the committee transmitted to the governor 
the stenographer's notes of the testimony and the records in the 
case, and the majority recommended the dismissal of said Hoffman 
and Limbocker. The governor thereupon issued an order for the re- 
moval of Hoffman and Limbocker, and appointed other regents irt 
their place. Hoffman and Limbocker then filed petitions in the dis- 
trict court for injunctions restraining all concerned from recognizing 
the new appointees or refusing to recognize them, the said Hoffman 
and Limbocker. 

The petitioners' case was put on the ground that the law of 1889, 
under which the investigation took place, had not been followed — 
committee had allowed charges to be amended; had failed to make 
specific findings as to the truth of the charges as made except where 
it negatived them ; majority findings had shown only technical and 
trivial errors such as might occur in any well-regulated institution, 
and did- not disclose any serious fault within the meaning of the law 
of '89, which limits investigation and removal to cases of "corrup- 
tion, venality, inefficiency, misconduct, immorality, or inattention to 
duties;" testimony not transmitted togovernor except in stenographic 
notes which he could not read to see if the findings were correct; etc. 

The judge ruled that Hoffman and Limbocker had been sus- 
pended and removed; and, whether the suspension and removal were 
right or wrong, they were no longer de facto officers and could not 
therefore claim the protection of an injunction, but must enforce 
whatever rights they might have thru quo warranto proceedings. 

Whether or not the case will be carried further is not yet known. 

The new board is now in control of the College but their policy has 
not yet been announced. 



888 THE INDUSTRIALIST. [June, '99 

BOARD OP INSTRUCTION. 

Faculty. 

Thomas Blmbb WiLii, A. M. (Harvard), President Comer Fifth and Pierre streets 

Professor of Economics and Philosophy. 

Wm. H. Phipps, B S. (K. S. a. C.). Secretary Juliette avenue, north of Leavenworth street 

Professor of Bookkeeping. Commercial Law and Accounts. 

Hbnby M. Cottbbia, M. S. (Kansas Stale Agricultural College) College Campus 

Professor of Agriculture, Superintendent of Farm. 
Albert S. Hitcbcock, M. S. (Iowa Agricultural College) . College Hill. 2 miles N. W. of College 

Professor of Botany 

JaiAVS'i\ WiLiABD, M. S. (Kansas State Agricultural College) 1211 Moro street 

Professor of Applied Chemistry. 

Obubgb F. Wrida, Ph. D. (Johns Hopkins) Comer Manhattan avenue and Moro street 

Professor of Pure Chemistry. 

Bdwaud W. Bbhis, Ph. D. (Johns Hopldns) Comer Juliette avenue and Houston street 

Professor of Econonaic Science. 

DUREN J. H. Ward, Ph. D. (Leipslc), 880 Houston street, corner Eighth 

Professor of Finglish Language and Literature. 

Abnold Euch. Ph. D. (University of Kansas) Comer Fourth and Moro streets 

Professor of Graphic Mathematics. 

Frank Parsons, B. C. E. (Cornell University) Comer Fifth and Pierre streets 

Professor of History and Political Science. 



Professor of Horticulture and Entomology. Superintendent of Orchards and Gardens. 

MisrMxnnib a. Stonkr. (Boston N. S. of H. A ), B. S. (S. D. A. C.) M. E. Parsonage, Poyntz ave 

Professor of Household Economics, Dean of Domestic Science Department. 

John D. Walters, M. S. (Kansas State Agricultural College) North end of Sixth street 

Professor of Industrial Art and Designing. 

Miss Mary F. Winston, Ph. D. (Goettingen) 1211 Moro street 

Professor of Mathematics. 

Joseph D. Harper, M. S. (Rose Polytechnic Institute) ...Houston St., between Fifth and Juliette 

Professor of Mechanics and Engineering, Superintendent of Workshops. 



Professor of Military Science and Tactics. 

Alexander B. Brown, (Boston Music School). A. M.(Ollvet) Comer Juliette avenue and 

Profes,sor of Music. [Houston street 

Fbedbic Augustus Mbtcalf, O. M. (Emerson College of Oratory) Comer Poyntz avenue 

Professor of Oratory. [and Sixth street 

Ebnbst R. Nichols, D. B. (Iowa Normal), B. S., A. M. (University of Iowa).. . .512 Houston street 

Professor of Physics. 

Charles S. Davis, (Kansas State Normal School) J^ mile west of College 

Superintendent of Printing. 
Paul Fischer, B. Agr., M V. D. (Ohio State University) .. .Juliette avenue and Humboldt street 

Professor of Veterinary Science and Biology. 
Hiss Harriet Howell, (Pratt Institute) Superintendent of Sewing. . . .Moro street, near Tenth 
Miss Alice Rupp, (Indiana State Normal), Instructor in EngUsh.. ..Poyntz avenue, cor. Seventh 

Miss JosEPHJNK C. Harper, Instmctor In Mathematics Comer Sixth and Pierre streets 

Miss Helen J. Wbscott. Librarian Juliette avenue near Leavenworth street 

Assistants and Foremen 

William L. House, Foreman of Carpenter Shop Comer Sixth and Colorado 

R. W. Clothier, B. S. (K.S. A. C), Assistant in Chemistry Cor. Fremont and Sixth streets 

Royal S. Kellogg, B. S. (K. S. A. C), General Assistant Cor. Sixth and Fremont streets 

J. M. Westgate, B. S. (K. S. A. C), General Assistant Cor. Fourth and Leavenworth streets 

Wm. H. Moore, M. S. (K. S. A. C), Foreman of Greenhouses, Manhattan ave. near Laramie street 

C P. Hartley, B. S. (K. S. A. C), Assistant in Horticulture Seventh and Bertrand streets 

Mrs. Mary L. Hanson, Assistant in Department of Household Economics. . .Domestic Sci. Building 
Charlotte J. Short, M. S.(K. S. A. C.),Ass't in Household Economics, Leavenworth near Juliette 

Enos Harrow, Foreman of Iron Shop Manhattan avenue, south of Moro street 

Margaret J. Minis, Assistant Librarian Fourth and Moro streets 

R B. Mitchell. Cadet Major and Acting Com. of College Battalion.. Osage st , near Juliette ave. 

Lorena M. Helder, M. T. (Kan. Con. of Music), B. S. (K. S. A. C), Asst in Music OoUege Hill 

R. H. Brown, M. T. (Kan. Con. of Music). B. S. (K. S.A. C), Ass't in Music 202 Juliette ave 

Mrs. Winnifrede W. Metcalf , Assistant in Oratory Comer Poyntz avenue and Sixth street 

S. N. Chaffee, B. S. (K. S. A. C), Principal of Preparatory Dept. . . .Moro street, bet. 8th and 9th 

Olive Long, B. S. ( K. S. A. C), Clerk of Postofdce Near northwest comer of College 

J. D. Rickman(LT.U.i, Foreman of Printing Office Cor. Tenth and Kearney streets 

C. Jeanette Perry, B. S. (K. S. A. C), Assistant in Printing OfHce .... Comer Colorado and Fifth 

Ora G. Yenawine, B. S. (K. S. A. C), Assistant in Sewing Comer Humboldt and Sixth street 

Chas. W. Pape, M. S. (K. S. A. C), Ass't In Vet. Science and Biology 1104 Moro street 

Assistants in Experiment Station. 

D. H. Otis, M. S. (Kansas State Agricultural CoUege) , Dairying 814 Houston street 

J. G. Haney , Feeding and Field Work Comer Manhattan avenue and Kearney street 

G. L. Clothier, B. S. (Kansas State Agricultural CoUege), Botany Fourth and Leavenworth 

P. J. Parrott, A. B. (Kansas State University), Entomology Juliette ave. and Fremont street 

W. L. HaU, B. S. (K. S. A. C), Horticulture Manhattan avenue and Fremont street 

OTHER OFFICERS. 

Wm. Canfleld Lee, A. B. (Keinron), Piivate Sec. to Pres College Hill, 1 mile west of CoUeee 

lorena E. Clemons, B. S. (K. ^. A. C), Assistant Secretary .^CoTer ^rth Ind La3l 

Ja^«^ T ^^/^^'i^'f^^'l- • A n V i. • :^ Leavenworth street, near Eighth 

Jacob Lund, M. S. (K. S. A. C), Engineer South gate of College 



THE INDUSTRIALIST. 



BOARD OF REGENTS. 



Published ten times per year by the Printing 
Department. 

KANSAS STATE 
AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE. 

rianhattan, Kansas. 
O O O 
Pbibs. Thos. E. Will. Managing Editor. 
Pbof. John D. Walters. Local Editor. 



Hon. E. T. Fairchild, President .... Ellsworth 
Hon. J. S. McDowell, Vice-President, 

Smith Center 

Hon. W. T. Yok, Treasurer Independence 

Hon. Wm. Httntbb, Loan Commr, Blue Rapids 

Hon. Mrs. Susan J. St. John Olathe 

Hon. J. M. Sattbrthwaite Douglass 

Hon. Carl Vroohan Parsons 

Pres. Thos. E. Will, Secretary, ex-offlcio. 



ABSTRACT OF BOARD PROCEEDiNQS, HAY 11-13, 1899. 

THE board met with all members present, the personnel of the 
board being as follows: Regents St. John, Satterthwaite, 
Hunter, Vrooman, McDowell, Yoe and Fairchild. All meetings 
were held in the secretary's office in the College, except the meeting 
for the evening of May 12, which was held at the Hotel Higinbotham. 

The minutes of the meeting for February 8, 1899, were read; and 
at a subsequent session Regent Vrooman moved that the minutes 
be adopted. Roll-call on the motion showed the following vote: 
Aye — St. John, Vrooman. No — Fairchild, Yoe, Hunter. Not vot- 
ing — Satterthwaite, McDowell. The following explanation of the 
"no" votes was ordered recorded: Those voting no, not having 
been present at the meeting in question, could not approve the said 
minutes, tho not disapproving. Minutes of the meeting for March 
29-30 were read and approved. 

Regent Fairchild was elected president of the board; Regent Mc- 
Dowell, vice-president; Regent Yoe, treasurer; Regent Hunter, loan 
commissioner. Regent St. John suggested that the treasurer be 
selected from outside the board, it being a matter of question 
whether under existing law a regent might be treasurer or loan 
commissioner, such offices being remunerative. Regents Yoe and 
McDowell were appointed a committee to audit the accounts of the 
outgoing college treasurer. 

Professor Cottrell urged the prompt erection of the agricultural 
building, and explained plans for modifying the interior arrange- 
ments of the agricultural barn. The site formerly occupied by the 
president's house was selected as a site for the new agricultural 
building. The committee on buildings and grounds was empowered 
to attend to the preliminary work of the agricultural and mechanical 
buildings, but to accept no plans or contracts, said committee to re- 
port later to the full board. 

(389) 



890 THE INDUSTRIALIST. [June, '99 

The following committees were appointed: Auditing — Satter- 
thwaite, McDowell; Buildings — McDowell, Hunter, Yoe; Agriculture 
and Horticulture — Yoe, Satterthwaite, McDowell; Faculty — Pair- 
child, Hunter, Vrooman; Assistants and Employees — Hunter, Sat- 
terthwaite, Yoe; Domestic Science — St. John, Fairchild, Vrooman; 
Course of Study — Fairchild, Vrooman, Hunter ; Mechanics — Vroo- 
man, McDowell. 

Members of the faculty discussed with the board questions per- 
taining to long and short courses of study, entrance requirements, 
preparatory department, etc. . 

Petition relating to the reopening of the college dining hall, signed 
by 264 students and others, was read as follows: 

Whereas, the complication of affairs in connection with the Board of 
Regents has resulted in the suspension of the college dining hall, with the fol- 
lowing results: 

1. The town boardiiiK houses that are simply in the business of boarding students for the 
money there is in it are enabled to charjire the whole body of students a higher rate, as they do 
not have to compete with the said college dininj? hall. 

2. Many of the regular boarders have been compelled to seek board at unreasonable distances 
and rates. This is especially hard on those who are working their way, as even the los.s of time 
consumed in walking the increased distance is quite an item. 

3. Some of the waiters who depend on their earnings in this department are being compelled 
to leave College. 

4. Quite a number of the students are -baching"— living in piecemeal fashion. Its effect on the 
student's constitution need not be commented upon. 

6. The 250 persons who were dependent on the said dining haU for their warm dinners are 
compelled to rush to the various down-town eating establishments, where a higher priced but 
often inferior bill of fare awaits them, or else subsist on the cold meat-and-bread luich which few 
students have the constitutions to long withstand. 

We, the undersigned, do humbly petition you, the Board of Regents of the 
Kansas State Agricultural College, to take such measures as will cause the 
immediate reopening of the said dining hall. We also petition that Mrs. Hanson 
be made purchasing agent for said dining hall establishment and continue as 
superintendent and manager. 

Voted that persons desiring the use of the college dining hall be 
permitted to use the same, including the kitchen and utensils, during 
the remainder of the present term, said use to involve no expense to 
the College; provided Mrs. Mary L. Hanson will assume control and 
responsibility for the business and equipment, looking to the receipts 
from the dining hall for her compensation. 

The board voted to re-lease for two years, at tbe rate of $230 per 
annum, the 120 acres of Williston land lying to the north of the 
college grounds. 

President Fairchild, on leaving before the adjournment of the 
board, left the following appointments: Committee to submit course 
of study, or synopsis thereof, to the committee on course of study at 



June, '99.] 



BOARD PROCEEDINGS. 



391 



earliest practicable time — Professors Nichols, Ward, Winston, Hitch- 
cock, Willard, Stoner, Cottrell and Harper. 

The difference of $15 per month between the salaries of Messrs. 
Clothier and Westgate was retained by the general fund of the Col- 
lege after May 1, instead of being added to the appropriation for the 
Botanical department. 

The following recommendation of the secretary was adopted: 
That $250 be expended from the executive fund for actual expenses 
incurred by college teachers in visiting teachers' institutes and lec- 
turing on the College; and that teachers not otherwise connected 
with college duties during summer vacation be requested to do such 
work in so far as practicable. 

Regent Satterthwaite brought up the question of delivery of the 
coming commencement address by Hon. Wm. J. Bryan. Regent 
Yoe offered the following resolution: 

Whereas, The former Board of Regents invited Hon. Wm. .J. Bryan to de- 
liver the commencement address at the Agricultural College in June, and 

Whereas, The present Board of Regents are opposed to giving this occa- 
sion a political significance. 

Resolved, That we are opposed to his coming, and we request that some 
gentleman not recognized as a politician be invited to make the address. 

On roll-call the vote stood as follows: Aye — McDowell, Yoe, 
Hunter and Satterthwaite. No — Vrooman and St. John. The 
resolution thereupon was declared carried. Upon motion of Regent 
Yoe it was voted that President Will be requested to select a com- 
mencement speaker. 

Treasurer-elect Yoe filed his bond as treasurer in the sum of 
$50,000, said bond being signed by W. T. Yoe; the First National 
Bank of Manhattan, Kan., by Geo. S. Murphey, president, and George 
K. Holder, cashier; Geo. S. Murphey, W. I. Richards, Charles Day, 
and C. P. Little. On motion of Regent Hunter the bond was accepted 
and approved. On motion of Regent Hunter, Treasurer-elect Yoe 
was permitted to appoint a deputy treasurer until the end of the 
present college year in the person of Mr. George S. Murphey, presi- 
dent of the First National Bank of Manhattan. 

On motion of Regent Vrooman the minutes of the current meeting 
were read and approved. 

The board adjourned to meet at the College, Tuesday, June 6, at 
9 a. m. 



392 



[June, '99 



ECONOMICS IN AHERICAN COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES. 

BY E. W. BEMIS. 

THREE terms of economics are now given at the K. S. A. C, and 
one term of industrial history, which is divided between his- 
tory and economics. Mention might also be made of chapel lectures 
in these subjects, one hour a week during the fall term. One of 
the three terms above mentioned is required of only about one-half 
of the students of the Senior class this year, and the professor in 
charge has advised that the term henceforth be made elective for all 
students, as proposed in the course of study reported by the 
proper committee in April. In view, however, of the claim 
that too much economics is taught at the K. S. A. C, and the 
imphcation that only radical institutions would introduce so full 
a course, it is interesting to observe what is being done in 
the strongest and most conservative institutions in the country. 
Unfortunately several institutions which have been addressed and 
which are known to have very extensive departments of economics 
and sociology, such as Yale, Cornell, the Johns Hopkins, and the state 
universities of Michigan and Minnesota, have not yet sent catalogs, 
but enough data are at hand to prove that the most conservative of 
our great institutions are devoting a vast amount of time and money 
to this work. 

The University of Chicago, in its department of economics and 
the allied department of sociology, has two head professors receiving 
$7,000 each, eight other professors, and several instructors. The 
total of the salaries for instruction in these two departments, to say 
nothing of numerous fellowships, or of the work of history and polit- 
ical science, is about $40,000. A mere title of the courses in econom- 
ics will give some idea of their scope and of the respect paid to the 
subject by this creation of the Standard Oil Company. They are in part 
as follows : Principles of Political Economy; Advanced Political Econ- 
omy; Economic and Social History; Processes of Leading Industries; 
History of Political Economy; Scope and Method of Political 
Economy; Economic Theory; Social Economics; Practical Economics; 
Socialism; Economic Factors in Civilization; Finance; Railway 
Transportation; Comparative Railway Legislation; Railway Ac- 
counts, Exchanges, etc. ; Tariff History of the United States; Prob- 
lems of American Agriculture; Financial History of the United States; 



June, '99.] ECONOMICS. 393 

Statistics; Money and Practical Economics; Banking; Colonial Eco- 
nomics; Natural Resources of the United States; and any number of 
courses under the title of sociology, such as Primitive Social Con- 
.trol, the Family, the Labor Movement, Social Treatment of Crime, 
Philanthropy, American Experience with State Control of Social 
Action, Democracy and the Social Movement in the Nineteenth 
Century, and Education as a Social Function. 

Turning next from the newest to the oldest of our universities we 
find at Harvard fully twenty courses in the department under con- 
sideration, for example: Outlines of Economics, History and Liter- 
ature of Economics, Economic Theory, Socialism and Communism, 
the Medieval Economic History of Europe, Western Civilization in 
its Economic Aspects, the Industrial Revolution in England, Eco- 
nomic History of the United States, the Labor Question in Europe 
and the United States, Statistics, Railways and other Public Works, 
Finance, Banking, Money, the Ethics of Social Questions, etc. 

Columbia University, in New York, with four professors in eco- 
nomics and social science, receiving $5,000 or more each, and with 
several assistants, offers twenty-four different courses along the 
same Hnes as the institutions above mentioned. Even Princeton, 
the most conservative of the great eastern universities in all 
directions, has two professors and three associate professors in these 
lines and offers twenty one courses. 

Some of the state institutions are also beginning to wake up to the 
importance of these subjects, which are even more appropriate to 
them than to private endowed institutions, since state institutions, 
supported by public taxes, should prepare for citizenship, if they 
prepare for nothing else. 

The course at the University of Ohio is much like that at Manhat- 
tan, only more extensive, since there are over twelve courses. The 
University of Illinois offers twenty courses. The University of Wis- 
consin not only has Professor Ely but three or four othei-s us teach- 
ers of this subject. Eighteen courses are offered in economics and 
sociology. Professor Ely's Socialism and Social Reform, which is 
used as a text book during one of the terms at Manhattan, in con- 
nection with lectures, is also used at the Johns Hopkins University, 
University of Boston, University of Wisconsin, University of Mis- 
souri, Lawrence University, and the universities of Iowa and Colo- 
rado, while other text- books by the same author are in use atLeland 
Stanford and Brown universities, Smith and Swarthmore colleges. 



S94 



THE INDUSTRIALIST. 



[June, '99 






the universities of Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Colorado, and several 
other strong institutions. 

So necessary are these subjects now considered to even a moder- 
ately liberal education that much attention is paid to them even in 
high schools of any pretensions in the East, while it is well-known 
that the congressional act of 1890 grants every agricultural college 
$25,000 a year— 

To be applied only to instruction in agriculture, the mechanic arts, the 
English language and the various branches of mathematical, physical, natural 
and economic science, with special reference to their application to the industries 
of life and to the facilities for such instruction. 

The difference in amounts of economic instruction offered in other 
institutions in comparison with that provided in the Kansas State 
Agricultural College is further emphasized by the fact that the 
courses here are but about one-third of one year in length, while in 
the other institutions mentioned they are usually pursued during one- 
half year or one full year. 

The fact that no complaint has been made in regard to the excessive 
amount of economics offered in the universities of Chicago, Harvard, 
Columbia, Pennsylvania, Stanford, etc., while at the same time 
the small amount offered in this institution has aroused criticism, 
furnishes much room for reflection. If the department is considered 
such a bugbear by many citizens of the state, it must be due to 
ignorance of the work done. The frequent presence of our critics 
in the class room would probably dispel their fears. 



^ ^ 



A SENSATION IN ROCKEFELLER'S UNIVERSITY. 

'T^HE University of Chicago, founded by John D. Rockefeller, is 
A usually regarded as the headquarters for conservatism as re- 
gards social and economic questions. For this reason, if for no other, 
the following remarks, as reported in the newspapers, by Prof. Al- 
bion W. Small, of the chair of sociology, before the Methodist minis- 
ters, are noteworthy : 

In this age of so-called democracy we are getting into the thrall of the most 
relentless system of economic oligarchy that history thus far records 

That capital from which most of us, directly or indirectly, get our bread and 
wfJ" '\^^^''!^'''S the most undemocratic, inhuman and atheistic of all the 

tesouUnl'T' \^r^' '^"^""' ""'y ^" •'^^«"'- *h« bodies of some and 
the souls of others, and to put out the spiritual eyesight of the rest. 



June, '99.] 



A SENSATION. 



395 



In spite of the historic campaigns for liberty, in spite of the achievements of 
Christianity, there has never been a time since Adam was born when the indi- 
vidual counted for so little or availed so little as to-day. 

Compared with any worthy conception of what society must become if life is 
to be tolerable, the socialistic indictments against our civilization are essen- 
tially sound. As abstract propositions, these diagnoses expose with approxi- 
mate truth the ghastly inequalities and injustices which our present social 
order sacrifices. 

It is a literal and cardinal fact that our present economic system cries to 
heaven for rectification. It stultifies human nature. It nullifies the purposes 
of God. The men who denounce present society have profound reason for their 
complaints. We are in the midst of the most bewildering labyrinth of social 
entanglements in which the human race has wandered up to date. 

If you will heed the symptoms from bank and office and factory and railroad 
headquarters and daily press, you have discovered that the very men who are 
making these combinations are beginning to be afraid of their own shadows. 
These very business men, who claim to have a monopoly of practical common 
sense, have involved themselves and all the rest of us in a grim tragedy of er- 
rors. 

They are already beginning to ask on the quiet how it is all to end. 
Whether they realize it or not, our vision of freedom is passing into eclipse of 
universal corporate compulsion in the interest of capital. The march of human 
progress is getting reducible to marking time in the lockstep of capital's chain 

gang. 

I have no doubt whatever that the vast majority of capitalists are good cap- 
italists. They operate strictly within the rules of the game. Nevertheless, cap- 
italism is not'a good game, and it is our business to see the reason why. The 
whole program of our present civilization turns at last on the calculation of ef- 
fects upon the accumulation of capital. 

We have turned moral values upside down. We are making men the means 
of making capital, whereas capital is only tolerable when it is simply the 
means of making men. 

It would be infinitely more for human weal if every dollar of wealth should 
be cleaned from the earth, if we could have instead of it industry and honesty 
and justice and love and faith, than to be led much further into this devil's 
dance of capitalism. 

t- ^ * 

Speaking of the recent trouble at this College, Efpitty (May 13, 
1899) says: 

Corporations and wealthy syndicates whose sole object is to exploit the peo- 
ple will never fail to avail themselves of an opportunity to delude the people 
by false economic teachings in their educational institutions. 

Too many of our colleges are under the control of these corporate powers 
whose pecuniary gains would be perpetuated by keeping the people economically 
ignorant. They dread the light on economic questions and are therefore the 
natural foes to every tendency to increase the sum total of popular intelligence 
In regard to all matters which have a direct bearing upon their well-being as 
producers of wealth. The students in institutions controlled by these influences 
are trained with special reference to inspiring them with the hope that they can 
become wealthy and powerful by the perpetuation of our present unequal and 



396 



THE INDUSTRIALIST. 



[June, '99 



oppressive economic system. Political economy as taught in many of these 
institutions tends to so befog the natural faculties of the student, that he often 
seems to be incapable of arriving at any intelligent comprehension of the basic 
principles which underlie any great question, the decision of which affects for 
good or ill the great masses of the people. 

Under the management of the present board of regents the Kansas State 
Agricultural College at Manhattan is a real educator worthy of an intelligent 
people. The improvements which have been introduced are most important in 
their character; and on their merits, if clearly presented, would receive the cor- 
dial endorsement of the great masses of the people. Therefore, we hope that the 
effort to undo the good that has been done will be resisted thru the courts so 
vigorously that the entire people may become conversant with all the facts, 
and at the same time become aroused to the imperative necessity of preventing 
corporate influences from dominating our state institutions of learning— and 
the control of all other state institutions should be taken out of the hands of 
mere politicians. 



* 



LOCAL NOTES. 

C. E. Coburn, '91, is practising medicine in Kansas City. 

A. C. Smith, '97, has gone to Alaska, to grow up with the country. 

Miss Grace Secrest, '96, has returned to her alma mater to take 
a postgraduate course. 

The commencement address will be delivered on June 8, by Rev. 
Benjamin Pay Mills, of Boston. 

One hundred fifteen students have been enrolled in farm classes 
during the present college year. 

The K. S. A. C. nine was beaten on the diamond by the Nebraska 
university nine. The score stood 10 to 1. 

The College has a^ain loased the 120 acres of land belonging to the 
Wilhs ton estate, lying just north of the college farm. 

Each of the four companies of the battalion has taken a turn or 
two at the rifle range, but the records are not completed at this 
writing. 

A farmers' institute was held at Blue Rapids, the other day, the 
actual cost of which was $1.52. The average cost of the institutes 
thus far this year is $7.69. 

The announcement in chapel, last Saturday afternoon, that the 
dining hall would immediately reopen, was greeted with tremen- 
dous applause which for some time completely stopped the further 
reading of the notice. 

The faculty party at Professor Nichols's, April 29, was a success 
in every particular. The Professor and his good wife certainly know 
how to entertain even an assorted lot of old pedagogs armed with 
queer scientific hobbies. f "^ s 



■HiMiai 



June, '99.] LOCAL NOTES. 397 

W. E. Smith, '93, got first prize at the social at Professor Brown's 
for being the best milliner. R. W. Clothier, '97, succeeded in taking 
the ''boohy. '"—Smdents' Herald. 

Miss Grace Clark, '92, former stenographer to President Fair- 
child, left recently for Berea, Ky., where she has a position as 
secretary to the president of Berea College. 

We are in receipt of a very interesting bulletin on Agriculture in 
Alaska, issued by the U. S. Department of Agriculture. The pam- 
phlet was prepared by Prof. C. C. Georgeson and Walter H. Evans. 

Mr. Geo. L. Clothier is expected back, about the twentieth of this 
month, from Cornell University, where he has studied seed breed- 
ing. On the return trip he will spend a short time at his old home in 
West Virginia, collecting specimens for the Botanical department. 

Professor Cottrell has received an invitation to attend the opening 
of a new creamery at St. Francis, up in the northwest corner of the 
state, and give good advice to start off on. Unfortunately it is im- 
practicable for him to go, as it would take him away from the College 
for too long, at a busy time. 

More than usual interest seems to be manifested in the State 
Dairy Association that meets at the Agricultural College next fall. 
The object of this meeting is to discuss the pure butter subject and 
how to make more of it, and the relation of the farmer to the cream- 
eries. It is a subject of great importance to Kansas farmers. 

Mr. F. S. Kurd, Meriden, Kan., president of the state dairy asso- 
ciation, writes for one thousand copies of bulletin No. 88, "Keeping 
Milk in Summer," which he wishes to distribute among his patrons. 
Mr. Hurd has four of our dairy school students employed in his 
creamery this summer, and reports that they are doing unusually 
good work. 

The following item concerning an ex- regent of the College, is 
going the rounds of the press: "Rev. Phihp Krohn is now hving 
in extreme poverty in Candor, N. Y. A year and a half ago he was 
paralyzed and since that he has not been able to speak or walk. He 
hears with great difficulty." Rev. Dr. Krohn was a regent of this 
College in 1888-85. 

The Dewey Day celebration at the opera house, May 1, was the 
success of the year. Every seat was taken, and standing room was 
at a premium. The college cadet band looked well in their new uni- 
forms. H(m. Sam Kimble made a very interesting and patriotic 
address which was heartily applauded. The music was under the 
direction of Professor Brown. 

"Investigations of the Growth of Alfalfa in Kansas," is the title 
of experiment station bulletin No. 85. The bulletin is the joint work 
of the Botanical and Farm departments, having been prepared by 
George L. Clothier, assistant botanist, and H. M. Cottrell, professor 
of agriculture. Parties desiring this very valuable pamphlet should 
send their names to the Experiment Station of this College. 




398 THE INDUSTRIALIST. [June, '99 

Professor and Mrs. Metcalf, assisted by the Wagner Symphony- 
Club, R. H. Brown, director, gave one of their popular "Metcalf 
Recitals," in Wareham's Opera House, Manhattan, Monday night, 
May 22, The entertainment consisted of literary recitals in mono- 
logue and dialogue, including interpretations of dramatic scenes, and 
partaking of the humorous, pathetic and dramatic, interspersed with 
fine music. 

Mr. R L. Stewart, of Murrysville, Pa., called at the Experiment 
Station recently. He is investigating the climate and possibilities 
of Nebraska and Kansas with regard to the cultivation of corn for 
sugar. By stripping the ears from the corn at the right stage, a 
large sugar content can be reliably secured in the juice; and Mr. 
Stewart is trying to get the beet sugar factories to take up the 
manufacture of corn sugar, which will considerably extend the work- 
ing season of the factories. He carried off a selected bunch of sta- 
tion bulletins, and left a dollar for The Industrialist. 

The Veterinary department of the Kansas State Agricultural Col- 
lege will issue consecutively several bulletins on blackleg, marked 
A, B, C, etc., which will include a general review of this disease, and 
show plainly just what is being done, as well as the benetits offered 
to the Kansas farmers by this department. Blackleg vaccine has 
become an important laboratory product at the Kansas State Ag- 
ricultural College, and is furnished free to all applicants. Printed 
directions explaining how to vaccinate are furnished with every 
order Sufficient vaccine has already been distributed to vaccinate 
over 25,000 head of calves.— Hays City lieimblican. 

Ed. H. Webster writes from Manhattan to the Yates Center News: 
"If there is a young man in Woodson county who expects to enter 
farming as his life occupation, he can begin no better than by saving 
$50 between now and the first of January next, and then come here 
to the College and take either the creamery patron's course, or the 
home dairy course. Each course is three months in length and en- 
tirely free to all, board and books being the only cost. The new 
dairy school will be equipped with the best and latest apparatus for 
both creamery butter-making and home butter- making, and factory 
cheese making. Expert instructors will be employed in every line, 
and the value derived from taking such a course will be well worth 
the time and cost to any young man, or older man either, who is 
going to stay by the farm. " 

Alaska now has a regular experiment station; it is under the di- 
rect supervision of the United States Department of Agriculture. 
The Experiment Station Record states as follows: "Professor 
Georgeson will remain in charge of the work, and will reach Alaska 
about the middle of April. He will take with him Mr. C. H. Robin- 
eon, a graduate of the Michigan Agricultural College in 1895, as 
assistant at Sitka, and Mr, H. P. Nielsen, formerly of the Kansas 
Agricultural College, as assistant at Kenai for the summer. He has 
also engaged three laborers to go to Alaska for the summer, as there 
IS difficulty in procuring satisfactory farm laborers there. Several 
yoke of oxen will be shipped there from Oregon, and a full fine of 



June, '99. 



LOCAL NOTES. 



399 



implements, includiug wagons, stump pullers, plows, cultivators, 
harrows, hand tools, etc., will be taken .... More restricted 
experiments in growing cereals and vegetables were made at Skag- 
way by a settler in that place who was formerly connected with the 
Kansas Agricultural College." 

An item in the Kansas City Times refers to our Max G. Spalding, 
'96: "Max G. Spalding, 26 years old, has a fractured skull as the re- 
sult of an accident which occurred yesterday afternoon at the 
Minneapolis Threshing Machine Company's building, 1312 West 
Eleventh street. By means of a derrick, Spalding was hoisting a 
separator from a flat car. While the machine was suspended, the 
brake holding the derrick handle was released by Spalding to lower 
the machine. The handle got away from him and flying around 
struck him on the right temple, fracturing his skull. The machine 
fell to the ground with a ci'ash, just missing four workmen who had 
been assisting. They ran to his assistance and one of them called 
the police ambulance with Dr. Manahan. The latter gave Spalding 
temporary treatment and took him to St. Joseph's hospital." 

The following good words for the Mechanical department are 
gleaned from the Manhattan Mcrcuiy: "The Mechanical department 
of the Agricultural College has under construction half a dozen mod- 
ern six-foot .screw-cutting lathes that would attract the attention of 
any judge of fine workmanship. To commence with, Professor 
Harper obtained permissitm from the owners of patents, on account 
of the extensive purchases the College had made of th'. m, to make 
these lathes for use in the college shops. Superintendent House 
made the patterns and the work went thru the various stages. 
Four of the machines will be completed by Commencement. The 
new 18 inch face, 12 foot pattern-maker's lathe recently added to the 
wood shops is what Mr. House has been working on for the past 
three years, and is proving one of the most useful machines in the 
department. Professor Harper has the most enthusiastic set of 
students about the Mechanical department the College ever had, and 
we believe it is caused by the splendid work done and the practical 
way in which he goes at it." 

Notes From the Horticultural Department. 

The east entrance to Lovers' Lane is being rearranged and fitted 
up with cut stone posts to correspond with the east entrance to the 
main drive. This improvement has long been needed and will add 
an imposing feature to that part of the grounds. 

Bulletin No. 84, on "Cold Storage for Fruit," is in great demand. 
Before it had been distributed two weeks, special requests for it had 
been received from 26 different states. It is the first bulletin issued 
in the United States giving results obtained in the keeping of fruits 
by cold storage. As long as the supply lasts copies may be had free, 
by request from the Horticultural department. 

The horticultural museum is being equipped with a collection of 
fungous diseases such as are parasitic on horticultural crops. The 
specimens will be shown in glass bottles such as are used for exhibit- 



400 THE INDUSTRIALIST. [June, '99 

ing fruits. Drawings have been prepared showing the microscopic 
characters of the fungi. The collection will be of great value as a 
means of illustration in class work. Mrs. Bertha (Kimball) Dickens, 
'90, is preparing the drawings. 

An interesting experiment is in progress on the improvement of 
strawberries by selection. The plants are given the best of culture 
and are allowed to bear but a limited quantity of fruit. Plants are 
propagated from these and the young plants so propagated will be 
placed in a new bed and be given the same careful culture and treat- 
ment. It is only by such experiments carefully and patiently 
carried out year after year that the highest types of fruits are to be 
expected. 

Commencement Week. 

Saturday, June S. — Recital before the literary societies, in College 
Chapel, by Prof, and Mrs. F. A. Metcalf assisted by the Wagner 
Symphony Club, at 8 P. m. 

Sunday, June 4. — Baccalaureate sermon, in College Chapel, by 
President Will, at 4 p. m. 

Tuesday, June 6. — Examinations from 9 a.m. to 3:35 p. m. Class- 
day exercises for invited guests of class of '99, at 8 p. m. 

Wednesday, June 7. — Examinations from 9 a. m. to 3:35 P. m. Pub* 
lic address before the Alumni Association, in College Chapel, by John 
W. Shartel, class of '84, at 8:00 p.m. 

Thursday, June 8, Commencement Day. — Annual address by Rev. 
Benjamin Fay Mills, of Boston, Mass., at 10 a. m. Presentation of 
Diplomas. Cadet band concert on east campus at 2:00 p. m. Mil- 
itary drill at 2:45 p. M. Business meeting of the Alumni Associa- 
tion, in College Chapel, at 4:30 p. m. Triennial reunion of Alumni 
and invited guests, at 7:30 p. m. 

Public conveyance to and from College in connection with all ex- 
ercises. Dinner on Thursday served in College Dining Hall. 

Field Day Notes. 

May 8 was field day. The weather was propitious, but there was 
only a light attendance of spectators to witness the various maneuv- 
ers. Below we give the names of the winners and the record made 
for first place: 

Dash, 100 yards, 11 sec.— Spencer, Zirkle, Hanson. 

Pole vault, 8 ft. 6 in.— Howard, Perry. Wise. 

Shot put, 32 ft. 9 in.— Howard, Butterfield, Durant, Avery. 

Run, \ mile, 2 min. 16^ sec— True, Roe, Drown. 

Swinging jump from pole, 14 ft. 5 in.— Howard, Sparks, Durant, Butterfield. 

Hurdle race, 15J sec— Zirkle, Perry, Howard. 

Wheel race, i mile, 1 min. 23J sec— Avery, Snyder, Cannon. 

Hammer throw, 72 ft. 3 in.— Durant, Butterfield, Bourne, Jolley. 

Run, 220 yards, 25S sec— Spencer, Zirkle, Hanson. 

Standing high jump, 4 ft. 3 in.— Butterfield, Perry, Howard, Leonard. 

Ball throw, .306 ft.— Howard, Durant, Perry, Butterfield. 

Mile walk, 9 min. 48i sec.- Nelson, Jolley, Boardman. 

Running high jump, 5 ft. 1 in.— Perry and Howard tied, Butterfield, Wise. 

Run, 440 yards, 53| sec— Spencer, Powers, Snodgrass. 

Standing broad jump, 9 ft. 7 in.— Butterfield, Burson, Howard, Leonard, 



June, '99.] 



LOCAL NOTES. 



401 



Relay race, 1 mile, 4 min. 5^ sec— Bean, Roe, Spencer, Burson: Zirkle, Wise, 
Blachly, Leonard; Brown, Hanson, Sweet, Brigham. 

Wrestling mill— Drown, Dern, Swingle: Brow, Sparks, Avery; Durant, 
Drown, Finch. 

Running broad jump, 17 It. 6 in.— Spencer, rioward, Snider. 

Bicycle race, 2 miles, 5 min. 53J sec— Avery, Snodgrqss. 

The following table shows the points won by the 1st, 2d, 3d and 
4th years respectively in each event, the 2d years being the winners 
of the day : 



EVKNTS. 



Fir.-it 

Second 

Third 

Fourth. ... 

Fifth 

Sixth 

Seventh , . . 

Eighth 

Ninth 

Tenth 

Eleventh . . . 

Twelfth 

Thirteenth. . 
Fourteenth . 
Fifteenth . . 
Sixteenth. . . 
Seventeenth 
Eighteenth . 
Nineteenth . , 



tlrst. 



4 
3 
3 

3 
5 
4 
5 
4 

4 
3 

4 

4 
3 
3 




Second. 



Total. 



52 



o 
4 

4 
4 
4 
5 
3 
5 
4 
3 
5 
4^ 



4 

5 
5 



78i 

-^ — 



Third. 

3 

5 

5 

3 

5 

3 

3 



3 

3 

5 

4 

ii 

3 

3 

3 

5 

4 

4 



68i 



Fourth. 



4 
5 



4 

5 


3 

5 







26 



Battalion Roster. 

Cadet Major and Acting Commandant 

STAFF. 

First Lieutenant and Adjutant. 



Robert B. Mitchell. 

CD. Montgomery. 
F. Howard. 



First Lieutenant and Quartermaster 

NONCOMISSIONED STAFF. 

Sergeant Major R. E. Eastman. 

Color Sergeant Geo. Owens. 

Chief Trumpeter W. RmoLE. 

Chief Signal Corps John Wyse. 

Drum Major Paul Piersol. 



COMMFSSIONED AND NONCOMMISSIONED OFFICERS 


OF THE LINE, BY COMPANIES. 




Rank. 


Company A. 


Company U. 


Company C. 


Company D. 


Captain 

First Lieutenant 

Second Lieutenant.. 

First Sergeant 

Second Sergeant... 

Third Sergeant 

Fourth Sergeant 

Fifth Sergeant 

First Corporal 

Second Corporal 

Thkd Corporal 

Fourth Corporal 

Fifth Corporal 

Sixth Corporal 


A. E. Blair 


Frank Shelton.. 

H. D. Orr 

Geo. Greene 

G. W. Hanson.... 
John Powers — 

B. F. Mudge 

Chas. Edwards. . 
H. A. DiebaU.... 
F.W. Haslewood 
E. E. Chronister. 

R. F. Triplet 

J. D. Hanson 

V. M. Emmert... 
H. C. WilUams. . . 


Roscoe Nichols.. 
Roland McKee.. 

D. B. Swingle... 
W. F. Lawry... 

C. C. Turner 

R. A. Bower — 

G. F. Bean 

H. A. Avery 

H. S. Bourne.... 
J. T. Stafford.... 
R. S. Cole 

H. N. VinaU.... 
C. F. Smith 

E. H. Zirkle 


J. A. Harvey. 
Chas. Eastman. 

A. I. Bain. 

B. Thompson. 
H. H RUey. 

J. Oesterhaus. 
Fred Mvers. 


L. E. Potter 

C. A. Scott 

H. F.Butterfleld... 
B. Poole 


E. C. Cook 

E. V. Roe 


C. J. Burson 

D. C. Deming 

H. Baker 


H. Adams. 
H. T. York. 
C. Davidson. 


H. H. Fay 

J. F. Ross 

R. FarLs 


C. A. Gingery. 
J. E Snyder. 
C O. Sparks. 


L.Ri8g 


H. P. Richards. 



402 



THE INDUSTRIALIST. 



[June, '99 



r i 



Attention Alumni! 

Manhattan, Kan., March 25, '99. 
To the MemJjers of the Alumni AssociatiOH of the Kansas State Ayncultural College: 
I hereby give notice that llie following amendments to the consti- 
tution and by-laws of the association will be presented for consider- 
ation at the next annual meeting, June, 1899. Ed. H. Webster, '96. 

AMENDMENTS TO CONSTITUTION. 

Art. 3. The officers of the association shall be a president, a vice-president, 
a secretary, a treasurer and a correspondent of the StuckiUs^ Herald. 

Art. 5.' The business of the association during the intervals between the 
annual meetings shall be in the hands of an executive committee, which shall 
consist of the officers of the association and two other members, who shall be 
elected by the association at each regular meeting. No two members of the 
executive' committee shall be of the same class. 

Art. 7. The officers shall be elected by the association at each annual 
meeting, and shall hold office for one year or until their successors shall have 
been elected. 

Art. 8. (1 ) This constitution may be amended by a three-fourths vote of all 
members present at any regular meeting, providing the proposed amendment 
shall have been published at least one month previous in the Students^ Herald. 

amendments to by laws. 

Section 1. There shall be triennial reunions of the association at the Kan- 
sas State Agricultural College, to be provided for by the executive committee, 
unless otherwise ordered by the associatiun. 

Sec. 2. The expenses of each reunion shall be met by a uniform assessment 
upon all the members in attendance. 

Sec. 3. The board of regents and the faculty of the College, the wives and 
husbands of members of the association not themselves members, and such 
prominent persons as the executive comnaittee or the association shall see fit to 
invite, shall be guests of the association at its reunions . 

Sec. 4. The executiAse committee may provide for an address to be delivered 
before the association, by one of its members, on the occasion of the triennial 
reunion . 



I^USH mEDlCAL COLiliEGE 

— 'i In affiliation tuith the Univefslty of Chleago. 

THE curriculum of the school of medicine requires a proper preliminary education, and three 
years of study in college, devoted to laboratory, didactic and clinical instruction, to recita- 
tions and to manual training in the use of instruments and appliances. 

Instruction is given in two capacious, well-lighted edifices. The new building contains five 
large laboratories, in which are conducted the practical laboratory courses in 

Anatomy, Physiology and Histologry, Chemistry, Materia Mcdica, 
Pathology and Bacteriology. 

The old building is devoted to mstruction by clinics, didactic lectures, and by numerous 
important practical courses in manual training in manipulations, and in the use of the instru- 
ments employed in medical science, surgery, obstetrics and the specialties. 

(ttlantiaf graining in all departments of medicine is a special feature of the Instruction in 

■^=^ this college. Systematic recitations, conducted in five commodious 

recitation rooms, are regarded as a most important means of teaching. 

With over 70 professors and Instructors and with ample room and appliances, this school is 
able to furnish its classes with the most approved systematic education in medicine. 

Physicians and medical students are invited to visit the laboratories and to inspect the 
educational appliances of this school. 

For further information and for announeements apply to the College Clerk or to the 
Secretary, 



J. H. ETHEI^IDGE, |W. D. 

33 WasbingtoD Stvcct, Chlsafto. 



m THE COIL 

In the Horizontal Wires in tlie 




PflOE FENCES 1^ 



•^ Provides for the "Give and Take" required to adapt a wire 
fence to the varying temperatures. 



liOOK AT THIS FARM SCEflET 



Doesn't it seem as tho Page Fence, besides affording per- 
16^1 feet security for the stock, is quite ornamental'? 




Mr C W DeMotfs Farm Residence, East New Market. Maryland, showing 
Page 8-bar 44-incli cow fence, with posts 32 feet apart. See the fence does 
not sag. 

PAGE FENCES 

(jl Are used to enclose some of the handsomest suburban resi- 

dences in the United States. 

Jl PAGE FENCES 

Are acknowledged to be standards all over the world, and 
standards do not cost more than many of their imitations. 

Isn't It Safe 

To buy standard articles made by standard manufacturers? 



Let us make you a price on 
your next job of fencing 



PAGE WOVEH WIRE FENCE CO., purlan, Hllchlgan. 



800 STUDENTS. 



(500,000 ENOOWPIEKT. 



40 INSTRUCTORS. 



K FRee EDUOKTION 



, IN. 



The • LaiDBSt • flgilGultural • College • In • the • World. 



SIX COURSES 
OF STUDY: . , . 



|j J3(,griouUural, 
73(,robiteotural, 
Qomestio goienoe, 
general, 
TWeobanioal ^ngineerintg, and 




Beautiful (Jrou^ds. \i\r)e Substantial Stope Buildip^s 

Admission on examination direct from the District Schools. 

Funds derived chiefly from federal government. 
Reputation established for thoro, scientific and practical work. 
Engineering course of a high order. 
Enrollment largest in the history of the College. 

Equipment for Domestic Science unsurpassed in the West. 
Dining Hall furnishes full board at actual cost — $1.75 jier week. 
United States Agricultural Experiment Station. 
College Bookstore furnishes Books and Stationery at cost. 
Apprentice Course in Shops, Sewing and Printing. 
The Laboratories and Shops ^re splendidly equipped. 
Instruction in Model Private Dairy— a newly added feature. 
Oratory and Music entirely free— something unusual. 
No Tuition nor Pees in any Department. ^ 

Spring term now in progress. Students mav still enter. For further particu- 
lars or catalog, address pRgS. THOS. E. WILL, Manhattan. Kansas. 



Historical Society 



July, 1899. 



Vol. 35. No. 7. 
Whole No. 1024. 



INDUSTRIALIST. 

Issued 10 times per year by the 

KANSAS STATE AQRICULTURAL QOLLEQC. 



•♦♦♦♦♦•♦••♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦• 

* 
4 

cb, 1875- 







I 



(5 

fot tUe 
(ptomotiott 

(^gricu?* 

turaf, 

3n5u0triaf 

anb 

Ciijic 

06ucattott. 



10 Cents. : 




i 



i 



EDITED aV THE FACULTY. 

Haaagng Ed.tor. - - PRES. TEOS. E. WILL. 
Local Editor. - - - PROP. J. D. WALTERS. 



PUBLISHED BY 

THE PRINTING DEPARTMENT, 

GHAS. S. DAVIS, Supt. 



CONTeNTS. 

Characteristic Campus Views Frontispiece. 

Hkroism.- Baccalaureate Sermon Before 
THE Class op 1899, Delivered June 4 405 

THOMAS ELMKR WILL. 

How Old Are You V 427 

D. H. OTIS. 

Notes on Refrigerating Machinery 430 

jos. d. harper. 

gl jm^ses of the future 438 

frank parsons. 

The Real and Permanent Grandeur of 
These States. — Abstract of a Com- 
mencement Oration, Given at the Kan- 
sas State Agricultural College, June 

8, 1809 445 

benjamin fay mills. 

Books and Periodicals 460 

Board of Instruction 464 

Regents on the College Changes 465 

Abstract of Board Proceedings 468 

The Issue 471 

thomas e. will. 

Announcements for 1899-1900 474 

Local Notes 476 



^♦^♦^♦♦«' 



Entered at the Postoffice at ManhatUn, Kansas, for transmission as seoond-olMs mail matter. 

Subscription Price .... 

One Year, ----- $i.oo 

Special Club Rate to Students and Alumni - - .50 

/T\ai)l?attai), K^PSas: ^olle^c Jvpe ai>d pr(?g8.- 

Chicago address: 77 Clark street. Room 23. 



mmmmfm'm^ 



mBmmm 



mm 



GenreRTS ef pReceDiRG RumBCRs. 



NOVEMBER 
Parties and the People, by Frank Parsons 689 

Dairy School, K S. A. C 69« 

The Value of Academic Opinions on Eco- 
nomic Questions, by Thomas Elmer Will 600 
Tabular View of "Mint Bill" (To face) 604 
OuUines of U. 8. Financial History: VI. 
Demonetization of Silver, Part 2, by 

Thomas Ehner Will 607 

Fall Preparation for Alfalfa Seeding 620 

Production and Care of Milk for House- 
hold Use, by H. M. Cottrell 622 

Some 1 Applications of Modem Geometry 
in Mechanics: I. The Statics of Peau- 

celUer's Cell, by Arnold Emch 616 

Campihg bJ Florida, by A. S. Hitchcock. . . . 632 
Keeping Milk in Summer by H. M. Cottrell 637 
Editorials— Thos. E. Will: 

Why Workers Want 643 

"Politics in State Schools." 644 

Note on the History of Demonetization 645 

Local Notes 647 

Books and Periodicals 653 



► > m t»i>>>«»>»»> 



DECEMBER. 
Postgraduate Work <n Pure Science: 
n. An American Vniverslty.—FrorUis- 

piece llliMtration.) 657 

in. A Summer in Europe, by George F. 

Welda 661 

Outlines of U. S. Financial History: VII. 
From Demonetization to Partial Restor- 
ation of Silver, by Thomas Elmer WUL. 666 
Growth of Alfalfa In Northwestern Kansas, 

by George L. Clothier 676 

TheSandPlum 684 

The National Association of Houseaold 

Economics, by Harriet Howell 687 

Latent Fertility in the Soil: Its Utilization 
and Conservation, by R W. Clothier. . . 689 

The Municipal League 702 

Kafir Com for Fattening Pigs 709 

Local Notes 711 

Books and Periodicals 716 



JANUARY. 



3 



Municipal Liberty, by Frank Parsons 

Topeka Electric Light Plant, by Henry M. 
Thomas 11 

Prevention of Blackleg in Cattle, by Paul 
Fischer 19 

Alfalfa Investigations in Central Kansas, 
by J. B. Norton 24 

My Christmas Gifts, by Frank Parsons 30 

College Sewage and Manhattan Water 
Supply, by J. T. WlUard 36 

Prairie Fires and their Prevention, by 
George L. Clothier ...' 38 

Needs of the State Agricultural College. . . 48 

Makers of the K. S. A. C: VIL James 
Hervey Lee, A. M. (Frontispiece Illus- 
tration.) hy J. V. Walters 47 

"Equality Colony No. 1, B. C. C." by Helen 
J. Wescott 49 

Board of Regents 58 

Local Notes ; 64 

Books and Periodicals 65 



M>> H >l«t> 



FEBRUARY. 



A Study of Creamery Patrons. D. H. Otis 
Harvard as a State Institution, Thos. E. Will 
John Wlcllf (FlrstPaperl.DurenJ. H. Ward 
Business Results of the College Herd, F. C. 

Burtis 

Celery, Press Bulletin No. 11, Agricultural 

Experiment Station 

Board of Instruction 

Some Applications of Modem Geometry In 

Mechanics: U. Pole and Polar Plane. 

Arnold Emch 

Statistics by the State Temperance Union, 

WUliam Canfleld Lee 

Dedication of Domestic Science Hall 

Proceedings of the Board of Regents 

Local Notes 



69 

76 i 
82 

91 i 

97 
100 



101 

110 
118 
125 
126 * 



227 
237 

2n 

249 



MARCH. 
John Wlcllf (2d paper). Duren J. H.Ward. 135 
Why the Farmer Should Study Economics, 

Thomas Elmer Will H4 

A Fiosty Morning on the CampUs, Helen J. 

Wescott 150 

Soldiers In the Spanish War i.M 

A Plea forOpportunlty, Thomas K Will . m 
The Admirable Record of Regent Vrooman 157 
Contributions to the Knowledge of the 

Coccidae. Coekerell & Parrott 159 

The Oat Crop, F. C. Burtis I66 

Some Applications of Modem Geometry In 

Mechanics: III. Polygon of Forces 

and Funicular Polygon, Arnold Emch. 169 
Makers of the K. S. A. C: VIU. Hon. F. 

D. Cobum, by J. D. Walters . 178 

Views of One Mllll«)nalre Economist, Thos. 

Elmer Will ■. . . . 180 

The White Man's Burden. ( KlpUng) 183 

Civics A nalyses, Frank Parsons 184 

LocalNotes 189 

Books and Periodicals ., ... 197 

APRIL. 

Outline of U. S. ' Inancial Hlstorv: VIIT. 

From Hayes to Gurfleld, Thos. E. Will, 201 
The Evolution of Education. Thos. E. Will, 210 
Roentgen Radiography, Illustrated, K R. 

Nichols 219 

Contributions to the knowledge of the Coc- 

cidtB (second paper), T. D. A. Coekerell 

and P. J. Parrott 

A Perspectlvograph, Illustrated, Arnold 

Emch 

Civics Analyses: Kansas III. Cities, I rank 

Parsons 

The College Appropriation. Thos E. Will. 
Makers of the K. S. A. C. : IX. Hon. Ed. Se- 

crest. (Frontispiece Illustration.) i. D. 

Walters 253 

Hardy Ornamental Shrubs. Press Bulletin 

Nimiber Seventeen 2.60 

Board of Instruction 2.^8 

LocalNotes 259 



MAY. 

Some Miniature Views Frontispiere. 

Municipal Llbert\', II. Frank Parsons . . 267 
Contributions to the Knowledge of theCoc- 

cidse (third paper), T. D. A. Coekerell 

and P. J. Parrott 276 

Riley County Real Estate Mortgages, R. S. 

Kellogg 285 

Farming and Stock Raising in Australia, 

E. M. Shelton :.(11 

A New Crop for Kansas Farmers, Press 

Bulletin Number Twentv-four 299 

Tendencies of the K. S. A C. T. E. Will. . 301 
Alfalfa Hay for Fattening Hogs, Press 

Bulletin Number Twcnty-tlve 318 

Board yf Inst motion 320 

Milking Scrub Cows,Pre&s Bulletin Number 

Twenty-nine - 321 

Local Notes 824 

Itooks and Periodicals asi 

JUNE. 

Some Miniature Views. II Frontinpiece. 

Practical vs. Theoretical Methods, Arnold 

Emch 339 

Bibliography of Literature on Plant Breed- 
ing. I. George Lemon Clothier 343 

Consequences of the Reformation, Duren 

J. H. Ward 355 

Municipal Liberty. III. Frank Parsons 372 

The Regents' Investigation. Frank Parsons 378 

Board of Instruction 388 

Abstract of Board Proceedings 389 

Economics in American Colleges and Uni- 
versities. E. W. Bemis 392 

A Sensation In Rockefeller's University... 394 
LocalNotes ". .. 396 






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THE INDaSTRIAl2lST. 

(5of. 25, (tto. r. 3uf^, 1899. 'Wfofe (Uo. 1024 



HEROISM. 
Baccalaureate Sermon before the Class of 1899, Delivered June 4. 

BY PRESIDENT THOMAS ELMER WILL. 

Quit you like men. Be strong. — 1 Cor. xvi, 13. 

EVERY age demands its leaders, its heroes and deliverers. The 
children of Israel are slaves in Egypt, their lives embittered 
by hard bondage. Their cry ascends to the God who notes the spar- 
row 's fall and hears the young ravens when they cry. He raises up 
one from the ranks of their brethren, trained in Pharaoh's court, 
learned in ah the wisdom of the Egyptians ; and Moses delivers his 
people out of the hands of Pharaoh and out of the house of bondage. 

Orientalism, personified by Persia, threatens to overwhelm liberty 
and civihzation as represented by the little republic of Hellas. 
Xerxes with his myriad hosts is advancing and the thunder of their 
tread shakes the earth and appalls hearts as yet unused to fear. But 
the champion of Greece appears. Leonidas, with his three hundred 
Spartans, takes his stand in the pass of Thermopylae. Against 
the Spartan spears the Persians dash as ocean waves stirred by the 
tempest dash against the clitf. Again and again they are hurled 
back, till treachery turns the pass and the brave Spartan band are 
slain. But the moral gain remains, undying. Close on the heels of 
Thermopylae come Salamis and Platasa; and the Persian is expelled, 
never to return. 

Now the Uberties of ancient Rome are threatened by the Aequi- 
ans; Cincinnatus is called from the plow, the enemy are overwhelmed, 
and the seed of a great civilization is saved. Again, it is the Etrus- 
cans who menace the life of the little city by the Tiber, and again the 
dehverer arises; Horatiusat the bridge holds the entire army of the 
foe at bay until the bridge is destroyed and invasion made im- 
possible. 

France of the Middle Age is in sore straits. Victory after victory 
has rewarded the English arms; all of France north of the Loire has 
fallen into their hands and an EngUsh child has been proclaimed 

(405) 



406 



THE INDUSTRIALIST. 



[July, '99 




king of France. Burgundy has joined the enemy. France as a na- 
tion is threatened with dismemberment and extinction. In this 
crisis a leader arises — a peasant maid, a keeper of sheep. To her, 
angel voices have whispered that it is she who must deliver her 
native land from the spoiler and preserve the identity of her coun- 
try. With her to hear is to obey. Strong in the faith that God is 
with her, she visits the court of Charles the Dauphin, secures com- 
mand of the armies of France, raises the siege of Orleans, puts the 
English to flight and secures the coronation of her king. 

England is governed by a despot, deluded by the theory that he 
possesses the divine right to rule wrongly. Driven to desperation 
by a depleted treasury he signs the Petition of Right only to tranjple 
it beneath his feet as John trampled the Magna Charta while still 
wet with the ink of his signature. With Star Chambers and High 
Commission Courts and ship money he vexes the nation, until, at last, 
by his attempted seizure of members of parliament, he drives it into 
revolt. England rises against her monarch in civil war. The man 
of destiny appears. Backed by his "invincible ironsides," Oliver 
Cromwell becomes the first man in England. He defeats the king, 
purges parliament, abolishes the monarchy, establishes the common- 
wealth, subdues Ireland and Scotland, brings the Dutch to terms, 
reforms abuses and raises England to the foremost place among the 
nations of the world. 

Again, a nation has been born beyond the western sea ; as yet it is 
in swaddling clothes and exists only as a cluster of colonies. It is 
held as a means of gain by those who profess to protect and cherish 
it. Burdens grow more grievous; stamp acts and navigation acts, 
taxes on tea, port bills and transportation bills accumulate until the 
last straw breaks the camel's back and America declares her inde- 
pendence. Again, the hour finds the man. Samuel Adams, the 
man of the town meeting; Patrick Henry, demanding liberty or 
death; Jefferson, with burning pen, writing the declaration; and 
"Washington, the military genius, all are here. The dreary years from 
Lexington to Yorktown drag by and America is free. 

Not only do great national crises call forth leaders and deliverers ; 
now and again there arise great moral and religious issues which 
must be faced if the race is to take the next advanced step in its 
progress. The history of the crusades affords an example. For 
centuries pious pilgrims had wended their way to Palestine to re- 
trace the steps of the Man of Galilee, to gaze upon the places hal- 



July, '99.] 



BACCALAUREATE SERMON. 



407 



lowed by his memory and to weep and pray at his tomb. But the 
Holy Land passed under the control of a people who scorned the 
places and memories held sacredjby the Christian, turned churches 
into stables, imprisoned the venerable patriarch of Jerusalem and 
insulted and oppressed the palmers. Among these pious pilgrims 
was the hermit Peter. He saw and experienced the abuses and in- 
dignities heaped upon his fellow Christians. Burning with indigna- 
tion he returned to the western world and told his story with irre- 
sistible eloquence and fervor. Pope Urban espoused his cause. To- 
gether they aroused the council of Clermont till, as with one voice, 
the assembled multitudes cried "God wills it! God wills it!" and 
donning cro'ss and sword started upon the movement which for two 
centuries was to absorb the best blood and treasure of Christendom. 

The Protestant Reformation, again, affords an example. The 
Christian church in the sixteenth century had grown corrupt, im- 
moral, greedy of temporal power and wealth and reckless alike of 
the material and spiritual prosperity of the people. Shepherds 
flayed the flocks whom they were appointed to feed, and silenced the 
voice of criticism by the hand of authority. The papal tiara had 
become an object of purchase and had been worn by one whose 
children were "prodigies of infamy and crime." To supply the 
papal treasury indulgences were sold, which in the hands of Tetzel 
were little better than licenses to sin. The moral sense of the 
devout was shocked. Might not 'the church be reformed and puri- 
fied? If not, could it endure, and retain its hold upon the respect 
and love of men? Among such 'questioners was Martin Luther. He 
denounced the sale of indulgences, fearlessly defined his faith in his 
ninety-five theses, challenged the comparison of his views with Holy 
Writ, publicly burned the papal bull denouncing his teachings, met 
his opponents at Worms, from which assembly he could not be kept 
"tho there were as many devils there as there were tiles on the roofs 
of the houses, " proclaimed to the world the doctrine of justification 
by faith and rent half of Europe from its allegiance to the holy see. 

Instances might be multiplied. The horrors of the Crimean War 
called forth a Florence Nightingale; the living death of the victims of 
England's penal system aroused a Howard; American slavery raised 
up Garrison, Phillips and Harriet Beecher Stowe; the curse of drink 
stirred the zeal and inspired the devotion of Frances Willard; while 
the sufferings of Cuban reconcentradoes enlisted the sympathies and 
aid of Clara Barton and her noble-band of soldiers of the Red Cross. 



408 THE INDUSTRIALIST. [July, '99 

Not only in the world of action and in that of emotion, but in the 
world of thought as well is the hero and leader demanded. Knowledge 
grows from age to age. It grows with infinite slowness In the be- 
ginnings ignorance covered the earth as the waters cover the great 
deep, and the race groped like blind men in the thick darkness. The 
ancients, so called, so far from being the sages and seers were the 
children of the race. Like children they were forced to learn, if at 
all, by experience and by the slow accumulations of discoveries. Un- 
like children, they had no teachers to impart to them in months the 
wisdom of the ages. Naturally their conceptions were childish. Ages 
must needs elapse before men were able to put away childish things. 
When countless centuries had passed they still thought of the Deity 
as a man, sitting on a throne, making sun, moon and stars with his 
hands and "hanging these from the solid firmament which separates 
the heavens above and overarches the earth beneath. " Later they 
thought of him as "speaking" the worlds into being; creating them 
out of nothing; accomplishing this mighty task in six days of twenty- 
four hours each, or instantaneously, or both, and completing it on a 
fixed and definite historical date. Man was made by the Creator 
out of literal earth as a vase is made by the potter, and woman was 
made from one of his ribs. The Creator, wearied with his six days' 
labor, was now thought of as resting on the seventh from his works, 
walking in his garden in the cool of the day, and talking familiarly 
with men. 

The universe was conceived of as a house. The earth was its 
ground floor, and flat like a table; its ceiling was the solid firmament; 
this floor constituted also the floor of the second story or heaven, the 
abode of angels. In the second story was a huge tank from which 
the earth was watered by the angels, who, at irregular intervals, 
opened the windows of heaven and sent down the showers. The 
succession of day and night were also indirectly controlled by the 
angels who pulled and pushed about under the firmament the heav- 
enly bodies, sun, moon and stars. The sphericity of the earth, tho 
occasionally suggested, was not to be thought of; nor was the idea 
of the antipodes. How, it was asked, could men hang to the planet 
by their feet with their heads downward? How, while on the under 
side of the earth, could they witness the second coming of Christ? 
Again, how could their wretched souls be saved unless Christ had 
lived also on their side of the earth and repeated for them his sac- 
rificial offering? 




i 



July, '99.] 



BACCALAUREATE SERMON. 



409 



Later, however, came the geocentric theory, according to which 
the earth was the center of the universe. Around the earth re- 
volved, thru the direct action of the angels, nine transparent globes 
or spheres, to each of which was attached one or more heavenly- 
bodies. Outside of all was the tenth sphere, called the empyrean, 
beyond which was the formless void inhabited only by the Infinite 
and his attendants. Here sat Jehovah on his throne, soothed by the 
music of the spheres slowly revolving beneath him. Below the earth, 
a vast cavern lighted by infernal fires and resounding with 
shrieks, groans and curses, was hell, the abode of the lost, presided 
over by the fallen angel Lucifer; while swarming upon the earth and 
in the air were angels of light ministering to man's needs, and imps 
of darkness tempting him to sin and sowing the dragon's teeth of 
discord and death. One set of heavenly bodies not held in place 
by the spheres were the comets. These were "signs and wonders," 
balls of fire hurled from the fist of an angry God, warning men against 
their sins and presaging the death of princes. 

Geological conceptions were equally grotesque. St. Jerome main- 
tained that the "broken and twisted crust of the earth exhibits the 
wrath of God against sin." Fossils were due to the agency of "a 
stone-making force," or a "formative quality," or they grew from 
seed, or were spontaneously generated and "possessed powers of 
reproduction Hke plants and animals." 

Even until to-day among vast numbers, and despite the researches 
of anthropologists, ethnologists, and historians, and the complete 
and absolute triumph of the evolution philosophy among the scholars 
and thinkers of the world, there still survives the doctrine that man 
was created perfect and complete, that he fell, and that this "fall 
brought death into the world and all our woe, with loss of Eden. " The 
doctrine of witchcraft has ruled Christendom with a rod of iron; 
literal obedience to the mandate, "Thou shalt not suffer a witch to 
live," has established a reign of terror, and clothed civilization in 
sackcloth. Storms, devastating fields and vineyards, diseases, acci- 
dents and calamities were for centuries attributed to witches, human 
beings in league with the devil. These unhappy wretches were put 
to the torture; fire, thumbscrew, and rack were brought into play; 
and, amidst agonies worse than death, confessions were extorted 
that but confirmed the belief in the fell superstition. In such cir- 
cumstances none were safe. To profess disbehef in witchcraft and 
to protest against the monstrous delusion was to draw suspicion 



410 



THE INDUSTRIALIST. 



[July, '99 



upon oneself. As in the Terror in France, personal safety could be 
secured chiefly thru zeal in| persecution. Thus was written one of 
the blackest pages in human history. A single judge boasted that 
in fifteen years he had sent to their death fifteen hundred persons 
for this imaginary crime. 

To fasten the more firmly upon the human mind these beliefs, all 
childish and absurd, and some leading to monstrous cruelty, the 
sanctions of religion were invoked in behalf of each and all. Accord- 
ing to the sentiment of the times, to doubt folly and superstition was 
to doubt God and all goodness. To oppose error was to oppose 
truth. To favor the progress of knowledge and the diffusion of 
light was to array oneself with the lowest and vilest of criminals. 
No punishment was too severe for him who dare oppose ignorance 
and bigotry, especially when sanctioned by immemorial usage and 
buttressed by church and state. The mighty genius of Descartes, 
grappling with a rational conception of the universe evolving in 
obedience to an inward principle instead of being carpentered to- 
gether according to the current orthodox theory, was crippled by 
"an almost morbid fear of the church. " Peter of Abano (1316) teach- 
ing the doctrine of the existence of antipodes "only escaped the In- 
quisition by death." Cecco D'AscoH, for the same crime, was 
brought under suspicion of sorcery, "driven from his professorship 
at Bologna and burned ahve at Florence. ' ' Copernicus, who mortaUy 
offended the dominant sentiment of his time by proclaiming the 
startling doctrine that the earth moves around the sun rather than 
the sun around the earth, delayed thirty years the publication of his 
heresy and then escaped torture only by death. In 1829 Thorwald- 
sen's statue of Copernicus was unveiled in Warsaw. Tho a pious 
Christian of most exemplary life, che memory of this great astrono- 
mer even at this late day was insulted by the refusal of any priest 
whatever to be present and officiate at the ceremony. Upon the fol- 
lowers of Copernicus were|heaped equal and even greater insult. 
Rheticus and Reinhold, astronomical professors of high rank in the 
University of Wittenberg, after thoro study, had convinced them- 
selves that the Copernican system was true, but neither was allowed 
to tell this truth to his students. The first abandoned his professor- 
ship that he might enjoy "freedom to seek and tell the truth. " The 
other basely retained his chair and advocated a doctrine he believed 
to be false while opposing the one he felt to be true. 
Next in order came Giordano Bruno, who dared, even within the 



July, '99.] BACCALAUREATE SERMON. 411 

hearing of the papacy, to utter plainly the new truth. For this he 
was "hunted from land to land, "entrapped, imprisoned for six years, 
and at last burned ahve and his ashes given to the wind (1600), 
Following Bruno came Galileo, who, with his telescope, proved the 
truth of Copernicus 's hypothesis. Upon him now was concentrated 
the entire fire of orthodox opposition. He was denounced as a dis- 
believer in scripture, an "infidel" and an "atheist;" was investi- 
gated (1615) by the Inquisition, convicted of heresy and commanded 
to abandon forever the opinion reached thru the evidence of his tel- 
escope. Galileo acquiesced, but broke his promise and continued to 
propagate his doctrine. In 1631 one of his chief accusers, the Jesuit, 
Melchior Inchofer, declared: 

The opinion of the earth's motion is, of all heresies, the most aliominable, 
the most pernicious, the most scandalous; the immovability of the earth ia 
thrice sacred; argument against the immortality of the soul, the existence of 
God and the incarnation should be tolerated sooner than an argument to prove 
that the earth moves. 

Galileo at last was again brought to bay by the church. He was 

imprisoned, threatened with torture, and finally forced to recant in: 

the following language: 

I, Galileo, being in my seventieth year, being a prisoner and on my knees, 
and before your eminences, having before my eyes the holy gospel, which I 
touch with my hands, abjure, curse and detest the error and heresy of the move- 
ment of the earth. 

Campanella follows Galileo, defending him in his "Apology, " for 
which, and other heresies religious and political, he seven times suf- 
fered torture. Kepler, the mathematician and genius thinking God's 
thoughts after him, in formulating the laws of planetary motion^ 
takes up the thread dropped by Galileo. His works are condemned 
by the church, he is warned, abused, ridiculed and imprisoned. 

The warfare of geology with Genesis is so recent in some of its- 
aspects that many still recall it. Readers of the records of the 
rocks, now recognized as true promoters of science, were denounced 
as "infidels," "impugners of the sacred record," and "assailants of 
the volume of God;" while geology itself was declared to be "not ai. 
subject of lawful inquiry," but was denounced as a "dark art,"" 
"dangerous and disreputable," "a forbidden province," "infernal, 
artillery," and an awful "evasion of the testimony of revelation."" 
But a quarter of a century ago, a cultured American scholar, Alex- 
ander Winchell, was called to the chair of geology in an Ameri- 
can university. Even his enemies admitted that his lectures were 



412 



THE INDUSTRIALIST. 



[July, '99 



"learned, attractive and stimulating;" he believed, however, that 
men lived before the date assigned to Adam, and that, in fact, not all 
men were descendants from Adam. For this heresy he was 
attacked in the paper of his church, was told by his bishop that 
"our people are of the opinion that such views are contrary to the 
plan of redemption," and was requested to resign. Refusing to do 
so unless some adequate cause were assigned, his chair was 
abohshed within twenty-four hours, and the public were deceived 
with the falsehood that the reasons therefor were of an economic 
nature. 

For unsoundness on this doctrine, for the belief now universal 
among scientific men that "there is a gradation extending upward 
from the lowest to the highest forms of created beings, " and for 
other intellectual crimes, Vanini in the seventeenth century was sen 
tenced to have his tongue torn out and to be burned alive. 

Among the martyrs for truth should be mentioned opponents of 
the frightful witchcraft delusion. Syndic of Metz, seeking to pro- 
tect a poor woman accused of witchcraft, was turned upon by her 
assailants, hunted like a stag from city to city and calumniated even 
after death. Loos, professor in the University of Treves, for mildly 
exposing some of the errors of witchcraft, had his book stopped in 
the press and his manuscript confiscated, while he himself was 
thrown into a dungeon. Later, tho forced to recant, he escaped 
death at the stake only by dying of the plague. Dietrich Flade, rec- 
tor of the University of Treves and judge of the electoral court, in 
which capacity he had sent many a supposed witch to her death, at 
last became convinced of his error. For this crime he was accused 
of having sold himself to Satan, was put to the torture in the very 
chamber over which he had once presided, compelled to confess 
everything his torturers suggested, and finally strangled and 
burned. 

For favoring the experimental method, whereby truth is sought 
by directly interrogating nature, rather than by deducing conclu- 
sions from isolated scripture texts, men have been outlawed and 
hounded as beasts of prey. Roger Bacon, whose services to science 
were hardly second to those of Sir Francis Bacon, offended by hold- 
ing that man had not yet mastered the entire realm of truth, and 
that more might still be learned by the employment of rational meth- 
ods. He explained the rainbow, he rejected the notion of satanic inter- 
vention in science, and even went so far as to perform experiments 




July, '99.] BACCALAUREATE SERMON. 413 

in a laboratory. For these offenses he was branded as an ** infidel" 
and an "atheist;" he was forbidden to lecture; "all men were 
solemnly warned not to listen to his teaching;" he was denounced as 
a "magician" and a "Mohammedan;" the authorities of his order, 
the Franciscan, solemnly condemned his teaching, their general 
threw him into prison, confining him for fourteen years, and he was 
finally released only at eighty when his advanced age had presum- 
ably destroyed his power to work mischief. 

For possessing chemical appliances, John Barillon in the four- 
teenth century was imprisoned, and saved from death only by the 
greatest effort. For investigating the phenomena of light, as well 
as for theological heresy, Antonio de Dominis was subjected, in the 
fifteenth century, to judicial torture and murder. Lavoisier, not 
only "a great chemist but a true man, " was sent to the scaffold by the 
Parisian mob, with the sneer that "the republic had no need of 
savants. " For dangerous breadth and hberaUty of view the life of 
the sweet- souled Melanchthon was embittered and his death bed 
tortured. For practising the experimental method as well as for be- 
lieving in the unity of God, Priestly, one of the noblest of men and 
greatest of scholars, was set upon by a mob of ruffians who looted 
his library, waded knee deep among his manuscripts, burned his 
house and with it the Hterary labors of years, drove the philosopher 
into exile and would have murdered him had he not escaped their 

fury. 

And thus the list of martyrs for truth might be indefinitely ex- 
tended from the pages of the history of science. How like is this 
picture to that so vividly painted in the eleventh chapter of Hebrews: 

And others were tortured, not accepting deliverance, that they might obtain 
a better resurrections 

And others had trial of cruel mockings and scourgings, yea, moreover of 
bonds and imprisonment: 

They were stoned, they were sawn asunder, were tempted, were slain with the 
sword: they wandered about in sheepskins and goatskins: being destitute, 

afflicted, tormented: 

(Of whom the world was not worthy); they wandered in deserts, and in 
mountains, and in dens and caves of the earth. 

Yet all of these, the martyrs for religious faith and the martyrs 
for scientific truth, have sown the seed whose bounteous fruitage we 
to-day enjoy. They have levelled the mountains and filled the valleys. 
They have made the rough places plain and have cast up the high- 
way upon which, as upon a Roman road built for eternity, we may 



414 THE INDUSTRIALIST. [July, '99 

safely and swiftly travel toward that nobler civilization in which the 
seeking and finding of truth will no longer be a crime, and men in- 
stead of biting and devouring one another will work together as 
friends and brothers for the common good. 

Far be it from me even to imply that those who turned thumb- 
screws, lighted fagots, and otherwise persecuted the seers, scientists, 
and saints of their day were themselves lost to virtue and in league 
with Satan. Many of them in so doing but followed their light. Un- 
fortunately for them and the world they had not learned the great 
lesson that all our knowledge is but proximate and relative, that in- 
creasing light and added discoveries compel us to recast our beliefs 
and that therefore tolerance for views differing from our own, and 
willingness to compare our theories with those of others and to 
revise them in the light of fuller knowledge, is the only safe and 
rational attitude of mind, 

I must speak, however, of the demand for leaders and heroes 
which is occasioned by the fact of social growth and progress. Fa- 
miliar as is the fact, it is still difficult for us to reahle that the 
world does move and that conditions and social relations change and 
must change if we are to escape the fixedness and death that mark 
the crystallized nations of the Orient. Society is an organism. As 
such it tends to grow. Forces, however, operate to resist this growth. 
One of the most potent of these has been called the "cake of custom, " 
which, but slightly present in the beginnings of a society, gradually 
accumulates, thickens, and hardens, until, unless broken up by a 
supreme effort, it binds the society as with chains of steel, defying 
change and forbidding all movement save in the old-time grooves. 

The formation of this crust is favored by human inertia— the 
tendency to follow the beaten track, the line of least resistance, as 
water flows down hill and follows the well-worn channels. It is fa- 
vored by the imitative habit, the apelike tendency to do as others do 
and obediently to follow the fashion of one's set, wear the clothes, 
pursue the occupation, vote the ticket, and repeat the formulas 
dictated by the leaders of fashion in these several respects. The 
fossilizing tendency is favored still further and most powerfully by 
the tightening of the bands of religious belief unenlightened by 
science, history and reason. Wherever it is possible to reenforce 
a custom by the dread sanctions of religion, that custom becomes 
rigid as the laws of the Medes and Persians, and binds society as the 
frosts of winter bind the streams. 



m. 



i 



July, '99.] BACCALAUREATE SERMON. 415 

Fixedness in a society is favored again by the development of so- 
cial dependence. In the undeveloped society each is in a measure 
independent; he can cooperate with his fellows if he choose, or he 
can pursue his course alone. Are not the forests and streams as free 
to him as the wind that blows, the rain that falls and the stars that 
shine from heaven by night? With warfare, however, conditions 
change. The lands of the conquered are seized; common ownership 
of land gives place to private property in land, to be followed in time 
by a full-blown system of private property in the vast mass of the 
utilities and resources of life. Competition leads to the massing of 
this property in the hands of a minority of the society. The majority, 
cut off from access to the storehouse of nature and destitute of the 
means of subsistence, become dependent upon the propertied classes 
for the opportunity to exist. Serfdom begins, to be followed by 
wage service. No man may live without a master. One may stand 
all the day idle in the market-place because no one hath hired him. 
In such circumstances one's very life may come to depend upon his 
acceptability as a hireling. Departure, then, from the conventional, 
the orthodox and customary, becomes a source of peril to the 
propertyless. As the courtier cultivates the smile of his monarch, so 
the man without means must cultivate the good will and loving favor 
of those who may save his Hfe by extending to him the privilege of 
laboring. Independence of manner, the exercise of private judg- 
ment, freedom of thought, freedom of utterance, free choice of can- 
didates and policies at the ballot-box, are dangerous and may prove 
fatal. Starvation may prove the price of such liberty. In such cir- 
cumstances, then, want and fear of want operate to crush out inde- 
pendence and individuality as surely as tho a monarch sat upon the 
throne and ruled the people thru a standing army. As gravity binds 
together the particles of the earth, so the forces of conventionalism 
hold men in the accustomed ruts and forbid the changes which 
growth and progress imperatively demand. 

Here, then, as truly as when a society is menaced by a pestilence, 
a flood, or by an invading army, the leader and deliverer is needed. 
The slowly but surely forming crust, thickening and hardening 
about the society as the plaster employed by the inquisitor hard- 
ened about his victim, must be broken, or progress is doomed, and 
the fate which has overtaken the static societies of the Orient is for 
the occidental nation but a question of time. He who withstands the 
invading hosts of a hostile army may, it is true, risk his life. He 



416 



THE INDUSTRIALIST. 



[July, '99 




rests, however, in the calm consciousness that his people are with 
him, ready, from least to greatest, to pour out their last drop of blood 
and treasure in his support. But the foes of him who would save his 
society from stagnation and decay are those of his own household. 
Those whom he would save count him an enemy; and his fellow 
townsmen would dash him from the brow of the hill upon which 
their city is built, to rid themselves of one whom they esteem a 
pestilent fellow, a stirrer up of sedition, and a disturber of the social 
peace. 

All honor to the military hero who amidst singing mauser, shriek- 
ing shell, and booming cannon, plies his task, tho comrades fall about 
him hke grain before the sickle; all honor to him who, to defend his 
country's flag, endures hunger and privation, summer's heat and 
winter's cold, the hardships of the march, the dreary round of camp 
and bivouac and who faces death in a hundred forms ; but greater 
honor is his due who, willing for the time to be misunderstood, 
braves the contumely and scorn of those whom he would serve, and 
dies daily for the cause which may not win until his ashes slumber 
in the churchyard. Of leaders such as these I must also speak. 

The type of the moral hero and leader in the cause of social re- 
form in America is Wendell Phillips. Born of the proudest blood of 
old New England, educated at Harvard College, blessed with afflu- 
ence, by nature and art a peerless orator, enjoying every opportu- 
nity for promotion, and with the pathway to fame opening straight 
and smooth before him, PhiUips, a generation ago, stepped upon 
the stage of action. But at this very moment a great cause cried 
out for a great leader. African slavery in Ame-rica had reached its 
climax. Its reason for existence was gone. It smeUed to heaven, 
and the cries of the bondman entered into the ears of the Lord 
of Sabaoth; but, as ever, polite, cultured, wealthy society heard not 
the cry. Slavery was one of the established institutions; it was res- 
pectable and must be let alone. The negro was private property 
and property was sacred. Moreover, he was probably not a human 
being; in any case he was low, gross and debased. Why should 
polite society even think of him? Further argued the clergy, slav- 
ery was a divine institution. The Israelites enslaved the Gibeon- 
ites, and Canaan was cursed. Paul exhorted servants to obey their 
masters, and returned the fugitive slave Onesimus to his owner. 

Another preceded Phillips in the antislavery contest; one born 
not to ease and affluence and social position but to poverty and toil. 



July, '99.] 



BACCALAUREATE SERMON. 



417 



The cause of the slave had early won his ear, and the guns of the 
"Liberator" had already begun to shell the works of the enemy in- 
trenched, apparently beyond all hopes of dislodging. Of this fear- 
less man Lowell says: 

In a small chambei*, friendless and unseen, 

Toiled o'er his types one poor unlearned young man; 

The place was dark, unfurnished and mean; 
Yet there the freedom of a race began. 

It was Garrison, who had sworn eternal hostility to the sum of all 
villainies and had declared that this modern Carthage must be des- 
troyed and immediately. On his statue in Commonwealth avenue in 
the Boston of to-day we may read his heroic words: 

I am in earnest; I will not palliate: I will not excuse: I will not retreat a sin- 
gle inch; and I will be heard. 

In 1835, PhiUips, a young man of twenty-four, saw Garrison 
dragged thru the streets of Boston by a "broadcloth mob." Two 
years later another proslavery mob aimed a mortal blow at the hb- 
erty of the slave and at liberty of thought and speech; and Elijah 
Lovejoy's name was enrolled on the list of the martyrs for man- 
kind. A meeting was held in Boston to protest against this crime. 
Treachery would have dealt another blow at the corpse of Lovejoy 
and the cause for which he died— but for Phillips. Mounting the 
stage, he swept aside the sophistries of apologists for slavery and 
crime, and sounded a bugle blast for freedom. From that time for- 
ward, PhiUips was the foremost champion of the cause of emanci- 
pation. He paid the inevitable price. The abandonment of friends, 
the abuse of foes, the loss of social position, the sacrifice of ambi- 
tion, threats, and at times imminent danger of personal violence— 
all these he experienced; but thru all, as one bearing a charmed life, 
he pressed his way, encouraging the downcast, cheering the faint, 
arousing the lethargic, goading on the time-serving politician to face 
and perform his duty, stilling the howling mob, scattering the fire 
which could never be quenched until the institution of chattel sla- 
very was purged from the land. 

And when the fires of eloquence and war had done their work, the 
shackles were stricken from the wrists of the negro slave, and his co- 
laborers proposed that the abolitionists now rest from' their labors, 
Phillips rested not. None knew better than he that one reform but 
prepares the way for the next, that one victory renders easier an- 



418 THE INDUSTRIALIST. [July, '99 

other, and that there is no discharge in the war for the liberation of 
humanity. Temperance, and the rights of women and of labor, 
financial and monetary reform of the most radical character, a just 
distribution of wealth— all these enhsted his sympathies, and their 
advocacy filled the remaining years of his busy and useful life. 

Is the work to which such men as Garrison and Phillips gave their 
lives all done? Look around you and behold the fields white unto the 
harvest! Despite the progress that has been made in restricting 
the use of intoxicantsthe slaves of drink are still with us. The bleared 
eye and faltering step, the thickened utterance, the discolored counte- 
nance, still betray the presenceand power of the cup. Crazedby alcohol 
the dutiful son, the loving husband, the tender father, becomes a 
fiend incarnate, trampling to death the mother who bore him, stab- 
bing the wife of his bosom, braining the child for whom in his'sober 
moments he would gladly have given his life. Of such Lucifers cast 
from the battlements of heaven to the depths of hell are, in a large 
measure, those who throng our police courts and fill our jails and pen- 
itentiaries, almshouses and insane asylums; and from these descend, 
disgraced and handicapped for life's race, multitudes with the inal- 
ienable right to be well born. Never, while this pestilence of drink 
walks in darkness and this destruction wastes at noonday need any 
one who loves his kind feel that there is lacking a task in which he 
may exhaust the utmost resources of his strength and still, like the 
Macedonian voice, cry for other helpers. 

Intimately connected with the question of drink, sometimes in the 
relation to it of cause and effect, is the question of poverty What 
is poverty? It is hunger, thirst, nakedness, degradation, shame. 
It IS the lack of the chief material difference between man and beast 
In the midst of our nineteenth century civUization it is the mark as 
of Cain upon the brow. Poverty is hell. It is the one state of tor- 
ment men to-day really fear. To escape it they toil like galley 
slaves at the oar or like one slowly sucked into the bosom of the 
earth by a quicksand. To avoid its degradation and disgrace free- 
born citizens of the greatest republic of aU time voluntarily, eagerly 
sell themselves into slavery. The mirage of a competency still elud- 
ing them, they lie and cheat and kiU, only too often to become at last 
A pubhc charge and to be buried in the potter's field. 
Terribly graphic are the lines of Mrs. Stetson: 



July, '99.] BACCALAUREATE SERMON. 419 

There's a haunting horror near us 

That nothing drives away — 
Fierce, lamping eyes at nightfall, 

A crouching shade by day; 
There's a whining at the threshold. 

There's a scratching at the floor — 
t To woi'k! to work! in heaven's name! 

The wolf is at the door I 



To die like a man by lead or by steel 

Is nothing that we should fear; 
No human death would be worse to feel 

Than the life that hold^ us here. 
But this is a fear that no heart can face — 

A fate no man can dare — 
To be run to earth and die by the teeth 

Of the gnawing monster there. 

The slow, relentless, padding step 

That never goes astray — 
The rustle in the underbrush — 

The shadow in the way — 
The straining flight— the long pursuit — 

The steady gain behind — 
Death-wearied man and tireless brute 

And the struggle wild and blind ! 

There's a hot breath at the keyhole 

And a tearing as of teeth ! 
Well do I know the bloodshot eyes 

And the dripping jaws beneath ! 
There's a whining at the threshold — 

There's a scratching at the floor — 
To work ! to work ! in heaven's name ! 

The wolf is at the door ! 

Socially viewed, poverty is a loathsome, chronic disease, poisoning- 
every vein and artery of the body politic; it is a worm gnawing at 
the heart of our choicest fruit. It is barbarism prowling in the back 
alleys of our civilization, with gaunt and horrid face peering in upon 
us thru the blackness of the night and startling us at our feasts. 
Poverty is the horde of more hideous Huns and fiercer Vandals 
before which Columbia may yet fall. Let no one lull you to sleep 
with soft words of universal plenty, ease and comfort. Poverty, 
dire, widespread and terrible is still with us. Evidences of its 



M 




420 THE INDUSTRIALIST. [July, '99 

existence swarm, and no one can fail to see them without deliber- 
ately closing his eyes and persuading himself that the opulence of 
the rich implies plenty for all. 

Poverty, tho a foul and widely prevalent disease, is nevertheless 
a curable one. Startling tho this proposition may be to the novice, it 
need not surprise the student of society. Were poverty universal, 
were the race as a whole still in the age of bronze or stone, struggling 
on a plane but little above that of the beasts of the field for a bare 
and wretched subsistence, poverty might be regarded as incurable. 
But not so. Steam and electricity and compressed air are being ap- 
phed to machinery of incredible power and of almost human deli- 
cacy and skill ; wealth beyond the dreams of avarice is pouring forth 
hke a mighty tide. Not only so, but fallow fields and silent machin- 
ery and idle, willing arms are waiting and pleading to pour forth 
countless volumes more, but are prevented by human greed and in- 
dustrial maladjustments, too familiar to the conscientious student. 
A chief and boldly avowed function of the trust is to limit production, 
to close mills and mines and factories, to hold natural resources out 
of use, and to discharge laborers, lest too much wealth be produced 
and prices and profits be thereby reduced. At the very time when, 
under tlie providence of God and by the skill and energy of men, we 
all might be rich and humanity might take a mighty forward and 
upward stride, the lords of land and capital forcibly restrain the 
people from producing the wherewithal to satisfy their needs, and 
thus perpetuate the poverty that rests like a pall upon the land. 
"Who," we are asked, "gave the earth to the profit makers" that 
they might coin the people's life blood into ghttering gold ? We, our- 
selves, by our wicked apathy, consent and connivance. We have 
weakly suffered our national heritage to pass from the hands of the 
people whose by right it is, into the control of the few, who daily, 
by faihng to supply the people's needs or to permit them to supply 
them themselves, prove their incompetency to administer their great 
public trust. And thus, like Tantalus parching with thirst while his 
hps almost touch the limpid stream, we perish of want in a wilder- 
ness of plenty. 

And over against this poverty is wealth untold; private fortunes 
beside which that of Croesus is contemptible; wealth daily and 
hourly augmented by golden streams flowing inward as the rivers 
of the continent run into the seas, and swollen by the toil of millions 
who live only to toil, and whose conception of heaven is a place of 



mm 



July, '99.] BACCALAUREATE SERMON. 421 

rest. Accompanying this congestion is waste, extravagance, dissi- 
pation, effeminacy, the decay of morals, the loss of virility, and the 
steady sapping of character that comes from idleness and excess, 
and the consciousness of living the lives of selfish drones and build- 
ing thrones and altars of pride upon the bodies of living men. 

And what is this but the repetition of history? The concentra- 
tion of wealth in a few avaricious hands, luxury, extravagance, 
pride, and the decay of virtue and manhood on the one hand, and 
widespread, gnawing, debasing, embruting poverty on the other, 
have in all previous times marked the decay of nations. "Great 
estates," wrote Pliny, "ruined Rome." And modern historians 
agree with him. Yet the concentration of American wealth in the 
hands of a few great trusts is sufficient to put to shame the lati- 
fundia which dragged down the greatest republic of ancient times. 

Following the evils already named comes the decline of popular 
government, the sheet anchor of our political faith. With the de- 
velopment of social dependence, and the reliance of the multitude 
upon an insignificent minority for opportunity to work and thus to 
live, the substitution of minority rule for majority rule follows as a 
matter of course. Those who own, control. As their pliant tool 
and paymaster there now arises the poUtical boss, the source of 
whQse power the age has sought with such varying success to 
fathom. Thru this despot, drawing his inspiration and energy 
largely from aggregated capital, ignorant voters are duped, venal 
ones are purchased, dependent workingmen are terrorized, am- 
bitious professional men are subsidized with hope of promotion, 
facile politicians are whipped into line tho every principle of their 
party be reversed, every promise made to the people broken, and 
every righteous sentiment outraged; legislation is made a matter of 
barter and sale; the judicial ermine is smirched, the fountains of 
learning are poisoned; and, thru its need for revenue, the house of 
God itself is at times made an accessory to the political machine 
whose end is to grind out greater privileges, enhanced power and 
ever vaster wealth for those who seek to reduce the nation to a mill 
for the extraction of profit from the sweat and blood of freemen. 

No demand to-day for leaders and heroes ! We hve at the cul- 
mination of the ages. "The present is the product of all the past. " 
The labors of the myriads who have preceded us, the inventive ge- 
nius that has stolen the fires of heaven and consecrated them to the 
use of man, the discoveries that have wrested from nature her se- 



422 



THE INDUSTRIALIST. 



[July, '99 



crets and solved her sphinx riddles, the physical conquests more 
wonderful than an Arabian Nights' Tale, all have focused upon this 
age, to minister to man's material wants. The age-long evolution of 
popular rights and popular government has conspired to free us 
from the irresponsible rule of kings, oligarchs, and all tyrants what- 
soever. The pioneers and martyrs of science have freely ^iven 
their toil and blood, and have endured the living death of dungeons 
and the torture of the rack and fagot to beat back the darkness of 
ignorance, to break the chains of superstition, and to make of us 
freemen in mind. The martyrs of religion have been sold into slav- 
ery, thrown to wild beasts, and endured every cruelty that the imag- 
ination of demons could devise, to preserve for us a purer faith, 
and to estabhsh in the earth the principles of kindness, forgiveness 
and universal fraternity— the principles for which Jesus lived and 
died. And shall we, the heirs of all the ages, possessed by right of 
a heritage soaked with the blood and watered with the tears of those 
who have bought it for us at so great a price, now basely surrender 
this goodly land and its unrivaled bounties to a petty band of free- 
booters, who under the forms of law made and interpreted by their 
creatures have, like a modern Genghis Khan or William the Nor- 
man, laid violent hands upon it and now demand of us all silent and 
willing obedience to their mandates? Like another Spartacus, we 
might exclaim. Is '76 dead? Is the old heroic spirit frozen in our 
veins? Are Patrick Henry, the immortal Declaration, Bunker Hill, 
and Lincoln 's address at Gettysburg, all forgotten ? Shall we cringe 
and cower beneath the lash of those who are seizing our fair domain, 
and lift no voice until the chains are riveted upon our wrists? 

But the voice of craven prudence ever whispers in the ear : Is it 
safe? May we not bring upon ourselves the displeasure of the prop- 
ertied? May.we not lose caste among the respectable classes? May 
we not cut ourselves off from opportunity for promotion, or even 
from a chance to earn our bread? 

May we not? Unquestionably we may. When was it ever safe 
or popular or respectable or remunerative to be a man, and to stand 
alone with God for truth and right and country? When until the 
cause for which he fought was won, and the dogs that snapped at his 
heels and tore his flesh have turned to lick his feet, has one gained 
in a worldly sense by standing boldly for the right? Where do we 
read that A, by opposing the doctrine of the divine right of kings 
attamed immediately to great popularity and was chosen prime min- 



July, '99.] BACCALAUREATE SERMON. 423 

ister? Or that B, by challenging the dogma of papal infallibility, 
was at once proclaimed the leading theologian of his age and sent a 
cardinal's hat? Or that C, by demonstrating that all the scientists 
had been wrong in holding to the doctrine of special creation, when 
in fact species came by evolution, was promptly elected a member of 
the French academy and honored by all the scientific societies of 
Europe and America. Or that D, on demonstrating that corpora- 
tions shamelessly evade taxation and plunder the public thru the de- 
vice of stock watering, was officially proclaimed a foremost authority 
on the lines of his investigations, and unanimously elected president 
of the greatest railway system in America, at a salary exceeding 
that of the president of the United States? Heroism is not a 
business to be entered for reward, save that which comes from a 
good conscience and a sense of duty done. 

But why, I am asked, should one forego the dehghts and bless- 
ings of life, and choose the path strewn with stones and briars? 
For the same reason, I answer, for which men in all ages have 
braved the hardships and perils of war in their country's behalf: 
the reason, simply, that the public good demands it; and the public 
good rises in importance above all questions of mere individual 
comfort and convenience. When a nation's weal is menaced there's 
no time to think of men. Next to our duty to God is our duty to 

our country. 

Upon students in an institution such as this the obligation of per- 
sonal sacrifice for the common weal is greater even than upon most 
men. Our College is supported at public expense, by the people not 
only of the whole state, but of the nation. Every effort is put forth 
to make possible a college education at the minimum cost to every 
applicant. Why should the people of Kansas and of America give of 
their hard-earned wealth to provide you with a free education? 
There is but one reply— that you may worthily serve the state and 
nation and render back a service for the advantages you have en- 
joyed. As you have freely received you must freely give. Do you 
inquire how great is that debt? I answer, it cannot be estimated. 
All the difference between ignorance and scholarship, undeveloped 
and well-developed faculties, a narrow and an enlarged horizon, mea- 
ger influence and great in your community; all the difference be- 
tween failure and success in your chosen vocation; all the difference 
between a low-pitched and impoverished life and a career of honor 
and usefulness you may owe to your College, and behind it to your 



424 THE INDUSTRIALIST. [July, '99 

country, which has made such an education possible for you. How 
gladly then will the conscientious student when once his path of 
duty is made plain respond to the call of his state and country, and 
yield to both the highest service of which he is capable, however 
much that service may cost him in toil, privation, and pain ! 

But not only does the voice of social duty and patriotism call 
aloud to each to devote his best talent and service to the common 
good; the voice of religion is even more imperious. In all the great 
religions, and notably in the Christian, the principle of sacrifice is 
fundamental. Tho perverted in less enlightened times to foolish 
and cruel ends, it still sounds the dominant note of Christian faith. 
Thru the long ages of Jewish history preceding Christ, the blood 
of bulls and goats, the ashes of heifers, sheep and doves, but served 
as an object lesson pointing to the higher sacrifices that must follow 
increased light. These better offerings are fully set forth in the 
New Testament Scriptures. We are urged to give our bodies as 
living sacrifices to God. The apostle to the Gentiles pathetically 
enumerates his own sacrifices for the Christian faith: labors, 
stripes, imprisonment, stoning, shipwreck, journeyings, perils of 
waters, of robbers, of countrymen, of heathen, perils in city, in 
wilderness, on sea and land, among false brethren, in weariness and 
painfulness. in watchings, hunger and thirst, in fastings, cold and 
nakedness— the whole to be crowned by the martyr's death. 
Everywhere it is set down that the broad way of popularity and 
pleasure and ease and self -gratification is the downward way, while the 
way of life is narrow and thorny. The symbol of the Christian relig- 
ion is the cross, the type of a shameful and hideous death. Those who 
would have life are told to forsake all, take up the cross and follow 
the Master, and they are assured in advance that all who will hve 
godly shall suffer persecution. To those of you who have named the 
name of Christ let me say, that whoever may choose the bed of roses 
and the path that leads to ease and pleasure, such a lot is not for you. 
On every church wall you are reminded that without the cross there is 
no crown; and the pages of sacred history from the days of Jesus 
until to-day point you, as models of the Christian life, not to those 
whom the world calls happy, but to those who, like their great 
Leader, have trodden the wine-press alone, borne the sins of many, 
wept with the sorrowful, shared with their brethren the cup of 
bitterness, bared their shoulders to the lash, toiled, suffered, en- 
dured, esteeming themselves worthy of no happier or lighter lot than 



July, '99.] BACCALAUREATE SERMON. 425 

that of the Man of Sorrows, and awaiting their reward in the future 
life. Then why should we who chance to live at a later day assume 
that the sacrifices have all been performed and that nothing remains 
to us but selfish enjoyment of the blessings others have bought? 
Let us not deceive ourselves. The narrow path, strewn with shards 
and brambles, lies straight before us, and the pierced hand beckons 
the way. But our sacrifices mean not tiie burning of beasts, the 
wearing of haircloth next to the skin, burying our lives in the ancho- 
rite's cell, and wasting our strength in vigils and and fastings. The 
place for the Christian of to-day is on the crowded street, in the leg- 
islative hall, in shop and factory, on farm and ranch, wherever 
men are needed; and everywhere, unless prepared to crucify 
afresh Him whose name he bears, his stand must be taken with 
the few who despise ease and safety, promotion and fame, lift up 
their voices against social sins, and labor to realize here and now, 
in education, legislation, business, on stock exchange, in factory, 
mine, government bureau, and private corporation, the ideal set forth 
by Jesus Christ. He who thinks of his religion as primarily a mat- 
ter of Bible reading and church going, and who shrinks from carry- 
ing it from the individual to the social plane, and giving his strength 
and if need be his life to the Christianization of our modern indus- 
trial and social system, cannot be the disciple of Him who purged 
the temple and opposed, not the sins of the antediluvians, but the 
state of things in which he found himself and the hypocrisy pf those 
who upheld it in the name of religion. For what is religion but the 
power that binds us to God and to each other ? And what is Christian- 
ity but that form of religion that emphasizes the doctrine of brother- 
hood and of unity under the law of love? But while love does not pre- 
vail and our society is rent by wars and conflicts and we compete the 
one against the other and seek our own rather than our brother's 
good, how can we rest, thus infinitely removed from the ideal up- 
raised by Jesus Christ? Should we not frankly confess that we are 
not Christians? And should we not penitently seek such a baptism of 
power and of love as will lead us to abhor our backsHdings and con- 
secrate ourselves anew to the service of God and of our fellow men? 
And when thus touched with divine fire, what power can restrain us 
from expressing our passion in strivings for the common good and 
the redemption of our society from those evils that negative every 
principle of Christ's religion and bind men in the chains of animal- 
ism! Can contumely and scorn and misrepresentation and abuse 



■i 



M 



426 



THE INDUSTRIALIST. 



[July, '99 



turn us back from the service of (rod in the redemption of our 
brethren to the service of self and the quest of mere material gain 
and sensual pleasure? If so, better were it for us never to have 
been enlightened and to have tasted the heavenly gift and the 
powers of the world to come. The most unqualified teachings of 
Jesus were his condemnations of individual wealth. With Him it 
were easier for a camel to go thru the eye of a needle than for a rich 
man to enter heaven. And the rich young man who would be per- 
fect was commanded to sell all he had and give to the poor. Genuine 
religious zeal manifests itself uniformly in longings and strivings for 
the realization of economic brotherhood and equality of opportunity. 

The early Christians at Jerusalem but obeyed the common in- 
stinct of Christians when they established a community of goods. 
Their example was widely followed. Down thru the first twelve 
centuries the Christian fathers, Tertullian, Chrysostom, Ambrose, 
Augustine, and the rest denounced private property as a deadly sin 
and advocated communism as an essential corollary of Christian 
doctrine ; while we now know that the relentless persecutions of the 
Christians were due far more to their economic views and practises 
than to their theological beliefs. While communistic societies to-day 
are probably impracticable save as object lessons, and while it were 
vain to abandon our businesses and scatter our substance among 
city slums we must realize that our present system of industrial 
warfare and private property in social utilities is not and cannot be 
Christian, and that in no way can we deliver our souls but by devot- 
ing our lives to transforming our institutions to accord with the 
Sermon on the Mount. 

A mighty conflict awaits us. The strife of light with darkness, of 
Gog with Magog, of good with evil, is again taking concrete form. 
Cowards will shrink and consult their personal safety and comfort, 
false witnesses and dastards will deceive, those having itching ears 
will heap to themselves false teachers who will call evil good and 
good evil, Judas will again betray bis Master with a kiss, modern 
scribes and pharisees will rouse the ignorant and fickle multitude to 
cry, "Crucify himl Crucify him!" and again men's hearts will fail 
them and they will wonder whether indeed God has forgotten, and 
his cause is lost. But hark! A voice cries: 

To your tents, O Israel! Who is on the Lord's side? Choose ye this day 
whom ye will serve! If the Lord be God, serve Him; and if Baal, serve him ! 

And I see a dividing of the hosts. From the ranks of all social 



July, '99.] "HOW OLD ARE YOU?" 427 

groups and political parties and churches and temperance societies 
and charitable bodies and young people's religious organizations and 
college classes and families there are coming a multitude to array 
themselves under the standard of wealth and social privilege and 
class rule and inequality; but, led by those who have risked and suf- 
fered all things that the race may take its next forward step, an- 
other company, small to-day but destined far to outnumber the first, 
are taking their places under the white banner of brotherhood, 
purity, social justice, equal rights and equal opportunity to live and 
love and be men. And among these last will be many now before 
me, scorning danger and hate and striking valiant blows for God 
and country and the common good. To you let me say, only be 
strong and of good courage. Those that will be for you are more 
than those that can be against you. Tho the enemy appear mighty 
and terrible, the Lord will deMver them into your hand and the land 
which he sware unto your fathers will yet be yours. 



N 



"HOW OLD ARE YOU?" 

BY D. H. OTIS. 

OT in years, months and days, for life does not consist entirely 
of these, but how old are you when measured by the thoughts 
you think, by the noble deeds performed and by the inspiration and 
encouragement given to others by your manly, cheerful, upright, 
courageous and industrious life. Washington and Lincoln have 
lived and will continue to live in the hearts of the American people 
as long as this republic shall last. Why? Not because they lived to 
a ripe old age, but becaiise in an hour of opportunity, when the nation 
was in peril, they were equal to the emergency and acted with 
precision and judgment. Dewey and his colleagues accomplished 
more for civilization in one day than the Spanish nation has done for 
centuries. Just so with individuals in every walk of life. One man 
may live, not exist, longer in a single day than others will in weeks, 
months, and even years. Think of an Edison or a Gladstone and 
we are immediately impressed with the thought that life consists 
not of years but of noble deeds performed. 

On the 29th of last January, Kansas celebrated her birthday anni- 
versary as a state. To say that she is thirty-eight years old would 



428 



THE INDUSTRIALIST. 



[July, '99 



not mean much were it not for the fact that in that time she has made 
wonderful advancements- In many respects Kansas stands as the 
foremost state in the Union. Her large annual productions of wheat 
and corn go to feed many a hungry mouth in the East. Kansas has 
the largest apple orchard in the world. She can exhibit beef ani- 
mals that are on a par with those of any state. Altho an infant 
along dairy lines, she nevertheless has dairymen who have reahzed 
over $81 per cow per annum. Kansas is exceptionally blessed with 
good public schools and colleges. Her University and Normal 
School rank among the best in the country, while her Agricul- 
tural College is acknowledged to be the best of its kind in the world. 
These and many other features demonstrate beyond a doubt that the 
age of Kansas is measured, not alone by years, but by the character 
of her institutions and by the degree of her advancement. 

Altho Kansas has much to be proud of she must not forget that 
there is great room for improvement. It is not necessary for her 
to grow old in years before she reaches her fulness of stature; that 
depends, not so much on the number of years as upon the thoughts 
she thinks, upon the achievements accomplished and the foundation 
laid for her future happiness and prosperity. There is no reason 
why Kansas should not push right to the front, and when the ques- 
tion is asked of her, "How old are you?" let the answer be made by 
pointing not to her years but to her works. 

In order to accomplish the above, her citizens must become edu- 
cated. Education is no more a luxury, but a necessity. It is an ad- 
mitted fact, that a trained mind can accomplish much more, do it 
easier and do it better than an untrained mind. For this reason Kan- 
sas schools should receive every possible encouragement. Kansas 
is preeminently an agricultural state, and no part of her educa- 
tional system should receive greater attention than that along agri- 
cultural lines. The farmers of Kansas, as well as the young men 
who are to become her future farmers, are hungry for information 
along these lines. This is partly shown by the demand for help to 
hold farmers' institutes in various parts of the state, which demand 
the Agricultural College has been only partially able to meet. The 
legislature of 1899, appreciating the needs of the farmers, very 
wisely appropriated $2000 annually for the next two years for the 
purpose of holding farmers' institutes in various parts of the state. 
It also recognized the important and growing industry of dairying 
by appropriating $34,000 for the estabhshment of a dairy school. In 



July, '99.] 



HOW OLD ARE YOU?" 



429 



the past, many of the young men of Kansas who have been trying to 
perfect themselves along the hue of dairying have asked the College 
for bread and have received a stone, simply for the reason that there 
were no faciUties for giving instruction in their chosen profession. 
Even those who tried to make the most of the opportunities offered 
in the past two years found themselves hampered and treading upon 
each other's toes by the crowded, unhandy and unsuitable quarters 
in which they were obliged to work. With a dairy building and an 
increase in the college herd, Kansas boys can now have dairying to 
their hearts' content right here at home; and not only that, but the 
results in breeding, feeding and care of dairy cows will be pu Wished 
as bulletins or press notices for the benefit of the farmers who, for 
various reasons, may be unable to attend the dairy school. The 
Mechanical department has also received a much-needed addition in 
the way of buildings and equipment, and will be able to handle to 
much better advantage the numerous students interested in mechan- 
ical lines. A small addition in equipment has likewise been 
allowed for horticulture, veterinary science, chemistry and physics. 
This enlargement of opportunities, taken in connection with the 
work that will be done along the line of feeding and plant breeding, 
will enable the agricultural students to receive thoro instruction on 
subjects that are of vital importance to the progressive farmer. 

Along the line of agricultural education the question may very 
properly be asked of the young men and women of Kansas, "How 
old are you?" Will the answer imply that the growth has been 
stunted because of unimproved opportunities? With the lower 
animals the system requires a certain amount of feed to keep up 
repairs; and the profit in the form of work, beef or milk domes from 
the feed consumed over and above that needed by the animal sys- 
tem. Will the youth of the state of Kansas give their minds just 
enough intellectual food to keep them alive, or wiU the supply be 
more than is needed for actual existence so that work may be turned 
out at a profit, and, above all, characters developed that are thoroly 
equipped to meet the problems of hfe? 

How old are you? Let the answer ring out in tones clear and 
strong so that the world may hear, that hfe does not consist of years 
only, but of living personahties, trained in the minutest details for 
life duties. 






430 



[July, '99 



NOTES ON REFRIQERATINQ MACHINERY. 

BY JOS. D. HARPER. 

IN the present article no effort has been made to set forth the tech- 
nical and scientific aspects of refrigeration. On the contrary, 
the aim has been to present some elementary features of the subject 
in the most simple manner. With this idea in view, we may de- 
scribe mechanical refrigeration as the process of reducing the tem- 
perature of a body, or of keeping that temperature below the temper- 
ature of the surrounding atmosphere. This may be effected in 
various ways; but, on a commercial scale, only one is in use, i. e., the 
evaporation of hquids which have a low boiling point. Various hq- 
uids are used, such as anhydrous ammonia, liquid carbonic acid, 
liquid sulphurous acid, ether, Pictet's fluid, etc.; and the amount of 
cold that can be produced by any one of these is represented by its 
latent heat of evaporation. Ammonia is most commonly used as the 
working substance, since it has no active chemical properties, can be 
hquefied at comparatively low pressure and high temperature, and 
has a high latent heat of evaporation. The ammonic machines alone 
will be here considered. They are divided broadly into two types 
known as the Compression System and the Absorption System. 

COMPRESSION SYSTEM. 

In the compression system the working substance or charge is in 
the anhydrous form, such as liquefied ammonia gas. The operations 
are continuous and form a complete cycle, the working substance 
returning periodically to its original state. Liquid anhydrous am- 
monia evaporates to a gas or vapor in coils of pipe called the expan- 
sion or refrigerating coils. The heat necessary for this expansion is 
absorbed from the air of the room to be cooled, or from the salt brine 
in which the coils may be submerged. 

Leaving the coils, the expanded vapor enters the compression 
pump, or compressor, where it is reduced to a dense vapor and 
forced into a second series of coils called the condenser. These con- 
densing coils are cooled by running water, which removes the heat 
absorbed in expansion and also that acquired in compression. Under 
the combined pressure andcoohng,theammonia condenses to a liquid 
and passes down to a small receiver. Here it is once more liquefied 
anhydrous ammonia and enters the expansion coils thru a regulating 
valve to repeat the cycle. The process then consists (1) in the ab- 



July, '99.] REFRIGERATING MACHINERY. 431 

sorption of heat by the ammonia in the expansion coils and (2) in the 
removal of this same heat from the ammonia in the condensing coils, 
the removal being effected by running water surrounding the latter. 

COMPRESSORS. 

The compressor is generally worked by a slow-speed steam en- 
gine, tho any source of power may be utiMzed to drive the compress- 
ing pump. The compression cylinders may be either single or 
double acting, and one or more in number. Double-acting cylinders 
require long and heavy packing around the piston rod in order to 
resist the pressure and action of the hot ammonia vapor. All parts 
of any ammonia system must be of iron or steel, as copper, brass or 
bronze cannot be used in contact with ammonia. 

Machines are rated either by their refrigerating capacity or by 
their ice-making capacity; the latter usually being taken as one-half 
the former. A refrigerating capacity of one ton per 24 hours means 
that the machine will produce a cooling effect equal to that of one ton 
of ice at 32° F., melting to water at 32^ F. The actual ice-making 
capacity of this same machine, however, will be about one-half ton 

per 24 hours. 

The capacity of a compressor depends not only on its cubic 
capacity and speed, but also on the prevailing working conditions, 
especially on the temperature of the condenser and the expansion 
coils. Under ordinary conditions a compressor capacity of 4 cubic 
feet per minute may be taken as equivalent to a refrigerating 
capacity of one ton per 24 hours. 

Construction details of compressor cylinders are similar to those 
of steam cylinders, special attention being given to low speed and 
small clearance. Each acting end of the cylinder has two valves, one 
for the admission of the vapor and one for its escape to the conden- 
ser. The amount of compression is regulated by a spring or by 
weights on the escape valve, the usual compression being from 150 lb 
to 170 ft per square inch. The ammonia in the refrigerating coils 
cannot be expanded to a pressure lower than that necessary to lift 

the admission valve. 

The lubrication of the compression cylinders is a rather difficult 
problem, for the oil is not distributed over the entire interior sur- 
face as is the case with steam cylinders. Experience shows that 
it is almost impossible to keep a horizontal compressor from running 
dry on top; and, for this reason the best modern practise favors the 



432 THE INDUSTRIALIST. [July, '99 

vertical type of compressor. Lubrication of the cylinders, tho 
necessary, leads also to serious annoyance and loss of efficiency, as 
the oil is carried over by the ammonia to the condensing and 
expansion coils where it collects at the returns, and clogs the 
machine. Oil traps and numerous devices between the compressor 
and the condenser are in use but are not entirely satisfactory. The 
best machines have arrangements for reversing the direction of the 
ammonia, thus emptying the condensing coils, after which the oil is 
blown out by steam. A further objection to this lubricating oil is 
advanced by some who claim that while ammonia vapor is not com- 
bustible nor a supporter of combustion, yet when this hot vapor is 
charged with oil it becomes a combustible and explosive mixture. 
Some recent accidents seem to support this contention. 

During compression a certain amount of heat is evolved and must 
be removed in order to keep the vapor in a saturated condition in 
the compressor. The different methods taken by the various manu- 
facturers to counteract superheating have given rise to the various 
types of machines known as dry compressors, wet compressors, 
water-jacket compressors, oil-seal compressors, etc. 

Wet compressors, such as the Linde, are those in which a surplus 
of anhydrous ammonia enters the expansion coils and passes un- 
changed to the compressor. There, by its evaporation, it takes up 
the heat of compression and maintains the vapor in a saturated con- 
dition. The pipe leading from expansion coils to a wet compressor 
should, of course, be cai-efuUy insulated to prevent the evapora- 
tion of this surplus ammonia before it reaches the compressor. This 
precaution is often neglected and a frosted pipe results-a condition 
known technically as "freezing back. " 

Dry compressors work without excess ammonia, and superheating 
is prevented in various ways. Some have single-acting cyUnders in 
which the gas has free access under the piston head, thus cooling 
the cyhnder and piston. One prominent machine has vertical com- 
pressors in which refrigerated oil is circulated by a smaU pump 
thus removing the heat of compression and lubricating the cylinder 
at the same time. Enough oil may be used to fill the clearance space 
whence arises the term "oil-seal compressors. " Water jackets thru 
which cold water or brine circulates are also used to counteract su- 
perheating. 

CONDENSERS. 

The condenser consists of a system of pipes forming a coil into 
which compressed ammonia vapor is forced by the compressor. 



July, '99.J REFRIGERATING MACHINERY. 43? 

These pipes are either immersed in a tank thru which coohng 
water circulates, or are hung up in the open air and have cooHng 
water trickling over them from a perforated gutter above the top' 
pipe. The former arrangement is called a submerged condenser and 
the latter an open-air condenser. 

In passing thru the condenser the ammonia vapor gives up to the 
cooling water the heat absorbed in the refrigerating coils, and con- 
denses to hquid anhydrous ammonia as previously stated. Con- 
densers are usually built of li-inch to 2-inch pipe, divided into sec- 
tions. These sections are connected at both ends to common mani- 
folds in such a way that one or more may be disconnected for re- 
pairs or cleaning without stopping the machine. 

In a submerged condenser the hot vapor enters the coils at the top 
and the liquid ammonia leaves at the bottom. The cooling water 
should enter the tank at the bottom and pass out at the top. In the 
open-air style the cooling water drips over the pipes from the top 
and the ammonia enters at the bottom. A vertical ii^anifold at the 
side collects the liquefied ammonia as fast as condensed. As the ef- 
ficiency of the condenser is a large factor in the economic operation 
of a machine, a generous condenser surface should be provided. 

The necessary piping for condensing and expansion coils can 
easily be calculated theoretically, as, in fact, can all other dimensions 
of refrigerating machinery. The working conditions, such as in- 
sulation, temperature of water, etc., modify these results so largely, 
however, that empirical rules based on experience are generally 
more satisfactory. Practise indicates that, for incoming cooling 
water at 75° F., which may be taken as an average working condi- 
tion, 40 square feet of condenser surface should be provided for each 
ton of refrigerating capacity per 24 hours. 

The amount of cooling water varies with the temperature, and is 
ordinarily from 4 to 7 gallons per minute for each ton actual ice- 
making capacity per 24 hours. Open-air condensers require much 
less water than the submerged type; in many instances not more 
than one-half. This is due to the fact that all the water comes in 
contact with the surface to be cooled, and especially to the cooling of 
the water by its own evaporation as it trickles over the pipes. AU 
condensers should be built high and narrow rather than broad and low. 

EXPANSION COILS. 

The expansion coils are built up from pipe varying in size from 1 
inch to 2 inches according to circumstances. The surface of the coil 



434 THE INDUSTRIALIST. [July, '99 

is proportional both to tlie cubic capacity of the room or tank to be 
refrigerated and to the temperature to be maintained. The quality 
^of the insulation is such a large factor, that experience is the best 
guide. Roughly, the piping may be estimated from the following: 
For brine tanks of ice- making plants 250 to 300 running feet of 1^- 
inch pipe should be allowed for each ton of ice to be manufactured 
per 24 hours; one-half this amount for each ton refrigerating capacity. 

For a refrigerating room either of two systems may be used: (1) 
Direct expansion, in which the ammonia expands directly in coils 
placed in the room to be chilled; or (2) tha brine circulation, in which 
the ammonia expands in coils in a brine tank — the cold brine being 
then pumped thru coils placed in the rooms. 

Liberal assumptions give the following rules for piping for direct 
expansion: (1) one running foot of 2-inch pipe for each 10 cubic 
feet of space in rooms to be kept at 10° to 20° F.; (2) one running 
foot of 2-inch pipe for each 20 cubic feet of space in rooms to be kept 
at 32° F.; (3) one running foot of 2-inch pipe for each 60 cubic feet 
of space in rooms to be kept at 50° F.'; or (4) it is often assumed that 
300 feet of li-inch pipe will distribute one ton of refrigerating capac- 
ity and maintain 4500 cubic feet of cold storage capacity at 32° 
to 35° F. 

Brine circulation requires 1.5 to 2 times as much piping as direct 
expansion. This is due to the higher temperature of the brine and 
its slower circulation. Lower temperatures can be maintained by 
the direct expansion which in many ways is superior to brine circu- 
lation for refrigerating purposes. The latter, however, permits the 
stopping of the plant for several hours, as for repairs, while the 
brine pump continues in operation— the large brine tank acting as a 
storage reservoir of cold. 

All coils in cold-storage rooms should be built in sections con- 
nected to common manifolds and arranged for the thawing off of the 
collected frost which impairs the absorption of heat. 

ABSORPTION SYSTEM. 

In the absorption system, the condenser, expansion or refrigerat- 
ing coils, and general details are the same as for the compression 
system. The operations taking place in this part of the machinery 
are also the same. The difference lies in the nature of the charge 
and in the operations taking place after the ammonia leaves the ex- 
pansion coils and before it reaches the condenser. The charge is 



July, '99.] REFRIGERATING MACHINERY. 435 

strong aqua ammonia, usually 28° to 30° B., and the series of opera- 
tions forms a continuous compound cycle. 

The aqua ammonia is heated in a still or generator and ammonia 
gas driven off at a pressure of from 120 lb to 180 ft per square inch. 
Passing out of the top of the generator to the condenser, this ammonia 
vapor condenses, under the pressure and cooling, to liquid anhydrous 
ammonia. Entering the expansion or refrigerating coils, it performs 
the required work precisely as in the compression system; and 
leaving these coils, it entei*s the absorber. Meanwhile, the weak 
ammonia liquor, from which the ammonia gas has been given off, is 
forced out at the bottom of the generator by the pressure of the gas 
above. This weak liquor passes thru a series of pipes called the ex- 
changer, then thru a cooling coil, and finally enters the absorber. 
Here the weak liquor reabsorbs the ammonia vapor entering from 
the expansion coils and becomes again strong aqua ammonia. This 
strong liquor is pumped from the bottom of the absorber by a small 
ammonia pump to the top of the generator, passing thru the ex- 
changer on its way. . Having reached the generator, the gas is 
again driven off and the cycle repeated. 

GENERATORS. 

Stills or generators are built in a variety of shapes, the main 
object being to drive off as much of the gas as possible and have it 
free from water vapor. The heating is always done by steam coils 
within the generator. The most efficient generators are those 
arranged for successive distillations. The aqua ammonia flows thru 
large horizontal pipes or fingers each containing a steam coil, and is 
repeatedly distilled, leaving a very weak Uquor to escape from the 
last or lower finger. Usually a standpipe containing a coil is added. 
The incoming strong liquor circulates thru this coil before reaching 
the horizontal fingers and is heated by the hot ammonia gas passing 
up the standpipe on its way to the condenser. Also, this coil serves 
to dry the gas as the suspended watery vapor is deposited on the 
surface of the coil. The overflow connection from one horizontal 
finger to the next is arranged at such level as to keep the steam coils 
always covered by the aqua ammonia. 

The pressure of the ammonia gas in the generator is called the 
high pressure and is usually from 120 ft to 170 ft per square inch, 
varying with the temperature of the generator and the amount and 
temperature of the cooling water. 



436 



THE INDUSTRIALIST, 



[July, '99 



ABSORBERS. 

Absorbers are of infinite variety and are of prime importance to 
the efficiency of this system. The heat evolved by the absorption of 
the ammonia vapor must be removed by the cooHng water, since the 
amount of ammonia gas that can be absorbed by the weak liquor 
rapidly decreases with a rise in temperature. One very efficient 
absorber is built like an upright boiler, open on top and having a 
great number of straight tubes thru which the cooling water passes. 
An automatic valve regulating the quantity of weak liquor admitted 
to the absorber is a valuable feature of this same make. 

The pressure of the ammonia vapor within the absorber is known 
technically as the "back pressure;" and, for economic operation, 
should not exceed Sib to 12ft) per square inch. The lower the back 
pressure the better, as the maximum amount of work will be done in 
the expansion coils when the anhydrous ammonia expands to as low 
a pressure as possible. It is a noticeable fact that many of the earlier 
builders of absorption machines failed to appreciate this feature and 
built machines to work with a high back pressure: probably because 
increased pressure increases the amount of gas that will be absorbed 
at a given temperature. Modern practise is in the direction of 
increased absorber capacity and greater area of contact for the gas 
and liquor, thus holding the back pressure down as low as possible. 
The back pressure also varies with the temperature and amount of 
cooling water and the temperature of the expansion coils. 

AMMONIA PUMP. 

The ammonia pump is the only moving part in the absorption sys- 
tem and is a small affair running at slow speed. The size of .the 
pump cylinder and the speed depend not only on the size of the 
plant but also on the strength of the strong and weak hquors. Un- 
der average working conditions— i. e., strong Hquor 30° B., weak 
Uquor 14° B.— a plant of ten tons actual ice-making capacity per 24 
hours requires a double-acting pump cylinder 3 inches in diameter 
and 8- inch stroke, making about 25 strokes per minute. The pack- 
ing around the piston rod must be extra long and heavy as the Uquor 
is pumped against the high pressure in the generator. The pump 
should always be lower than the bottom of the absorber to prevent 
any lifting effect on the strong liquor. 

EXCHANGER, 

The exchanger or equahzer is a device to save the heat carried 
away from the still by the weak liquor by imparting this same heat 



July, '99.] REFRIGERATING MACHINERy. 



437 



to the rich liquor on its way to the still. It consist* mierely of a coil 
of double pipes, one within the other. The hot, weak liquor passes 
thru one pipe and transfers its heat to the cool, rich liquor passing- 
thru the other pipe in the opposite direction, 

WEAK LIQUOR TANK. 

The weak liquor, before entering the absorber, is usually further 
cooled by passing thru a submerged coil. The water used to chiU 
this coil is commonly the same that has been used to cool the 
absorber. 

For both systems all parts should be of the very best material and 
extra heavy. 

Probably more compression machines are in operation in this 
country than absorption machines, but an investigation some years 
ago indicated that for the manufacture of artificial ice,, eighty per 
cent of the plants used the absorption system. Distilled water must 
be used in the cans if a clear, marketable product is- desired. In the 
absorption system the steam from the heating coils of the generator 
is condensed to furnish this distilled water. In the compression 
system, economy requires the use of the exhaust steam from the 
cylinders of the compressor engine. The lubricating oil must be 
removed from this exhaust steam by the so-called oil traps, and as 
yet an entirely satisfactory and inexpensive method of actually re- 
moving the lubricating oil has not been devised. 

The plate system of ice making, however, does not require the 
use of distilled water, and for large plants seems fairly successful. 

The application of mechanical refrigeration to ice making, cold 
storage, etc., is so simple that a description of the methods is 
omitted from this sketch. 

A comparison of the two systems, compression and absorption, is 
difficult, as local conditions and the nature of the work largely de- 
termine which style of plant should be used. Where cooling water 
is expensive or becomes very warm during the summer months, the 
compression system is probably better. The amount of compress- 
ion given to the am monia vapor can be increased to suit the conditions. 
For ice'making purposes, the absorption system seems to be gener- 
ally preferred. Often the absorption system is installed under ad- 
verse conditions by arranging to chill the cooling water before use. 
This is cheaply done by allowing it to trickle over rods or shallow 
trays exposed to a draught of air. Where water is very expensive 



438 THE INDUSTRIALIST. [July, '99 

it may be used repeatedly by adopting suitable cooling devices. 
The compression system is more imposing in appearance but 
usually requires the close attention of skilled attendants. In tech- 
nical journals devoted to refrigeration interests, about four-fifths of 
the space is given to the troubles of the compression system and 
the remedies therefor. The operating cost of large plants under 
first-class management is practically the same for both systems. 

Machines using other substances than ammonia for the working 
medium are numerous, especially in Europe, and present many 
interesting features. Their general construction, however, and 
plan of operation does not vary materially from that of the ammonia 
machines. 



QLIMPSES OF THE FUTURE. 

A LECTURE BY FRANK PARSONS. 

TNthe course arranged by the students' societies, De Witt Miller 
-I- was to lecture at the College, on June 5. Owing apparently to an 
error of the lecture bureau thru which the student committee 
engaged Mr, Miller, he was unable to reach Manhattan in time. A 
telegram to that effect was received by the students on the morning 
of the 5th. They asked Professor Parsons to till the vacancy, and 
he assented. In the evening, Mr. Kinsley, on behalf of the student 
committee, stated the facts in the case and introduced Professor 
Parsons, who spoke in substance as follows.* 

Ladies and Gentlemen: You have my deepest sympathy, for 
you are to miss the pleasure of hearing Mr. Miller, and I think you 
will agree with me that I deserve your sympathy in my efforts to fill 
the hour that belongs to him— a difficult taskat any time and especi- 
ally difficult on such short notice. 

A famous lecturer used to have printed on his tickets something 
like this : 

Admit one to lecture at such a date and place. If the lecturer should die or 
be hung before the said date, this ticket will admit the bearer to a front seat at 
the funeral, where he can sit and enjoy himself the same as at the lecture. 

I do not mean to intimate that Mr. Miller has departed this life, 
via the hempen stringer otherwise, but only that you may try to en- 

» The report has been revised by the lecturer, some points omitted and others developed a 



little 



July, '99.] 



GLIMPSES OF THE FUTURE. 



439 



joy yourselves even if you should regard these services as the ob- 
sequies of your hppes of hearing Mr. Miller's lecture. 

Let us talk a little while about some possibilities of the future. 
To understand the future we must understand the past. ' Astrono- 
mers note where the planet was three months ago, two months ago, 
one month ago, to-day — draw the curve thru these points, and pro- 
long it according to the same law of movement, and we know where 
the planet will be to-morrow, next week, next month, etc. It is the 
same with the movement of events in history. 

Look at the growth of power in this country — thirty-fold since 
1820, over four- fold per head in three-fourths of a century (not in- 
cluding water power)— the equivalent of six men working for each 
inhabitant. We have conquered the steam and the lightning. We 
compel Niagara to do our work. Soon we shall harness the ocean 
and the sunbeam. Tesla is trying to store the sun's light and heat. 
When we succeed in doing that we can warm our towns and cities in 
winter with the heat we store in summer. We may even banish the 
winter and make the climate what we will. Then there is liquid air, 
a new and powerful motive force, the possibilities of which are just 
beginning to be seen. It supplies in very small bulk a source of 
enormous power. 

A hundred years ago it took 18 days to go from Boston to Philadel- 
phia and back again; now it can be done in a day. Steam and elec- 
tricity carry us hke the wind. We have already found means of 
moving at the rate of 150 to 200 miles an hour. In the coming years 
those means will be used. With liquid air our ships can cross the 
sea without the weight and expense of carrying coal. Submarine 
boats will go long distances under the sea with liquid-air motors; and, 
instead of the noxious gases produced by present motors, the crew 
will enjoy an abundant supply of the purest air from the same source 
that yields the motive power. We have our bicycles with which we 
can travel faster and farther than a horse; and soon we shall have 
our liquid air motor under the seat, and can put our feet on the rests, 
if we choose, and go spinning over hill and dale by the power of con- 
densed atmosphere. Automobiles, too, are coming into use. They 
are costly now, but they'll be cheap in a little while, and every re- 
spectable family will have its automobile. There are many in use in 
Europe now. Dukes and duchesses travel all over France in them, 
moving at the rate of 50 or 60 miles an hour. 

We shall have splendid, broad, smooth roads from one end of the 



440 THE INDUSTRIALIST. [July, '99 

country to the other and in every direction across it. The bicyclists 
and automobilists will see to that— and a family will take a lunch bas- 
ket and some extra clothes and chmb into their automobile, and go 
off for a spin thru Yosemite, or take a trip to Chicago or New York 
and back with almost no expense, for the automobile doesn't eat oats. 
But that isn't all. If I live a few years I expect to fly. We know 
how to fly some now, but the air ship is waiting for a light and power- 
ful motor. Take your little cylinder of liquid air at 312° below zero,, 
and make a little papier-mach6 engine and you have the last thing 
needed to make the air ship a success. I can imagine a gentleman 
Saying: 

John, get the air ship ready, please. We'll take a trip to the Philippines in 
the morning and visit Dewey before breakfast. 

Even the air ship may not exhaust the Hst. I'm not sure but we 
may have pneumatic tubes, someday, thru which we can fire a man 
a thousand miles an hour. 

We can send our thought a thousand miles in an instant. A man 
in St. Louis can talk with one in Boston over the teleph(me. Soon we 
shall be able to see the face of the distant friend while we talk with 
him. We are learning to telegraph and telephone without wires. It 
is not impossible that thought may be communicated directly from 
mind to mind. The Hindoo magician can put an empty cocoanut- 
shellon a stick, hold it out at arm's length, and pour bucketfuls of 
water from it. He can withdraw the stick and leave the cocoanut at 
rest in midair without support. He can plant a mango and have a 
50-foot tree grow above it in five minutes' time. He can throw a rope 
into the air, have it remain vertical and rigid above him while he 
climbs up it, hand over hand, till he disappears in the blue. That is, 
he can make a group of bystanders believe that they see these things^ 
and the explanation is that the Hindoo magician understands 
telepathy— he is able to transfer to other minds any series of 
images he chooses to pass thru his own consciousness, and the 
transfer has such vividness and intensity that were it not for the 
camera, which cannot seethe tree or the rigid rope, and for nineteenth 
century science, which knows the laws of growth and gravity, the 
onlooker might almost be convinced of the actual occurrence of the 
phenomena he seems to see. If our scientists will study this tel- 
epathy as they have studied steam and electricity, we may yet be 
able to communicate with our friends around the world without 
words, without exi^fee, and without the waste of a moment. 



July, '99 ] 



GLIMPSES OF THE FUTURE. 



441 



We have learned how to fix the forms and colors of nature and 
«ven movements can be reproduced by a series of pictures. We can 
register the words and tones of actors, orators and singers. Who 
Trnows but we may soon be able to fix and preserve each passing 
phase of thought. The X-rays penetrate the body and make it 
transparent. An electric bulb swallowed by a fish lights up its 
vitals and enables us to see every fiber of its being. The nerve-aura 
of hypnotized subjects will go thru solid stone walls, and carry sen- 
sations thru brick and mortar. Maybe to-night, on some far planet, 
beings superior to us in knowledge and power are gazing thru their 
telescopes upon the earth. What do they ^ee? A speck of dust 
floating in infinite space and teeming with animalculse, some of which 
-are called men. Perhaps some gazer may be pointing his glass at 
this building, looking down thru the roof as easily as we look thru a 
paneof glass— looking into the very minds and hearts, seeing the 
thoughts and emotions of us all. What a grand yet terrible world 
this would be if all our thoughts and feelings were laid bare to our 
companions. I do not wish for the power to read all humanity's 
secrets now; it would burst our hearts to see in clear light the sel- 
fishness and wickedness and misery of men to-day, but when the 
millenium comes, when every man and woman obeys the law of love, 
when every mind and heart is full of beauty, then it will be grand to 
read the thoughts and emotions of others as an open book, and have 

them read our own. 

A word about the agriculture of the future. With the aid of 
modern machinery four men can raise, mill and deliver to the 
bakers, flour enough to feed 1000 men for a year. That is only the 
beginning. It is found that electrifying the atmosphere increases 
the yield 50 per cent, electrifying the seeds produces an increase of 
100 per cent and electrifying the ground increases the crop 300 per 
cent. A hundred years ago one-thirtieth of the people lived in 
cities; now one-third of the people live in cities. Soon everyone may 
enjoy the united benefits of city and country life, most people will 
live in or near some city. With tine roads and rapid transit, com- 
munication will be easy. Cities will be more evenly distributed than 
now. The few who attend to agriculture will have their automobiles 
and air-motor bicycles and can live in the city if they wish, and go to 
the farm in the morning at a speed of 50 or maybe 100 miles an hour 
with almost no expense. 

What of education in the good time coming? Already it is growing 



442 THE INDUSTRIALIST. [July, '99 

less classic and more scientific and practical. It will become more 
simple, effective, universal. We shall arrange the studies according 
to their natural relations, and in the order of development of the 
mental and moral powers. We shaU aim more and more at the training 
of faculty and the development of lofty interests and emotions, less 
and less at cramming with facts. We shall think more and more of 
Hberty, for teacher and student, and seek symmetrical self-perfec- 
tion thru easy and happy self-culture under the teacher's general 
guidance. We shall sit in the schoolroom and see the Pyramids and 
the Alps, London, Paris and Hongkong thru the telelectroscope. 
Moving pictures in life-like colors, with phonograph accompaniments 
will bring to eye and ear every industry and scene of action in the 
world. Our children will be educated in art galleries and music 
halls; and the school will be one long delight. The twentieth century 
will not be satisfied to give but one- tenth of one per cent of the youth 
a full education. Think of the waste of mental and moral resources 
—only one- thousandth of our youth with full opportunity of intellect- 
ual and emotional development. This century has seen most won- 
derful progress. It has produced 35 great inventions and practical 
apphcations of science, as against 31 in all preceding ages. Its 
scientific and moral advance has also exceeded the totals of all pre- 
ceding centuries put together. If such results have come with im- 
perfect culture of one-thousandth part of our mental resources, what 
may we expect from reasonably perfect education of the other 999 
thousandths, or of the whole jouth of the nation? 

Simplicity is needed, not only in education, but in language lit- 
erature and law, government, industry and society. We must select 
and coordmate the essential and get rid of the trash. We ruin our 
nervous systems rushing thru endless masses of useless ideas and 
actions. If we keep on no man will be able to know the law or under- 
stand the literature of his day. As I lift the curtain of the future 
I can see conventions of learned men selecting and condensing so 
that a man may grasp the best thoughts of the past and present 
without destroying his health. Another convention may build a uni- 
versal language to be taught in all the schools of every civilized 
country-a few hundred words at first, so that one may be under- 
stood wherever hegoes-a complete phonetic language, at last, into 
which the most valuable books of every tongue will be translated 
a process which in itself will result in a vast weeding out 

Disease may be eradicated by science and careful training in the 



July, '99.} GLIMPSES OF THE FUTURE. 443 

laws of health. Even old age may be indefinitely postponed by pure 
water, good food, and normal, moral, happy living. Intemperance 
and crime will be banished by education, hypnotism and wise pre- 
ventive measures. The last drop of savage blood will be squeezed 
out of the veins of humanity; and mankind will stand forth pure and 
noble, subject to no law but the law of love and conscience. 

And what of government, industry and religion? A word must 
suffice. The sweep of events is toward liberty, union, justice, 
equality and democracy. The century is full of the movement. 
Religion is becoming a life instead of a doctrine, and the time will 
come when all religious men will unite in one great church of 
brother love. Liberty has grown enormously. A few hundred 
years ago the people in power put thumb-screws on those who dif- 
fered with them, or burned the dissenters at the stake. To-day 
they only abuse them in the newspapers, or take away their employ- 
ment, or ostracize them. The time will come when men will be 
openminded enough to receive with eager courtesy the thoughts 
of others, according them the same liberty of thought and 
expression they wish for themselves ; and, recognizing the fact that 
the past cannot think for the present, that no one has all the truth, 
and that the only way to get it is for each to listen to others, candidly 
and receptively, cherish a desire to discover and proclaim whatever 
is true and good in the thoughts and feelings of other men. Signed 
journalism and the abolition of commercial cannibalism will do much 
to usher in this happy time. In America, and in Europe except as 
to Russia and Turkey, monarchic and aristocratic despotism has 
given place to constitutional government with more or less republi- 
can forms. The feudal system and chattel slavery have been 
abolished. Three continents are free and the rest are coming. It is 
true that a new despotism is looming up in the giant trusts and com- 
bines, but as with former despotisms, the power and benefits, of 
their organization will be kept, but the monopoly element will disap- 
pear. A trust is all right if the pubUc is inside. A plutocratic trust 
is bad, but a democratic trust is good. A private combine is tyranny, 
a public combine is beneficence, if the public control is really public, 
and not a pretense. Good government and industrial partnership 
are sure to come. The interests of the people demand them, the 
logic of events requires them, and the law of love compels them — 
love, sympathy, and intelligence are growing, and that means that 
conflict and competition must give place to harmony and cooperation. 



444 THE INDUSTRIALIST. [July, '99 

Do you say, This is all very pretty but it is impracticable — a dream 
that will not come true — an ideal that cannot be realized? I reply 
that it is possible to think of these things now, and if we keep on 
thinking about them it will be possible to do them pretty soon. It is 
a mistake to think that the ideal is the impractical. The ideal is the 
basis of the practical, the prophecy of the practical, the creator of 
the practical. Every invention, every book, every institution was 
an ideal before it was a fact and became a fact because it was an ideal. 

The ideal of independence rose in America. England resisted it. 
It took up arms, defended itself and conquered. Is victory over 
Great Britain a dream? 

The ideal of a united Germany grew in the Teutonic mind. It was 
the dream of students and visionaries. But Bismarck had the 
dream. It possessed his soul; and thru him it organized armies, 
threw Austria out of the German confederation, laid Prance in the 
dust and crowned King William emperor of Germany. 

Jesus taught the ideal of a life of loving service, a life of devotion 
to truth and kindness and nobihty, a life dominated by love, and this 
loftiest of all ideals is recognized as the most powerful force in the 
world to-day. 

Luther conceived the ideal of independent thought; and the ideal 
tore Europe asunder, drenched her soil with blood, crippled the 
power of popes and creeds, and gave the world a religion that at 
last is beginning to manifest some tolerance of those of differing 
faith. 

Garrison, Phillips and Lincoln dreamed of freedom for the blacks— 
the ideal of political liberty for all men, regardless of color. That 
ideal brought a conflict which put a million men in arms and cost five 
thousand millions of dollars and on the field of battle wrought itself 
into realization. 

To-day there is a new ideal— the ideal of more perfect democracy- 
diffusion of power, intelligence, virtue and wealth; equalization of 
opportunity; cooperation; brotherhood; the law of love as supreme 
in politics and industry and society as in the home. It is simply 
the ideal of Jesus, of Luther, of Jefferson, of Hamilton, Garrison, 
Phillips and Lincoln carried into industrial, political and social hfe. 
Will you accept this grand ideal and work for it? In my judgment 
the man or woman who does not do so is missing the best of Ufe. 
The man or woman who does not work for a great ideal forfeits the 
highest privilege of a human being. 




July, '99.] 445 



THE REAL AND PERMANENT GRANDEUR OF THESE STATES. 

Abstract of a Commencement Oration, Qiven at the Kansas State Agricultural 

College, June 8, 1899. 

BY BENJAMIN PAY MILLS. 

I TRUST that some of us have recognized this title as a line from 
one whom I regard as our greatest American prophet, Walt Whit- 
man. The real and permanent grandeur of these states is to inau- 
gurate a new era: the era of the actualization of the accumulations 
of the efforts of ages past. This is known as the century of practical 
invention, but it is not so much the century of practical invention 
as the century of spiritual discovery; the discovery of a principle. 
We have comprehended for the first time in history, the great, tran- 
scendent fact of the harmony of eternal, im mutable law with progress, 
and we have comprehended this not simply by a study of philos- 
ophy or even by the discovery of the epoch-making fact of evolu- 
tion,but we have discovered it because of the accelerated movement. 
We can all see the little hand move around upon the watch; we 
are none of us endowed with eyesight tine enough to detect the 
movement of the hour hand or even of the minute hand. What this 
century has done for us is to give us, not only thru our philosophy 
and thru our science but thru our observation (the best basis for 
our philosophy and for our science), a grasp of the fact of movement. 
The rate of development in our time has been so accelerated that we 
have actually become able to see humanity move. The first great 
discovery of this century has been order: the second has been 
growth: and these two in the last analysis are one. The key-note, 
then, of our century is orderly growth. 

Professor Wallace points out that this century is to be compared, 
not with any previous century, but with all the rest of the centuries 
put together. There have been, according to him, something like 
•nineteen great discoveries in the world's history until now, and of 
these nineteen discoveries twelve have been made in our present 
oentury and only seven in all preceding ones. There have been 
twenty great inventions in the world's history, two-thirds made in 
this century and only one-third in all the centuries that have pre- 
ceded it. We are told in our Holy Book that one day is with the Lord 
as a thousand years and a thousand years as one day. We have come 
to a place where one century is equal to and surpasses at least three 



446 THE INDUSTRIALIST. [July, '99 

hundred centuries of the past, and we are not able to conceive of the 
accelerated rate of progress at which the world will move in the 
future. 

We hear that the pendulum swings now to this side, then to that. 
That was the highest thought concerning the development of truth, 
theological, philosophical, scientific, a century ago. We know better 
now. The pendulum does not swing like that. The movement of 
truth and of humanity describes not the arc, the path of the pendu- 
lum, but the spiral. We move from this side to that, but round and 
round, and upward. Now for the last century we have been living 
by what we call the deductive method— drawing conclusions from 
principles assumed to be true, but often untrue. The mind of man 
at last revolted from the thought that we were to take theories and 
make facts conform to them, whether real or not. We went to the 
opposite extreme, and said: We will believe nothing but what we 
touch, handle, know by the practical experience of our senses. We 
substituted inducticm for deduction. The very term science, the 
phrase scientific method, came to stand for the inductive method. 
We have almost gone around the spiral now, however, and having 
induced some theories from our facts we have learned to return to 
the deductive method and deduce conclusions from the principles 
reached by induction. 

Now the one great principle we have discovered is this: Progress' 
progress! The world never knew it until our own day. This is the 
principle, and it is time for us to act again for a while on the philo- 
sophic rather than the scientific plan; to learn with eyes rather than 
with tentacles; to take the consciousness of the race and work it out 
m practical development. If American men and women that are liv- 
ing and awake in this our supreme day will receive their inspira- 
tion, not from that which has been, but from the future which never 
was, not from a golden age in the past but rather from the glory of 
that which is to be, we will then be prepared to go on and make the 
world, and perfect that which has entered into our experience If 
I had the time and you had the patience I might point out some of 
the applications of this principle and show how the new philosophy 
would change all our individual conceptions and experiences and 
transform the world. 

The new watchword is, k,ok up and not down, forward and not 
back, out and not in, and lend a hand. So far as the individual is 
concerned, the expression of faith by love is the practical religion of 



July, '99.] COMMENCEMENT ORATION. 447 

the day. It is not my purpose, however, to have our minds turned 
to the individual, but rather to consider this great truth of develop- 
ment as applied to us all, namely, to our nation — The real and 
permanent grandeur of these states ! I do not care so much whether 
you lose the sermon if you keep the text. Let that sink into your 
souls. 

The real and permanent grandeur of these states, what is it? It is 
to be a pioneer . America was born with the discovery of gunpowder, 
the great social leveler. Some one said that the man with the gun 
was equal to the man on horseback, and it was the invention of gun- 
powder that exploded the old feudal system and brought in the great 
system of democracy. America was discovered not long after the 
invention of printing, and the printing press was the great intellect- 
ual leveler. Formerly there was the prince on horseback and the 
peasant and serf on foot. Gunpowder made them equal in physical 
power and in social position. 

The man with the book was the man of the cloister, the priest; he 
was the guardian of the collected wisdom of the centuries, and 
practically ruled the word. The invention of printing destroyed this 
intellectual advantage until, to-day, if one man is not so wise as 
another, so far as the wisdom of the ages is concerned, it is his own 
fault. We. as Americans, came into being in near connection with 
this great discovery. Real education began with America. At the 
birth of this w<mderful century of inventions, discoveries and 
sciences, Froebel lived, the first great teacher who has spoken to 
the world the solemn and sacred word, Education. We have dis- 
covered science itself. The scientific method is largely of this 
century, the one century of our national life. The great sciences of 
the relation of people to things, of thmgs to people, and of people 
to people, the greatest sciences so far as we are concerned, the 
sciences of economics and sociology, have been entirely coterminous 
with the development of our national life and the progress of demo- 
cratic ideas — the development of the germs of a greater religion. 

The fact is, we have developed so that heroism has become an 
every-day occurrence. It has become a common thing to witness 
on the part of what we call ordinary people the divinest mani- 
festations of altruism. Our ships at Santiago sent terrible messen 
gers of divine retribution. These to some people would express the 
nineteenth century, but they are left over from the past age. There 
were other things which were sent from those ships which more 



448 THE INDUSTRIALIST. [July, '99 

truly expressed the close of the nineteenth century — that cry of 
Captain Phillips, "Don't cheer, boys; the poor devils are dying!" 
The marines who, tho possibly in no instance professing Christians, 
rushed forward into those blazing hells to save the lives of their ene- 
mies, refusing to return until they had done their work, were urged 
on. by what was to them the divinest consecration. 

These are expressive of the time in which we live? I believe the 
realities of this day, if we had time to see, would surpass our pro- 
foundest thoughts and most iridescent dreams. The real and 
permanent grandeur of America is to bring the world to a conscious- 
ness of its present position and inspire men with larger views and 
hopes for the future for which they have long been accumulating 
materials. America brings builders; and their work must surpass 
that of all peoples who have ever lived. These states are the amplest 
field of civil life that history has yet known. Here is not merely a 
nation, but a teeming nation of nations. 

Nov«r then, what does this mean? It means in the first place, that 
the real and permanent grandeur of these states is to produce a new 
type of individual manhood and womanhood, an American type; to 
be like nothing that has ever existed upon the earth. An Ameri- 
can is wicked if he resembles anything that is not better than any- 
thing that has formerly existed on this planet. You remember 
Lowell's words in his commemoration poem, speaking of one of our 
great leaders: 

Nature, they say. doth dote. 

And cannot make a man 

Save on some worn-out plan, 

Repeating him by rote. 
For him her old world's mold aside she threw: 
And, choosing sweet clay fnmi the breastof the unexhausted West 
With stuff untainted shaped a hero new, ' 

New birth of our new soul, the first American. 

Now whether that was true of Abraham Lincoln or not, there cer- 
tainly should be a new birth of our new soul, a new type of man, 
kinder, greater, braver, nobler, profounder, looking more into the 
future instead of the past, diviner than ever was on earth before. 

A dream of joy comes o'er me. 
A glory shines before me 
Of what mankind shall be 
Pure generons, brave and free, 
A dream of men and women 
Diviner but still human. 



July, '99.] COMMENCEMENT ORATION, 449 

V Solving the riddle old, 

Shaping the age of gold. 
Of love to God and neighbor, 
Of equal handed labor 
The richer land where beauty 
Walks hand in hand with duty. 

O men and women, the mission of history and of tradition is not 
to give models or patterns. The man who judges the future by the 
past is an intidel. The man who makes the most out of anything but 
the Zeit Geist, which is another name for the Holy Ghost, is an infideL 
His own ideal of what ought to be is his experience and his practise. 
Let me illustrate. It is a vastly more significent thing that in the 
year 1899 there was a Kansas State Agricultural College with such a 
degree of enlightenment as is possessed here at Manhattan, than 
that any theory of any kind is taught within its walls. It is a mark 
of the real development to which the world is coming. 

We have a poet in Boston, named Sam Walter Foss. If you have 
not been to Boston I hope you will come. There is no place on earth 
like it. I heard of a man who asked his way from the same police- 
man in Boston eight times. Mr. Foss wrote a poem called the "Calf 
Path. " I don't remember all of it but it runs Hke this: 

One day, thru the primeval wood, 

A calf walked home, as all calves should; 

But made a trail all bent askew, 

A crooked trail as all calves do. 

Since then three-hundred years have fled.. 

And 1 infer that calf is dead, 

A dog sees the path and takes it; a bell-wether sheep comes later 

and you know what the other sheep do. Later, men followed that 

path because it was already marked. 

And many men wound in and out. 
Twisted and turned and dodged about,. 
And uttered words of righteous wrath 
Because 'twas such a crooked path. 
But still they followed, do not laugh. 
The first migrations of that calf. 

After a while the path became a road; the road became a village 

street; the village grew to be a city. And — 

At last the central street was this 
Of a renowned metropolis. 
And men two centuries and a haK 
Trod in the footsteps of that call.. 
For thus such reverence is lent 
To well-established precedent. 



450 THE INDUSTRIALIST. [July, '99 

This is as far as some people have come in their development, and 
even in this exceedingly enlightened presence I do not doubt we can 
discover some individual whose highest mission is to wend along the 
path in which some other calf first went. 

There is only one object in this world, one great object ; that is to 
make men and women free. Men and women search for freedom. 
The search for freedom is not freedom. That is the reason that 
some who search for freedom are bound with heavier chains than 
those who live contentedly in bondage. What we want is the real 
freedom to think, work and create. Here is Mrs. Stetson's poetry 
again : 

It takes great strength to train 

To modern service your ancestral brain, 

To lift the dead weight of unnumbered years 

Of dead men's hopes, methods and fears. 

But the best courage man has ever shown 

Is trying to get loose and think alone. 

Dark as the unlit chambers of clear space, 

Where light shines back from no reflecting face. 

To think anew it takes a courage grim. 

As led Columbus over the world's brim. 

And every American that is an American, an American and not an 
^yptian, is a new man or new woman in his conceptions, his thought 
his prmciples and his practise. 

In the second place the real and permanent grandeur of these 
states IS to establish a new ideal of education. The old way in edu- 
cation was anything but education. It was to try to fill up the child's 
mmd exactly as we fill a tooth. Yet not exactly in the same way. 
We do put new gold into our teeth, but it was as thowe should All our 
teeth with gold that had been taken from our ancestors' teeth 

• . r ™' ,*^ '"r "' "*"''*"''° "°*" P^^*^"^' ^nd P^bel came 
mto the world. It was to take this new-born mind, and, instead of 
see ng how much of a mind it might be, to see instead how full it 
cou d be crowded with old ideas that had no natural connection 
whatever w^h the new mind. Now I reverence the ancients, but 
mark you, the ancients are not the people who lived four thousand 
years ago; they were the infants. We are the ancients ourselves 
If there were some way for Moses, Solomon, Socrates, Marcus 
Aurehus and the rest of them, with their centuries of added growth 
to communicate with us and tell us what they now know, and 
we could comprehend it, that would be worth while- but for 
most of us that is not practicable. I will not worship ;ither my 



July, '99.] 



COMMENCEMENT ORATION. 



451 



ancestors or descendents but, were I compelled to choose between 
them, I would reverence the children who are yet to come, rather 
than the men of the past, for those children are going to be greater 
than these men. The word education should not be prostituted to 
mean cramming the mind with old beliefs and ideas. The word 
education, literally translated, means to lead out, not to cram. 

Michael Angelo said when seventy years old, "I am still learning." 
It is pitiful as well as ludicrous the way we talk about our "institu- 
tions of learning. " I do not know of more than one institution of 
learning on earth. This is not an istitution of learning; I do not 
mean to depreciate it; it may be desirable to have sorr.e insti- 
tutions of teaching. Maybe there are departments here for making 
discoveries; such only are institutions of learning. Some at the 
same time are teaching the knowledge and learning the knowledge 
of the future. The knowledge of the past is full of absurdities. 
Why should ough and augh be pronounced in so many ways as in the 
words cough, rough, slough, laugh':* Why should we perpetuate 
such anomalies as a part of our educational work? By displaying 
such blind reverence for the past, we prove that we are as truly 
bound in chains as are the Chinese. Education is not the filling of 
young minds with dead men's thoughts. 

I should hardly dare to speak as emphatically as I would like to on 
this subject. I fall back on our great universal prophet, Emerson. 
I will give you what he thought of some aspects of our modern sys- 
tem of education. 

We are students of words. .We are shut up in our schools and colleges and 
recitation rooms for ten or fifteen years, and we come out at last with only a 
memory of words and do not know a thing. We do not think we can speak to 
the divine sentiments in man, and we do not try. 

What a glorious opportunity for education, to speak to the divine 
sentiments in man ! But where is the school or college that exists 
only for this end? Where is the educational institution that feeds 
on faith in humanity and the progressing, growing God that is in the 
human soul? The whole object of the school should be not to cram 
students but to awaken originality, to make them discoverers of 
truth. The principal of one of our preparatory schools said to me, "I 
would like to have you know that we conduct this school just as 
nearly as possible, in the way in which it was conducted forty years 
ago. " He seemed to think that was glorious. I believe the growth 
of our state institutions of learning is one of the most resplendent 



452 THE industrialist: [July, '99 

signs of our great times. The endowed institution is an anachro- 
nism. Harvard University is foreign in its principle compared with 
this College at Manhattan. The endowed university is devoted, to & 
great extent, to teaching either what dead men thought or what liv- 
ing men think, who do not think, in order that it may live and get- 
provender to exist. It would be better to strangle your children,, 
and give them a chance with wiser parents in anew incarnation, than 
to rob them of their right to a true education by penning them up in 
institutions that do not discover, and do not believe what they teach, 

A state institution of learning should offer to students the fullest 
known truth and opportunity to discover more. To discover God's 
best thought and interpret it to man is glorious: but a state institu- 
tion founded or forced to teach any dogma— or set of dogmas in phi- 
losophy or pohtics or science or religion — is a misrepresentation of the 
spirit of the times. It is disloyalty to the mission of America. It is 
worse than the Chinese mother who only binds the feet of her daugh- 
ter, while this mother binds the brain and heart and conscience, and is 
worse than a Caiaphas or Judas. The state institution is divine. 
The Messianic spirit of our day has made possible the birth of the 
higher institutions of learning from the people for the people and by 
the people. 

I don't care for the application. I wouldn't go across the street 
to make a plea for any political party whatever. You may make the 
application yourselves. I have not traveled 2000 miles simply to sing 
sweet songs or say pleasant things. I am not a partisan. I am ca- 
pable of voting a different ticket at every election. All our people are 
simply people, and these political combinations are merely artificial. 
If our professors must be political or rehgious dogmatists, and if 
they can not be trusted to be fair, then let your state be great 
enough to provide teachers to teach all the dogmas. It would be better 
to have, not one or two expounders of philosophy, but enough to teach 
all kinds of philosophy than to stifle the spirit of progress or fail to 
give inspiration. The man who would poison the food of youth is in- 
teUigent and humane when compared with officers of the state who 
endeavor to control the teachings of a public institution in the direc- 
tion of any dogma, old or new, and insist on the holding of a correct 
set of ancient or modern opinions about anything, instead of inspir- 
ing young men and women with a passion for real culture and for 
opportunity to grow, develop and achieve. 

We come now to my third thought which is that the real and per- 



July, '99.] 



COMMENCEMENT ORATION. 



453 



manent grandeur of these states is to make a new society. We 
never have had any society in the minds of men until our own cen- 
tury. The word society, as I use it now, is a new word that did not 
exist with that significance twenty-five years ago. It was not even 
in existence. Society is not sick, as sometimes alleged. It is af- 
flicted simply with growing- pains. 

We have simply arrived at one of those supreme moments when 
an old world passes away and a new world comes into existence. 
Every greatest thought is a world thought. All great thoughts have 
been held by individuals at various times, but the greatest thought 
in the mind of the world that existed previous to our century was 
the value of the individual. Woe be to the world if it ever loses the 
inspiration of that thought — the value of one mind is mightier than 
the material universe. This is the lesson of Christianity — the value 
of the individual; and it has done a mighty work. It has broken the 
shackles from the slave. It has enfranchised the lowly. It has 
lifted up the child and recognized his right to hve. It found its 
perfect political expression at the close of the last century in the 
French Declaration of the Rights of Man and then in the American 
Declaration of Independence, with its avowal of the right of man to 
life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. It gives us the idea of 
rights. 

But we are coming to see something behind this. This is the day 
of what our German professors call the social consciousness. So- 
ciety is becoming conscious, of itself. This value of the individual 
was not the greatest thought that the world could think. We are 
learning to think of men in society, not as the sand upon the sea 
shore nor as a vast building planned by some great builder, but as a 
living, growing organism. As a physical man lives and learns, so 
humanity lives an4 learns. The life of the race is of more moment 
than is the life of any individual. Men live and die but they live 
only in so far as they contribute to the growth of humanity. This 
idea of the social organism gives us a conception (shall 1 say?) 
of duties rather than of rights. A new duty simply enlarges our 
rights. The supreme right of man is his right to do his duty. A 
new idea is struggling to be born, the idea of equality in unity. In 
industry or commerce we call it cooperation, in ethics we call it 
brotherhood, in pohtics we call it democracy, in religion we call it 
love. Man by endeavor, is finding his place in the universe; he is 
a part of the universal whole. Mark this: what is going on now. 



T 



454 THE INDUSTRIALIST. [July, '99 

that so disturbs the minds of some and fills others with enthusiasm, 
is the application in our own time of this principle of democracy to 
all forms of human society. 

A new light is being shed today upon the democratic principle 
and the need for its application by the science of economics. We 
live in a day of great wealth. Mr. Gladstone said that more wealth 
was produced in the first fifty years of this century than existed at 
the beginning of the century, and more wealth was produced in the 
twenty five years following that than in the preceding fifty— more 
wealth than existed in the whole world at the beginning of this 
century. The question arises, What do we do with ity One hun- 
dred years ago men were just beginning to ask how wealth was ac- 
quired: they had never thought of that before. In the middle of the 
century the question came, How is it distributed? but it is only in 
our own day that people are asking the question, How should wealth 
be distributed ? It is not an indication of degradation that at last we 
have awakened to ask the question, How should wealth be distri- 
buted? It is rather a sign of growth. 

We know that great fortunes have been acquired without any 
equivalents given to society therefor. I do not mean that the acqui- 
sition of these fortunes was dishonest, judged by our present stand- 
ards. But It IS so, judged by the standards of the future How are 
great fortunes, in fact, acquired? First, by inheritance. No man 
ever earned an inheritance. Second, by interest. No man ever 
earned what comes to him as interest. I knew a man who was so 
fascinated by the thought of money earning more money that he 
piled up his securities about the head of his bed and then lay awake 
aU night to hear his wealth accumulate. A third source of great for- 
tunes IS the appropriation of the natural riches of the earth Amer- 
icans are fighting the 10 per cent tax on the gold of the Klondike. 
The fortunate men who stumble on it, and give only 10 per cent U> 
the Canadian government, are allowed to take 90 per cent of the gold 
for themselves. Every well informed man exults in the fact that 
Canada Ukes as much as 10 per cent; she ought to take 90 per cent 

but toTh ' 1 ' '"a 7'" "'*^^' '^^^ ^^^ ^^^-^ *- -^^i<i-ls 

but to the people. A fourth means of acquisition is by the unfair 

division of the profits of industry. The working man is becom n" 
separated from these five things: oecoming 

1. From his employers. The time was when the working man 
and the employer lived together and worked together side by sTde 



July, '99.] 



COMMENCEMENT ORATION.. 



455 



The working man married his employer's daughter and succeeded 
to the business and conducted it until his working man married his 
daughter and succeeded to the business. Now the working man 
does not know his employers at all. A man might sitt in an audience 
room like this and touch the elbows of the principal stockholders of 
the corporation he works for and have no knowledge of th'e fact that 
one of his principal employers was near him. One may own stock 
in a railroad and not know a single one of his employees.. Workers 
are called not men and women, but hands. Between them and their 
employers are managers. The manager does not have to be a devil 
with the pressure put upon him by the corporation to make it his 
aim to get all he can out of the hands. He has simply to let the 

system work. 

2. From his tools. I saw an estimate that if the materials for an 
ordinary 75-cent breakfast had to be gathered for your exclusive 
breakfast you would have to take the labor of 500,000 men and a cost 
of $5,000,000. The time was that if a man wanted to go into the trans- 
portation business he would get a wheelbarrow, and after a while he 
would get a horse and wagon; but if he wants to go into the trans- 
portation business to-day he has to buy a railroad. Then the manu- 
facturer had his factory in one room of his dwelling; now you know 
what the factory is. We are all dependent on it, and we ought to be, 
for it is a divine process, but it has separated man from his tools. 

3. From his hopes of real development. John Stuart Mill 
doubted whether machinery had lightened the day's toil of a single 
human being. Machinery has done wonders for producers and is 
to-day doing wonders still. We know it doe&. It used to take a man 
to make a pin, but it does not now. Machinery makes the pin and 
the man simply works a lever backward and forward. The very in- 
vention that ought to have given this man leisure has resulted in 
such a helplessness and steady drudgery on his part that he can 
never be at home to look upon the faces of his children while they 
are awake. The invention that ought to have given him opportunity 
for growth and culture in a hundred ways is narrowing his brain. 
At the same time he sees his employer building his magnificent 
private house, planting his private park, launching his private 
yacht at the cost of $300,000, and building his private railroad car to 
cost $75,000; and some say that, if that employer is in need of it, he 
can have his private legislature, private governor, etc. And so he 
goes smiling around, never seeming to have a conviction as to the in- 



456 THE INDUSTRIALIST. [July, '99 

herent injustice of the process, and only occasionally a twinge of con- 
science, while he never thinks of making a sacrificial offering of 
himself for other men. 

4. The worst thing is that the working man is becoming separated 
from his work. What is most pitiful in it is the man who wants to 
help God make the world cannot get the opportunity. How can you 
sit here and hold your heads up when you know there are millions of 
such men? It used to take a man to make a whole pin, but a woman 
can move a lever; and the woman crowds out the man, and the mar- 
ried woman or the woman with a family crowds out the single woman 
who has no other means of support, and then the child crowds out his 
mother, and to-day there are in every market place in America 
crowds of noble, honest men who want work but have been elbowed 
away by the competition of their own children. To this competition 
must be added the competition of the Orient. Far across the sea 
there are Japanese who are better metal workers than we. They 
can live on thirty cents a day. Over beyond are the Chinese who are 
better in some things than we can hope to be. They live on three 
cents a day. You may put up as many tariff barriers as you please, 
but competition among workers is a world question. 

5. The ordinary workman is separated entirely from political 
power. He calls himself the citizen of a great democracy, but he 
holds hardly what Carlyle describes as a thousandth share of one 
talker in the national palaver. I do not mention this in a spirit of 
pessimism or controversy, but to illustrate social conditions I can 
see defects in any belief or radical thought that can be proposed for 
the reconstruction of society, but I can see worse defects in the 
continuation of things as they stand: and the real atheist is the man 
who believes that any present order is divine, when compared with 
any future, order. It is divine only as compared with the past 
I^t me ask you some questions. Why should the wealthy man be 
the Idol of society? Why should the character and issue of money 
be controlled by a few men instead of by many?. Why should the 
heart of our national and business life be a den of thieves and rob- 
bers dignified by the name of stock exchange? Why should ma- 
chinery one of God's greatest gifts to man. enslave men, making 
them idle when they ought to be noble and free? Why should we 
work ten hours a day under hard conditions when plenty might be 
for all with much less work in easy circumstances? Why should 
one-tenth of the people in Christendom never be free from hunger v 



July, '99.] 



COMMENCEMENT ORATION. 



457 



Why should ten millions always be hungry? Why should one man 
save three million dollars by putting in his best endeavors to man- 
age a railway, while another works as earnestly and honestly and is 
not able to save three cents? Why should the hearse go twice a 
week for sixteen years to a single block in New York city while it 
does not go once in sixteen years to other blocks that may be pointed 
out in that same city? I find the poor coming and carrying away the 
leavings of prisoners in the penitentiary to keep themselves from 
starving to death. Why? 

Now I know that we never give up anything that does not seem 
inappropriate to us. Talk about sin all you please. We will stop 
sinning when it seems inappropriate. It is inappropriate for Amer- 
ica to continue the competitive system, to fail to give equal opportu- 
nities to all men, to trust mere politicians, or, still worse, to trust no 
one, to enthrone greed, to protect monopoly anywhere on this conti- 
nent, to be the slaves of a senator in Pennsylvania, of a boss in New 
York, of a street railway in Boston; to have a Back Bay, with the 
houses of the rich on this side and the slums of the poor on that, to 
be the slaves of anybody in politics or out. All these, and other 
possible illustrations of present social relations, are as inappropriate 
as for me to get down on hands and knees and crawl as we used 
to crawl when we lived in the reptilian age. , 

The real and permanent grandeur of these states is character in 
politics. Independence, just freedom, the fair breezes that blow the 
ships across the ocean come from the lungs of liberty, industrial 
effort. If God could ever succeed he would succeed now in 
America. Here are our great American ideals. First the political 
ideal. The greatness of these states will come when a man would 
rather pay his taxes than give presents to his children. When we 
come to that ideal there will be no taxes. He will do it because it is a 
contribution to the largest family he knows except the greater family 
of united humanity. Who ought to be the holiest man in the city ? the 
Mayor. Who ought to be the holiest man in the state? the governor, 

I think I know what it means to be thankful that I was born in a 
home where there was a devout father and a mother that, to their 
best light, feared God and worked righteousness. But I think a 
man might better be sacrilegious in church, might better deny his 
fathei- and scorn his mother than be disloyal to the state. It is a 
holier, higher and more inspired fellowship than that of either the 
family or the church. 



458 



THE INDUSTRIALIST. 



[July, '99 



The second great ideal of America, politically, is the glory of de- 
mocracy. It is this ideal that has caused the turnings and over- 
turnings until this present hour in the whole world. In its full 
perfection democracy is simply the human expression of the unity 
of all life. Democracy and life are one. Read history. See how 
the soul of the race has moved onward. Democracy seeking ex- 
pression, that is the soul of history, that is all there is of history. 
It found expression in Greece, in Rome and in the Prance of 1793. 
These aU died in infancy. There have been expressions of democ- 
racy that died before they were born. These were all different 
from America. They had old materials; but we have new, on which 
the soul might work. With America came the birth of real democ- 
racy. This democracy is the hope of mankind. 

Our highest ideals are the ideals of the nation and of society. 
That is the great moral lesson that we need to learn. We have out- 
grown dueling. I am not going to talk about imperialism or expan- 
sion. I am not concerned about expansion only that to spread us out 
too thin would be an infinite misfortune. If we are to have American 
expansion it will be expansion by love; and we are to win our con- 
quests as a lover wins his bride, rather than as a conquerer over- 
comes his enemies. That is as certain as that we are here. There is 
no sort of revolution that has force and selfishness in it but will have 
to be revoluted again. We being what we were, the Spanish being 
what they were, and the Cubans being what they were, I presume 
we had to have the Spanish war. If we had left the war for thirty 
years longer we would not have had to fight at all. but It was all there 
and we had to do what we did. But that is not ideal. There were 
no trurer words spoken by Christ than these: "Nations are gathered 
together before the throne for judgment;" and the nations that have 
been good and loving and tender go into the everlasting mansions 
and the nations that have been selfish, narrow, mean and cruel go 
into everlastmg punishment; and I see them going, all the way down 
the ages. I see Turkey staggering into hell to-day. The words are 
true. I shall not make any remark about national expansion, but O. 
friends, I believe that the real America is to-day at The Hague ma- 
king proposals looking toward universal peace; and the very first 
nation that being smitten upon the one cheek turns the other to the 
smiter, the very first nation that forgets the word vengeance, the 
first nation that hves as I would live with my wife, and you, mo her, 
with your child, that nation will do the very greatest amount of good 



July, '99.] 



COMMENCEMENT ORATION. 



459 



for the bringing in of that golden time toward which the world has 
looked. Oh that the swords I know might here be turned to reap- 
ers' tools. 

And now for the fifth thing, I have spoken of the new manhood 
and the new education and the new society and the new pohtics. I 
will now complete for you this quotation from Whitman. " I see that 
the real and permanent grandeur of these states must be their 
religion, otherwise there is no real and permanent grandeur, " This 
is the profoundest philosophic sentence I ever heard: 

Religion is that fine sense of the soul that connects the individual with the 
universal purpose. 

This is true iiot only of us as individual men and women but true of 
the nation. I have been preaching this morning, if I ever preached 
in my life. I have been talking about nothing but religion from the 
second I rose until now. The universal purpose of mankind is 
brotherhood. It is democracy and real religion. America is reli- 
gion. Every ideal of the United States is a religious ideal. The 
right of every man to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness is a 
religious ideal. The value of the individual is a religious ideal. 
Social and poHtical equality is a religious ideal. The public school, 
advanced educational institutions, are religious ideals. The tendency 
toward collectivism is a religious ideal. On the one hand the trades 
unions and on the other hand the associations of capitahsts, these are 
religious ideals. And the trust itself, the finest material expression 
the world has ever seen, tho it may be hellish in its method, is a 
religious ideal. God thru it is making the wrath of man to praise him. 

As Frances Willa-rd said, "Who ever speaks of competition 
breathes out a curse on the world, and whoever speaks of coopera- 
tion breathes out a blessing." It is time that the nation was con- 
victed of sin anu converted to religion. So religious must we grow 
that we become prophets ourselves, that our old men will see visions 
and our young men will dream dreams, and the people see the na- 
tional purpose, the soul. The great need of America is that we glory 
in this spiritual vigor, in this higher potential and essential nature 
that has yet to manifest itself in the American people. We must 
learn to find in American history the soul of our country. Then 
shall we cease to be discouraged by the mire of commercial selfish- 
ness thru which she may drag herself. Then shall we preserve our 
patience a while until she finds her T^ay thru the commercial and 
political anarchy. Then shall we have that enthusiasm born of faith 



460 



THE INDUSTRIALIST. 



[July, '99 



that thru aU steadfastly takes hold of things within the veil. Then 
shall we work with wisdom, applying eternal principles to practical 
affairs. 

I am an optimist of the optimists. There never was so great a 
day as this, but there is a greater day coming. Men will have to 
keep on the run to keep up with it. The greatest woman of America 
said, "To-day against yesterday, to-morrow .against to-day." We 
know not what discoveries are yet to be made, but there are more and 
more coming. Having done so much we feel sure man will do yet 
more, and lead us into those seeming mysteries in the days to come. 
I know not what invention shall yet lessen human toil, but religion 
possessing all wiU make our toil glad and all struggle a joy. I know 
not what spiritual instruction is waiting to be realized, but I know it 
will come, and so do you, when all the millions shall speak with the 
same language, and the loud clamor of the many tongues of Babel 
shall here be harmonized by a spiritual, commanding pen tecost into 
that religion that shall be forever and forever. 






BOOKS AND PERIODICALS. 

With British and Braves. Story of the War of 1812. Bv L K Parks 
Cloth, pp. 301, .5 by 7i., $1.00. Cincinnati: Curts & Jennings 

^''f.o^Tr'' °'' Finance. By A. H. Craig, Mukwonago, Wis Paper dd 
142, 41 by 6? in., 25 cents. Milwaukee: Financial Reform cTub '^^' 

""TmTbv n -^^ r^""'"' ''"' '"^ •'*^^'^"^"- ^^ I^-^y ^-kin. Cloth, 
pp. 204, .,i by :f in., Cincinnati: Specialty Publishing Company. 

Hymnal-Amore Dei. Compiled by Mrs. Theodore C. Williams Revised 
edition, cloth, pp. xvi, 252, 6i by 8i in. Boston: George H EhTs 

Moral Law and Civil Law: Parts of the Same Thing By Eli P Ritt.. 
Cloth, pp. 212, 5} by 71 in., 90 cents. New York: Eaton & Mains 

^^P^r'^pp''3TT.r«?r 1 J'^^" "l" '^""^^^^- «y *>— Stewart. 
i-aper, pp. 32, 4f by 6| m., 15 cents. Swarthmore, Pa.: R. S Dare 

Spelling Reform, Its Purpose and ProeresR wui, iu * .■ 

spelling. By John M. Mott. cl2ZLlm^TT'^'"\^^^^''''^''^ 
cago: Schnable & Harnish. ^^' ' ^^' ^ ^^ ^ ^°-' ^^'^- Chi- 



July, '99.] 



BOOKS AND PERIODICALS. 



461 



Seed Dispersal. By W. J. Beal. M. S., Ph. D., Professor of Botany and 
Forestry in Michigan Agricultural College. Cloth, illustrated, pp. 87, o| by 
li in. Boston: Ginn & Co. 

Year Book and Quarterly Review for 1899. A Cyclopedia of Statistics and 
History. By the Omaha World- Herald. Paper, pp. «00, 53 by 84 in., 25 cents. 
Omaha: The World Publishing Company. 

The Story op a Play. A novel by W. D. Howells, author of "The Landlord 
at Lion's Head," "An Open-Eyed Conspiracy," etc. Cloth, pp. 312, 5^ by 
74 in., $1..50. New York and London: Harper & Brothers. 

Women and Economics. A study of the economic relation between men and 
women as a factor in social evolution. By Charlotte Perkins Stetson. Cloth, 
. pp. vii, 340, 5 by 8 in., $1.50. Boston: Small, Maynard & Co. 

Swine Book. Much Old and More New Hog Knowledge, Arranged in Alter-, 
nate Streaks of Fat and Lean. By Jacob Biggie. Cloth, illustrated, pp. 
144. 4 by 54 in., 50 cents. Philadelphia: Wilmer Atkinson Company. 

Vibration the Law of Life. A system of vital gymnastics with practical 
exercises in harmonic breathing and movement. By W. H. Williams. 
Cloth, pp. 176, «i by 9 in., $1.25. Boston: The Temple Publishing Company. 

The Metric System of Weights and Measures. Issued by the Hartford Steam 
Boiler Inspection and Insurance Company. Leather, pp. 19t), 4 by 6 in., 
$1.25. Hartford: Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection and Insurance Com- 
pany. 

Universalist IIegister: Giving Statistics of the Universalist Church and 
Other Denominational Information, etc., for 1699. Edited by Richard Eddy, 
D. D. Paper, pp. 122, 4» by 74 in., 20 cents. Boston: Universalist Publish- 
ing House. 

The Children of The Future. By Nora Archibald Smith, joint author with 
Kate Douglas Wiggin of "The Republic of Childhood,'" "The Story Hour" 
and "Children's Rights." Cloth, pp. 166,44 by 7 in., $1.00. Boston: Hough- 
ton, Mifflin & Co. 

Christ in the Daily Meal: or the Ordinance of the Breaking of Bread. 
By Norman Fox, D. D.. late professor of Church Uistory in School of The- 
ology, William Jewell College, Missouri. Cloth, pp. 138, ^ by 7 in., 50 
cents. New York: Fords, Howard & Hulbert. 

Cuba: Its Resources and Opportunities. Valuable Information for Investi- 
gators, etc. By Pulaski F. Hyatt, U. S. Consul, Santiago de Cuba, and 
• John T. Hyatt, U. S. Vice-Consul, Santiago de Cuba. Paper, pp. 211, 5 by 
71 in., 50 cents. New YorkfJ. S. Ogilvie Publishing Company. 

Voices of Hope, and Other Messages From the Hills. A series of essays on 
the Problem of Life, Optimism and the Christ. By Horatio W. Dresser, 
author of "The Power of Silence," "The Perfect Whole," "In Search of a 
Soul." Cloth, pp. 213, 53 by 8 in., $1.50. Boston: George H. Ellis. 

Geography by the Brace System, or How to study Geography. Prepared for 
the use of Teacher and Pupils. By County Superintendent John M. Boyer 
and John F. Wicks. North America: cloth, pp. 365, 5i by 7^ in., 75 cents. 
South America and Europe, pp. 155, uniform with North America, 75 cents. 
Chicago: A. Flanagan. 



462 THE INDUSTRIALIST. [July, '99 

Introductory Bookkeeping. A Text-book on Accounting, for Public 
SchoolB, Academies, Normal Schools and Teachers' Institutes. By William 
C. Stevenson, Department of Bookkeeping and Penmanship, Kansas State 
Normal School. Cloth, pp., 147, 7 J by 101 in. Topeka: J. S. Parks. 

Laboratory Directions for Beginners in Bacteriology. By Veranus A. 
Moore, B. S., M. D., Professor of Comparative Pathology and Bacteri- 
ology and of Meat Inspection, N. Y. State Veterinary College, Cornell 
University. Paper, pp. 89, 5^ by 7? in., 75 cents. Ithaca, N. Y.: Author. 

The Imperial Republic. By .James C. Fernald, author of "The Spaniard in 
History," "The New Womanhood," "English Synonyms, Antonyms and 
Prepositions." etc.; Editor of the "Student's Standard Dictionary:" Asso- 
ciate Editor of the "Columbian Cyclopedia." Cloth, five maps, pp. 192, 5k 
by 71 in., 7.'>' cents. New York: Funk & Wagnalls Company. 

Between C^sar and Jesus. A course of eight Monday-noon lectures given 
in Willard Hall, Chicago, for the Christian Citizenship League, upon the sub- 
ject of the relation of the Christian conscience to the existing social system, 
beginning Oct. 24 and closing Dec. 12, 1898. By George D. Herron. Cloth, 
pp. 278, 4* by 6f in., 75 cents. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell & Co. 

Hygiene and Sanitation. By Seneca Egbert, A. M., M. D., Professor of 
Hygiene and Dean of the Medico-Chirurgical College of Philadelphia; Pro- 
fessor of Anatomy, Physiology, and Hygiene in Temple College; Member 
of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, etc. Cloth, illustrated, 
pp. 3H8, 5i by 75 in., $2.25. Philadelphia and New York: Lea Brother & Co. 

Modern Switchboards and the Appliances used thereon; together with an 
historical remmw of early practises and expedients, indicating the advance 
recently made in the class of electrical apparatus, and data on approved 
methods of construction. By Albert B. Herrick. Cloth, illustrated, pp. 222, 
9i by 11 in., $3.00. Philadelphia: Cutter Electrical and Manufacturing Co. 

Phonics and Reading. For the use of Teachers and of Students in Normal 
and High Schools. By C. C. VanLiew, Ph. D., Supervisor of Training 
Department, Illinois State Normal University, and Amelia P. Lucas, Teacher 
of Reading and Gymnastics, Illinois State Normal University. Cloth, pp. 
53, 4* by 7^ in., .% cents. Bloomington, 111.: Public School Publishing 
Company. 

The Growth op Democracy in the United States or, The Evolution of Popu- 
lar Cooperation in Government and Its Results. By Frederic A. Cleveland, 
Fellow of Political Science in the University of Chicago, Member of the 
Washington Bar, Author of "Annotations to the Law of the State of Wash- 
ington." Cloth, pp. xvii, .527, 5f by 8 in., $1.50. Chicago: The Quadrangle 

The American Sugar Industry. A practical manual on the production of 
sugar beets and sugar cane, and on the manufacture of .sugar therefrom. 
Prefaced by a treatise on the economic aspects of the whole sugar question 
and Its bearings upon American agriculture, manufactures, labor and capi- 
tal. By Herbert Myrick, author of "Sugar, a New and Profitable Industry." 
Leaf Tobacco," "The Hop," "How to Cooperate," Editor American Ag- 
riculturist, Orange Judd Farmer, The New England Homestead, Farm and 
Home, Treasurer American Sugar-Growers' Societv, etc. Cloth, pp 232 
7i by 10 in., $1..50. New York: Orange .Judd Company. . 



Ik 



July, '99.] 



BOOKS AND PERIODICALS. 



463 



New Roads and Road Laws in the United States. By Roy Stone, Vice- 
President National League for Good Roads, and U. S. Special Agent and 
Engineer for Road Inquiry, Department of Agriculture. Cloth, illustrated, 
pp. vii, lti6, 5i by 7i in., $L00. New York: D. Van Nostrand Company. 

Municipal Monopolies. A collection of papers by Professors Parsons and 
Bemis, late of this College, Prof. John R. Commons, late of Syracuse [Tni- 
versity, Prof. P. A. C. Perrine, of Leland Stanford University, and Dr. Max 
West, of the Agricultural Department at Washington, D. C, edited by Ed- 
ward W. Bemis. Cloth, pp. 691, $2. Boston: T. Y. Crowell & Co. 
The recent dismissal of the above-named college professors favorable to 
municipal ownership, altho their work as teachers was most highly commended, 
will increase interest in the following extracts from press reviews representing 
all shades of political faith. They are entirely typical of several hundred such 
reviews, not five per cent of which have been unfriendly to the writings of the 
men who have just been repudiated by the republican regents of our College 
and by the Methodist University at Syracuse, the president of whose board of 
trustees is vice-president of the Standard Oil Company. The tribute to the 
fairness of the work of these men is especially striking. 

Altogether from ilrst to last this is a thouRht-compellinK volume.— Boaf on ./oiirnal. April 

•M. ISDft. 

An exceedingly valuable and timely contrlbutioTi. . . . The book should be read by every 
Intelligent citizen.— Mnincipal Affairs. March. iH9it. 

Each arUcle is handled from a statistical point of view and without dogmatic utterance. 
To students of the municipal problem the work must have great interest and value. ( hir.ago 
Record. April TJ. inm. 

Probably no more timely work has appeared in this generation. The facts and statistics 
gathered iii these 700 pages are those which thousands are inquiring for. They are exact, 
official, and unimpeachable.— .Ve/c York Worhl. April t. WW. 

A book containing a remarkable amount of well-digested, practical information. • . • . • J* 
succeeds remarkably well in its purpose to be accurate in the statement of facts and fair m tne 
presentation of conclusions.— //cctV*/' of Reriewx. .hine. imi. 

We cannot too strongly urge upon our readers to obtain and study this book. . . .It 
should be at least in the library of every engineers club, in every pubhc library, and in the 
library of every public official.— Engineering Neirx, Neir York. May 4. Ikhu. 

The investigations and writings of Professor Bemis on municipal economics have made him 
famous and anything he m^y say on the.se subjects or which may be pubhshed with the sanction 
of his name is sure to attract attention -P/iilw/elphia Prexx. May n. imn). 

The treatment of the subject is broad and generous and a flood of light is thrown upon many 
subiects which, from the fact that sources of information have hitherto been widely separated, 
have not been understood or even approached by the citizen whose duty it is to decide upon pub- 
lic questions by his vote. — Boston Tranxcript. May Vi. ismi. 

Profes -or Bemis is an investigator in these ilelds, of recognized abihty and carefulness. He 
has testiHed before legislative committees as an expert on the .subject, and lias been indefatigable 
to his researches and collection of data. . . . Professor Bemis wntes witto^^^^ 
gives fair consideration to the opposing argument. -.sV;n«r//»«W ( .)/««•>••.) Republican. Apiil H. !)9. 

What Dr Albert Shaw's work on municipal government in Europe did for the furtherance of 
the DODular understanding of the conditions of this development abroad, the present volume 
doe.sTo'^ thL understanding of conditions in Lhis country. Indeed, it is not too much to say that 
tolpublic has awaited until now anything like a full and authentic presentation of the facts nec- 
essary to a comprehen.Mon of this problem as it concerns us in America. -Arena. June. mm. 

It ist)v aU odds the most important book on municipal matters that has appeared since Dn 
Albert Shaws- Municipal Government in Great Britain." To American students and writep 
the present volume is even m-re valuable than Dr. ShaWs masterly work, because it is mainly 
divotid to American experiments. The whole Held of municipal monopo les has been covered 
^d every pa^r has been written in a spirit of judicial fairness toward private corporations, as 
well as of warm devotion to public interests. The judicial spirit is especially to be empha- 
sized IVof Frank Parsons, of the Boston University Law School, treats of the reg- 
ulation of' the telephone, not onlvin English-speaking countries, but all oyer the continent of 
F'nrnne- -md also deals in a clear and comprehensive chapter with the le al aspects of mo- 
noDOlv The volume is well-indexed, is a perfect mine of information already crushed 
Snd sifted and ready to be coined into arguments that will be lega tender everywhere To 
writers and thinkers on municipal problems the volume is almost indispensable.-.V«//. \ork (Mt- 
look. April ir>. M!'. 

A large number of reviews not only compliment the book as a whole, but 
epeak specifically in the highest terras of the chapters by Professor Bemis, 
Professor Parsons and JProfessor Commons. 



464 THE INDUSTRIALIST. [July, '99 

BOARD OF INSTRUCTION. 
Faculty. 

Thomab Elmbh Will, A. M. (Harvard), President Comer Fifth and Pierre streets 

Professor of Economics and PhUosophy. 

Wm. H. Phipps, B S. (K. S. a. C). Secretary Juliette avenue, north of Leavenworth street 

Professor of Booltkeeping. Commercial Law and Accounts. 

HSNRY M. CoTTBHix, M. S. (Kansas State Agricultural College) College Campus 

Professor of Agriculture, Superintendent of Farm. 
Albert S. Hitchcock, M. S. (Iowa Agricultural College). CoUege HUl. 2 miles N. W. of College 

Professor of Botany 

Jdhus T. Willabd, M. S. (Kansas State Agricultural CoUege) I2I 1 Moro street 

Professor of Applied Chemistrv- 

OlORQE F. Wrida, Ph. D. (Johns Hopkins) Comer Manhattan avenue and Moro street 

Professor of Pure Chemistry. 

Edward W. BRMia, Ph. D. (Johns Hopkins) Comer Juliette avenue and Houston street 

Professor of Economic Science. ■' 

DURBN J. H. Ward, Ph. D. (Leipsic) .830 Houston street, comer Eighth 

„ Professor of Fjiglish Language and Literature. 

ARNOLD Emoh. Ph. D. (University of Kansas) Comer Fourth and Moro streets 

Professor of Graphic Mathematics. « 

Prank Parsons, B. C. E. (Comell University) Comer Fifth and Pierre streets 

Professor of History and Political Science. 

Professor of Horticulture and Entomology, Superintendent of Orchards and Gardens 
MissMiNNiB A Stonbr (Boston N. S. of H. A.), B. S. (S. D. A. C.) M. E. Parsonage, Poyntz ave 
T^„ T» Professor of Household Economics, Dean of Domestic Science Department. ' 

JOHN D. Walters, M. S. (Kansas State Agricultural CoUege) North end of Sixth street 

«»__», ^ ^ Professor of Industrial Art and Designing. 

Miss Mary F Winston, Ph. D. (Goettlngen) ,2n Moro street 

Professor of Mathematics. 
J06BPH D. Harper, M. S (Rose Polytechnic Institute) ...Houston St., between Fifth and Juliette 
Professor of Mechanics and Engineering, Superintendent of Workshops. 

AT„....»,r.»„ D u ,, Professor of MUItary Science and Tactics. j 

ALEXANDER B. BROWN, (Boston Music^School). A. M. (Olivet) Comer JuUette avenue and 

PBBDRic AUGUSTUS Mbtcalf, O. M (lSne«on cJuege Of Oratory) Comer^Poyntz aven^ue' 

ERN^T K. NiCHO,^. D. B. (Iowa l^^^^B. S.,""!*^ ^University of Iowa). . . 5 Wouifo'n' Tetl 
„ „ „ Professor of Physics. 

CHARLIE S.DAVIS, (Kansas State Normal School),. . M mUe west of CoUege 

T» XI ^ . Supenntendent of Printing. 

PAUL FISCHER, B. Agr., M V. u (Ohio state University) . ..Juliette avenue and Humboldt street ' 

m» TT ,x i^rofessor of Veterinary Scence and BioloKv 

Miss HARRIET Howell, (Pratt Institute) Superintendent of Sewing Moro street near Tenth 

M w J^^iiBPH^NTc' Hahpk« ^'n^rl ^^^'^.'^l^ ^tructor m Engllir°^PoySvlnue"con SevlSt'S 

Assistants and Foremen. 

WlUiam L. House. Foreman of Carpenter Shoo r>«™«. ci ♦v, ., ^ , ^ 

Mr^Ma'ry L^'HansoL^Superint^endett o^DinSg^ ^^X^'"" "-^^ S^^'^^^ «*'^«t« 

Charlotte J. Short, M. S.(K. S A C ) Ass^ iL Hoi^ehold' Ppnn„m.„« ' t^^ Science Building 

S. N. Chaffee, B. S. (K. S. A. a rffilpal of Prenaratorv n^^t"^ *^''^''' ^""f""^ ''^^ ^^""^^ «'^'-«ei 
Olive Lom?, B. 8. (K.S. A.C.) Clerk of Postofflo^^^ ^P>S' Morostreet, bet. 8th and 9th 
J. D. Rlckmand.T.U.). Foreman of PrSg Office ^Cor^Temhal^^'T'"'"*'^ ^•'»«^ 

Chas. W. Pape. M. S. (K^. S. A. C.Kkss^T'reVicll^crand^o^l^gT.''!^.*"'"^^ 

Assistants In Experiment Station. 

?"^-.9*^' ^- ^- (Kansas State Agricultural CoUcKe) Dairvinir q,., t, 

J. G. Haney, Feeding and Field Work rn;,Jir ^1^1" :: ^'"^ Houston street 

G. L. Clothier, M. S. (Kansas StaTe Agricultural CoUege Knv"^'' avenue and Kearney street 
P. J. Parrott. A. M. (Kansas State UnlvereltvrFntnm^rn;,^ ^th'::'^""'^^ *"^ Leavenworth 
W. L. HaU, M. S. (K. 8. A. C ),HorticuitJ?e ^^.nW/.'j"®"® *'*• *°^ Fremont street 

/, xiurm.uiiure Manhattan avenue and Fremont street 

OTHER OFFICERS. 

Eugene Emrick, Janitor.. '' -^^^s'^"' Secretary ...Comer Fourth and Laramie 

Jacob Lund, M. S. (K. 8. A. C.) Eiiirinepr Leavenworth street, near ISghth 

* South gate of CoUege 



THE INDUSTRIALIST. 

Published ten times per year by the Printing 
Department. 

KANSAS STATE 
AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE. 

rianhattan, Kansas. 
O O O 
FRics. Thos. E. Will. Manaifing Editor. 
Prof. John D. WAr.xERs. Local Editor. 



BOARD OF REGENTS. 



Hon. E. T. Fairchild, President. . . . Ellsworth 
Hon. J. S. McDowell, Vice-President, 

Smith Center 

Hon. W. T. Yok, Treasurer Independence 

Hon. Wm. Hdntbr, Loan Commr, Blue Rapids 

Hon. Mrs. Sdsan J. St. John Olathe 

HqN..CARL Vrooman Parsona 

Hon. J. M. Sattkrthwaitb Douglass 

Prbh. Thos. E. WiLr., Secretary, ex-officio. 



REGENTS ON THE COLLEGE CHANGES. 

yV S the culmination of the movement beginning with the suspen- 
-^»- sion of the two college regents, the following resolution was 
offered in board meeting, Saturday afternoon, June 10: 

Resolved^ That the interest of the Kansas State Agricultural CoUeg^e requires 
that the services of the followinoc named officers and professors of this College 
be dispensed with after June '^0. 1899: l^resident Will. Professor Bemis, Profes- 
sor Ward, Professor Parsons, and Secretary Phipps. 

Regent Vrooman said: ^'I adies and gentlemen — I rise to oppose the 
passage of this resolution and to protest against action of this char- 
acter. I believe the effect will be mischievous. At our last meeting 
a resolution was introduced, rescinding the engagement made with 
Mr. Wm. J. Bryan to deliver the commencement address in this 
city. I told the board at that time that the passage of the resolution 
would be a mistake; that they would receive much more censure for 
partisan action if they withdrew that invitation than if they let the 
action of the other board stand, since it had been taken and the 
matter presumably was settled. But this board became responsible. 
Events have showed that I was wonderfully correct. The board has 
been roasted by the press all over the country. The republican 
press has censured the members. The republican party has re- 
pudiated that action as far as possible. It is ashamed of what was 

done. 

" But the mistake made at that time in canceling the Bryan engage- 
ment was nothing in comparison with the mistake now about to be 
made. If these professors are dismissed on the slight ground here 
shown, nothing will persuade the people of the country that this is 
not a political movement. The word will go abroad that this institu- 
tion has been prostituted for political ends. Were there mitigating 
circumstances it might be possible to convince at least the republican 
party that this action is for nonpolitical motives. But I do not 

(465) 



466 



THE INDUSTRIALIST. 



[July, '99 



believe any editor can convince his rieaders now that this is non- 
political. Take for instance Doctor Ward, He has degrees from 
three universities. When I was a stndent at Harvard I came under 
his influence, tho he was not ray teacher. I revered that man, and 
my brother, who was under him in classes, told me what an inspira- 
tion and help he was to him. Now think that this man, teaching a 
subject not political, that does not involve political subjects, should 
have a lot of little preachers howling at his heels to say his religious 
views are not correct. I am greatly surprised at the removal of 
Doctor Ward. I had expected some such action with regard to the 
other professors. We have differed frankly and freely on economic 
questions and in regard to economic instruction. I came here ex- 
pecting to make a fight and be downed, but I did not expect to see 
Doctor Ward thrown out. 

"I want to make this point. There will be no possibihty of ex- 
plaining this thing any other way than that this educational institu- 
tion has been dragged down into partisan politics. Two years from 
now I expect a change of majority. I may be wrong, but my ex- 
pectation is that two years hence I will be with the party that will 
be in power. No matter what action you may take to day, if 1 am 
on the board of regents then you may count on my standing up and 
making a fight against any partisan action on the part of the board 
of regents, but I tell you frankly that if you take this action at this 
time I expect at that time to be overwhelmed. It will be impossible 
to stay the tide of indignation, and in their rush of feeUng the people 
will do things then which you and I must deprecate. This work to- 
day will be the starting point of things which I think will be wholly 
vicious. I shall fight against them, but I have no idea that if this 
motion carries the people's party will show the same forbearance 
they did in the past. You know that under Governor Le welling and 
again under Governor Leedy we could have taken possession of the 
three state educational institutions. We could have kicked out 
every republican and put in popuhsts, but we did not; and when we 
reorganized this institution we hired more republicans than populists. 
We hired two professors in economics who did not believe in the 
cardinal doctrine of our party. If this resolution passes I believe, in 
1901, if the people's party comes into power, there is very serious 
danger that they will reorganize every educational institution in 
this state in a way which every friend of nonpartisan education must 
deprecate. " 



im. 



July, '99.] 



REGENTS ON THE CHANGES, 



467 



After Mr. Vrooman, Mrs. St. John addressed the board and saidj 
"I cannot see why President Will should be removed. His work 
here has surely been of benefit to the scholars, and not only that, but 
you all must acknowledge his executive ability has been excellent. 
It has been just as good as you will find in any one else- You hold 
the power in your hands to guard and guide everything that has 
been done here. What you want is some one to execute what you 
propose. Professor Will has shown his capability of doing that I 
do not see why he should be deposed, even if these profes- 
sors should be deposed. If they have been teaching things you 
do not desire to have taught, these things are in the course of 
study. Eliminate them from the course of study and then there 
will be no need to remove the professors^ but even if they should 
be removed there is no need to depose President Will when we 
have the power in our hands to say what he shall and shall not do. 
The old board put a great deal of power into his hands. This board 
can hold all the power from him to do any damage in the College or 
to promulgate any peculiar views. It is in your power to take that 
precaution and not make this removal at all. You all know that this 
institution has made great progress in every way in which an execu- 
tive could control it. We have larger appropriations; we have no 
misapplied funds. Now that you have it in your power to order 
everything else, I do not see why you cannot keep the roan at the 
helm who you know is capable of doing these things. Therefore I 
am opposed to the changes because you have it in your power to do 
these things; you have it in your power to take these precautions 
and then it will not be a partisan measure; but it does look like 
a partisan measure to take off the heads of these members, when 
you have control and can do just what you please even should they 

remain." 

The question was put and the resolution carried. 





4 ^^ [July, '99 

b 

^ ABSTRACT FROM PROCEBDINQS OF BOARD OF REQENTS. 

J June 6-13, 1899. 

"DOARD met, Tuesday, 9:30 a. m.; all present but Regent Pair- 
J-' child, who was occupied with institute work in Manhattan 
during most forenoons of the board session. 

The auditing committee presented its report. 

The question of student uniforms was presented by the secretary, 
but no action was taken. 

Students presented the following petition : 

Whereas, We have evidence that material changes in the plan of manage- 
ment of this institution are being contemplated, and ^ 
» "r^^'^^u^"*''' changes are of vital interest to the students: therefore be it 
Besolved That we the undersigned request: (1) that the courses ofstudv 
remain substantial v as thev arp- I9\ thatfK^„ • . ^ ^uuises 01 scuay 
raised- n\ th«t Iw k ' • ' ^ requirements for entrance be not 
raised (.3) that here be no sweeping changes made in the faculty; (4) that the 
bookstore and dining hall be retained. ".v- W mat tne 

Buildings committee reported in favor of employment of J C 
Hdland, of Topeka, as architect and superintendent of construction 
of dairy building, to be paid 3^ per cent of cost. Regent Vrooman 
protested against employment of any one until his plans had been 
presented and found satisfactory. 

A student committee presented the following petition regarding 
the oratorical work : ^ 

ani'ATs?!^ cVwi'.'.r';'™'"' "" '""' ^" '"'^"^ '""^ department of Oratory 
ana t-nj sical Culture at the Kansas State Agricultural Cn]Ucr^ ,-« fv. k i 

OraJ, and t^ysilTouH^ " ""' "^^ '=""'— -'<> depa-tman. of 

.. *rir»Sturn'iir*e pr ixr rt-' ^°* "-■ "^•"•"•^ --'' 

we believe that no perBon who ha, been ,n ^^ I" "^f^ ."'"" °<'"'"0°<1»W^. ^-d 
thin, but word, o, T,,.^i^otZ ^VT^Zlt T' "•"" "'" '^'^ '"'■ 

than an;„ne else wlSn he c„m„,"r o'n „' "' T'' f "' ^'P"'"""' 
of Regents to give due oon,iLr,,i°°T i, !u ^ '^ °' '""'•" »""' "»' B"""^ 
to his department. '=°°'"*'" '""'" "<> »" *« he may have to offer in regard 

Board declined an oiler of «700 for land in Dickinson county 
, coInTir^ ^ "' ^^"^ ""'''"""''""' "- ™'--» '-> •'""lings 



July, '99.] 



BOARD PROCEEDINGS. 



469 



. The question of Doctor Lyman's bill for treating- Mr. Mitchell 
was called up from committee. Regent Vrooman moved that it be 
paid. It was, however, referred to the same committee. Later it 
was again called up. The committee made no recommendation. An 
opinion from Attorney General Godard was read to the effect that he 
was unable to state whether or not the bill should be paid. Regent 
McDowell moved that the bill be rejected. Secretary Will recom- 
mended that it be allowed, and the board so voted. 

The farmers' institute fund was made immediately available. 
Degrees of Master of Science and Bachelor of Science were 
voted as published in commencement program. 

Professor Harper's plans for additions to the mechanical building 
were accepted. Professor Harper was instructed to receive bids, 
to purchase machinery and other equipment for mechanical depart- 
ment, and boilers for boiler house, subject to approval of president 
of board Notice was issued to contractors and builders that until 
12-00 M July 10, sealed proposals would be received at the College 
for famishing material and erecting extension to shops and boiler 
house, contractor being required to file satisfactory bond. 
The following resolution was passed: 

Resolved That the interest of the Kansas State Ajjricultural College requires 
thafXe erv ce' of the following named officers and professors of this college 
it dispensed wuh after June 30, 1899: President Will, Professor Bemis, Pro- 
fessor Ward, Professor Parsons, Secretary Phipps. . 

The vote stood as follows: ayes-Fairchild, Yoe, McDowell, Sat- 
terthwaite, Hunter; noes-St. John, Vrooman. 

ThlDai^y barn was located on the plot north of the armory build- 

'T:.ilTl^^:^^^^^^^^ -re authorized to pre,..e plans 
for a sanitary barn for eighty cows, said plans to be foi— I tc> the 
president of board, that bids for construction ^^^ ^^^^f^^.^^^^^^^^ 

The size and circulation of the commencement numbei of Ihe 
Industrialist was limited to the amount of paper on hand. 

Regent Vrooma^ offered the following resolution. Regent St. John 

seconding the same: • i . ^f fh« 

nesolvea, That the board of regents tender the I-^^^ion "f ^ the 

State Agricultural College to Ex-Pi-esident Geo. T. FauolnUl. of ^^ 

On motion of Regent Satterthwaite the reso utu^n was referied to 
the committee on faculty, Pres. E. T Fairchild, ^^^™^^^ 

Questions pertaining to course of study were left to Regent 1< air 
child and faculty committee on same. 

Dining hall department reported a balance on hand of |Jy._4, not 



470 THE INDUSTRIALIST. [July, '99 

including Mrs. Hanson's salary. It was voted that the above consti- 
tute her total cash salary for the period beginning with the reopen- 
ing of the dining hall and ending June 8. 

On motion of Regent McDowell, the following resolution passed: 

Whereas, The minutes of the board of regents, of the meeting held January 
2-7, 1899, show that the then president of the said board of regents, J. N. Lim- 
bocker, was authorized to enter into contract with the following-named members 
of the faculty: namely. President Will, Professor Bemis, Professor Parsons, 
Professor Metcalf, Professor Ward, Professor Walters, Miss Helen J. Wescott 
(librarian). Miss Harriet Howell (superintendent of sewing), Professor Winston, 
Professor Cottrell, Professor Emch, Professor Harper, Professor Fischer and 
Professor Weida; and further that said contracts were to run until June 30 
1901; and 

Whereas, The secretary of this board. President Will, now informs us that 
there is no official record of any such contracts having been entered into between 
any of the parties aforesaid and J. N. Limbocker, excepting in the case of 
President Will, who orally states that he has entered into such contract, 

Resolved, That the above statement be made a part of the minutes of this 
session. 

The following persons were reelected to their present positions 
in the faculty for one year from July 1: Pj'ofessors Cottrell, Hitch- 
cock, Willard, Weida, Stoner, Walters, Winston, Harper, Browh, 
Nichols, Fischer, Miss Rupp, Miss Harper. Professor E. A. Pop- 
enoe was elected professor of horticulture and entomology. Fore- 
man J. D. Rickman was elected to succeed Supt. C. S. Davis of the 
Printing department. A department of Domestic Art was created 
and Miss Harriet Howell was elected to the same. Messrs. House, 
R. W. Clothier, Kellogg, Harrold, Mitchell, R. H. Brown, Otis, and 
Lund were reelected to their present positions, as were Misses Hel- 
der and Long. Mr. J. M. Westgate was elected to succeed Mr. 
George L. Clothier as botanical assistant in Experiment Station. 
Miss Florence Corbett was made assistant in domestic science; Miss 
May Secrest, assistant in domestic art; Miss Lorena E. Clemens, 
secretary; Mr. Wm. Anderson, mathematical assistant on half time'; 
Mr. F. H. Leighton, assistant in dairying; Mr. H. Van Leeuwen, 
assistant in cheesemaking; Dr. Septimus Sisson, assistant veterin- 
arian and associate profes'sor of veterinary science; Miss Josephine 
Berry, librarian; Misses Gertrude Barnes and Margaret Minis 
assistant librarians. ' 

The question of continuing the departments of Graphics and 
Oratory was deferred until the July meeting. 

On motion, Prof. E. R. Nichols was elected acting president of the 
College after June 30, 1899. 

Board adjourned until 3:00 p.m., July 10, subject to caU of the 
president. 



A 



iRk 



im 



1^ 



July, '99.] 



471 



*•«!. 



X. 



THE ISSUE. 

BY THOS. E. WILL. 

IN the Douglass Tribune for June 16, Regent Satterthwaite dis- 
cusses the recent changes in the faculty of this College, pre- 
paratory to marked 'changes in the policy of the institution. He 
discusses the subject in a kindly spirit, shows that the board 
had no charges against the professors removed, concedes that these 
men were exceptionally strong, but insists that the institution was 
tending away from agriculture and mechanic arts toward economic 
and poMtical science, and holds that this tendency must be counter- 
acted. Of the^efficiencyof the present administration for the ob- 
jects sought, he says: 

When the former board of regents had promoted Professor Will from the 
chair of economics to the presidency of the institution he had surrounded him- 
self with a corps of able instructors whose ideas were like his and whose minds 
were in like channels. We must give to President Will the credit of makinjf 
excellent selections, and for perfecting a splendid organization for the purpose 
which seemed uppermost in his mind, viz: Making the Kansas State Agricul- 
tural College first a school of political economy after the ideas of his own 
heart, and then a school of agricultural and mechanical science. 

The new board -were confronted by "the duty of restoring the 
College to the purposes for which it was originally established, and 
for which it is at'great expense maintained," and conducting it — 

on agricultural and mechanical lines and not upon political lines. . . . 
Some, if not all, of the men removed were scholars in a high sense, and gentle- 
men of pleasant address and presentation. ... In lopping off this most 
prominent political and economic feature, that more prominence might be 
given to practical and to agricultural education, of course it was necessary to 
remove the strongest men in political science and economics. . . . The 
removals were made, that the College might be restored to practical, industrial 
lines, from political and theoretical grooves. 

That perfunctory teaching of old-school economics and civics 
would have been molested many will doubt, especially those familiar 
with the statements made by the regents to the dismissed professors. 
But, making all allowance for the influence of divergent economic 
views and party bias, it jis evident from the regent's statement that 
the deeper issue is, Shall or shall not the student be educated for 
intelligent citizenship? The board, he says— 

did not get near the question of partisan politics before they were met in 
the road by the duty of restoring the College to the purposes for which it was 
originally established. . . . It would have mattered not if the political and 



472 THE INDUSTRIALIST. [July, '9& 

economic theories had been in perfect accord with the ideas of the new board of 
regents — their duties would have been the same. The powers that created and 
maintained the College have a right to demand and do demand that the insti- 
tution be conducted on agricultural and mechanical lines and tiot upon politi- 
cal lines, no matter what the political brand or kind. . . . Two of the men 
removed are "gold standard'' men— thi'ee of them at least do not advocate the 
free coinage of silver at 16 to 1 as the best financial policy. 

These admissions help to clear the air, A distinct advance will 
have been made in the Agricultural College controversy, now two 
years old, when it is recognized that the populist board did not 
remove professors because they were republicans but because they 
were nonprogressive in their several lines of work, and that the 
republican board did not remove professors primarily because they 
were called populists, but because they taught economics and civics, 
taught in a thought-compelling way, and stood for the enlightenmen . 
of the people on all aspects of the great economic, social and political 
issues of the day, hewing to the line wherever the chips might fall. 
The populist board favored sr:ch enlightenment by competent men, 
whether these men held or rejected the views of the board. They 
boldly declared for absolute freedom of science, whatever might be 
the result, and admittedly maintained sucb freedom thruout the two 
years of their administration. The republican board, by their own 
admission, oppose, save in meager measure, economic and sociological 
studies by whomsoever conducted, at least in a college supported by 
the people and devoted to the education of the producing classes;, 
and the fact that such instruction is given by teachers thoroly pre- 
pared from every standpoint, and conceded to be as fair as mortal 
men can be, makes no difference. 

Additional light is shed on the question of opposition to civic in- 
telhgence by a letter brought me in hot haste by special delivery as 
I write. It is from the state superintendent of public instruction, 
who urges me to cut from my set of civics questions, prepared for 
teachers of Kansas youth, a question on the initiative and referendum, 
and reminds me of the action of three months since whereby my 
repubUcan colleagues on the state board of education required me to 
suppress a question calhng for the pros and cons of proportional rep- 
resentation. 

That the new board, in assuming the institution to be tending 
away from agriculture, mechanic arts, and related sciences, was 
wholly in error, the writer had already demonstrated in an article on 
the "Tendencies of the K. S. A. C, " pubUshed in the May number of 




July, '99.] 



THE ISSUE. 



473 



The Industrialist. The contention of that article stands absolutely 
unshaken. That the College in the past two years has made unprec- 
edented progress along the special lines marked out for it in the 
federal laws of 1862 and 1890 may be assumed to be conceded even by 
critics of the teaching of economic science, while the corrobora- 
"tive testimony of the agricultural press is unmistakable and over- 
whelming. 

The writer's idea of the true function of a land-grant college is 
well known. He has expressed it at length in his biennial report, 
and in his many educational articles and addresses, several of which 
have appeared in The Industrialist, and have thus been made 
available to the people of Kansas. In a word, he believes that such 
a college can help the agricultural and industrial classes out of the 
wilderness ; and that it should do this, first, by making them efficient 
producers, that general wealth may be increased and the services of 
these individual producers brought into demand ; and, second, by 
making them intelligent citizens, that they may protect themselves 
against monopolies and trusts and political bosses and whatever 
other forces and agencies tend to hold them in a condition of semi- 
serfdom. 

The board believes in seeking the first of these ends and in ignor- 
ing the second. They would teach students to produce, but would 
not empower them to share. They would make of them workers, 
but not intelligent citizens. 

Here, then, we frankly, admittedly, and radically diiTer. Emer- 
son advises each to plant his feet on the rock of eternal principle 
and stay there, assuring him that in time the whole world will 
come around to him. The writer, for one, is willing to wait and see 
whether the world comes around to his position or sustains that of 
the board. Time will decide whether it is best that the producing 
classes shall be taught simply to produce, regardless of what be- 
comes of the product and the producer, or taught to perform skil- 
fully and nobly their parts both as efficient toilers in the world's 
harvest field and as strong, intelligent, roundly developed, open- 
eyed men and women, freemen in mind, and worthy citizens of the 
great state whose history is a record of the warfare for freedom 
and of the nation whose mission it is to enlighten the world and pro- 
claim liberty thruout all the land unto all the inhabitants thereof. 

Drudges or men — which shall it be? 



? 



474 [July, '99 



ANNOUNCEMENTS FOR 1899-1900. 

'T^HE next college year will begin Wednesday, September 13, 1899, 

i- Some slight changes in the length of terms should be noted. 
The fall term will be from Wednesday, September 13, 1899, to Fri- 
day, December 15, 1899. The winter term will begin Wednesday, 
January 3, 1900, and close Friday, March 24, 190O. The spring term 
will begin Tuesday, March 27, 1900, and close with commencement 
day, Friday, June 14, 1900. The length of terms in weeks will be 13, 
12 and 11, respectively, instead of 14, 12 and 10 as formerly. 

Four courses of study are offered which require four years for 
completion. The courses are: Agricultural, Mechanical Engineer- 
ing, Household Economics and General Science. The work of the 
first year is the same in all courses, thus enabhng the student to get 
some idea of his tastes and powers before choosing a particular 
course. The courses are so arranged that the students are ex- 
pected to spend about 50 hours per week on study and recitations, 
including industrial work. A preparatory department will be main- 
tained for those who cannot make the necessary preparation at home. 
This will give opportunity also for those to make up partial defi- 
ciencies while taking some of the regular college studies. 

There will be introduced the coming college year some short 
courses designed primarily for those persons, young or old, who 
have neither time nor means to take the four years' course, and yet 
who can spend a hmited time here to their own advantage. 

The short course in household economics will consist of two terms 
of 12 weeks each, to be given during the fall terms of the regular 
college work. The first term will commence Tuesday, September 
19, 1899. The following subjects will be taught principally by 
lectures : 

Lectures and laboratory practise in cooking, 15 hours per week. 
Home sanitation and household accounts, 1 hour per week. 
Drawing, 5 hours per week. 
Sewing, 20 hours per week. 

Vegetable gardening and floriculture, 5 hours per week. 
During the second year these Hues will be extended and others 
mtroduced. 

Short courses in agriculture, horticulture and mechanics, occu- 
pymg two terms of 12 weeks each, will be offered during the winter 



July, '99.] 



ANNOUNCEMENTS. 



475 



term; also a dairy course of 12 weeks will be given at the same time. 
These courses will begin Wednesday, January 3, 1900. A further 
announcement of the specific work taken up in the above will appear 
later. There are no requirements for admission to these short 
courses. 

A few changes in the four years' course are made, to balance the 
work, in some instances, and in others to give a more logical order to 
studies. The regents and faculty, in making the course of study, 
have had in mind the principle that a general knowledge of many 
subjects is necessary to a special knowledge of a few — that the inter- 
relations of the various branches of science is such that one cannot 
become proficient in one without a considerable knowledge of all the 
related branches. While the industrial features will be retained, it 
should be borne in mind that the object of a course of study is to de- 
velop the power to think as well as to do. Correct thinking must 
precede correct doing. It is believed that each of these courses of- 
fers a good foundation for future work along its particular line, 
whether that work be in actual practise or further study. 

In the near future a full announcement of the regular courses of 
study will be made. 



Physical Geography. By William M. Davis, of Harvard University, and 
William H. Synder, of Worcester Academy. Half leather, pp. 428, nine 
plates 5i by 7^ inches. Boston: Ginn & Co. 

It is noteworthy that the recent books on physical geography are 
adopting the smaller page instead of the larger pages of similiar books 
published ten years ago. In fact, the excellence of several of these 
modern books makes Physical geography a very desirable study for 
our Kansas high schools, if the teachers will make the proper effort 
to arouse interest and scientific spirit. G. f. w. 

Elements of Trigonometry With Tables. By Herbert C. Whitaker, Ph. D. 
Cloth, pp. xvi, 182. Philadelphia: Eldrege & Brother. 

This book is an excellent treatise on the elements of trigonometry. 
According to the author, "The introduction and first five chapters 
have been prepared for the use of beginners in the subject. The 
second appendix has been added for those intending to take up work 
in higher mathematics." ^' ^' 

Farm for Sale— 110 acres; 3 miles northwest of the Kansas 
State Agricultural College; 20 acres of Apple Orchard ; Stone Barn 
for 8 horses. Stone House, 40 by 40 feet, two stories. A good place 
for a man with children to send to College. Address A. J. White, 
Manhattan, Kansas. 



476 [July, '99 



LOCAL NOTES, 

Miss Mary C. Lee, '89, took the degree of A. B., from the State 
University, at this Commencement. 

The Manhattan high school graduating exercises took place May 
25. The class consisted of 65 members. 

The Farm department's latest bulletin is entitled "Skim-Milk 
Calves. " The edition consisted of 15,000 copies. 

Mrs. Fannie Waugh Davis, '91, has been engaged to furnish 
illustrations for a new cyclopedia of horticulture. 

Miss Adelaide Short left, on Wednesday after Commencement, 
for Colorado, where she wiU make her future home. 

Miss Marie Haulenbeck, of Manhattan, has received an appoint- 
ment as teacher at the BUnd Asylum, at Kansas City, Kan. 

Prof. F. H. White, formerly of this College, has accepted a position 
m the Brooklyn, N. Y., University at a salary of $1,800 a year. 

Mr. L. R. Elliott, an old resident of the city, and for many years 
the land agent of the Agricultural College, died, May 27, at his home 
in Manhattan. 

W. E. Thackrey, '96, writes from Crestone, Colo., that he is still 
engaged in teaching, and expects to take examination as manual 
training teacher in the Indian service. 

The cold-storage department of the Armour Packing Co., of Kan- 
sas City, has asked for 500 copies of bulletin No. 84, on "Cold Storage 
for Fruit," to distribute among its patrons. 

There is an article in The Coming Nation by Elbridge Gale, on 
♦•Colomes and the Christian Church." Mr. Gale of Lake Worth, 
1< lorida, was professor of botany and horticulture in this Coliege in 
the earlv 70 's. 

Id 

The Nationalist contains a long letter from Philip Fox, '97 telling 
of the fighting before Malolos. Philip is having a hot time Hi 
sends reports of Mark Wheeler, Ned Green, and Sam Dolby, all of 
the class of '9/. "^ 

The editor of the Western Agriculturist and Live Stock Journal 
writes in regard to the mimeograph station bulletins: "We appre- 
ciate the letters, and use everything relating to live stock in the 
mock Journal. 

Miss Elizabeth M. Tunnell. daughter of Rev. R. M. Tunnell of 
Manhattan, graduated from Washburn College, Topeka, last week. 
Miss May H. Bowen, '96, also of Manhattan? graduated from the 
same institution. Miss Tunnell was a student in the Agricultural 
College two years ago. "^ v^uituiai 



July, '99.] 



LOCAL NOTES. 



477 



> 



In the Argentine Republic the bulletins of the department of 
agriculture are printed at the national penitentiary. A book has 
just been received from Buenos Ayres entitled, "Lands, Colonies, 
and Agriculture." 

Percival J. Parrott, assistant in entomology in this institution, 
was among those wlio received the master's degree this June; he 
was made master of arts by the State University, from which he 
graduated a few years ago. 

Professor Stoner intends to spend her summer vacation at Battle 
Creek, Mich., and at her mother's home at Huntertown, Ind. She 
expects also to visit Chautauqua, N. Y., and attend the session of the 
national cooking teachers' association. 

J. F. Odle, '94, writes from Madison, Wis. (434 Lorch street): 
''Neither the rigorous Wisconsin winter nor the prowling microbe 
have succeeded in lowering my vitality, but I am still on the earth, 
and want The Industrialist to continue visiting me." 

Professor Walters has presented the library with large photo- 
graphic plates of the graduating classes of 'bl, '82, '83, and "97. It 
is to be hoped that these plates will be framed and given a place on 
the walls of some public room of the College. An institution without 
a past is like a nation without a history. 

In speaking of Professor Emch's series of articles on "Link 
Motions, " pubhshed in The Industrl^list, the Otterbein University 
J^gis says: "The reader who will follow closely the mEithematics of 
the articles will find much valuable information in the proposed ap- 
plications of modern geometry to mechanics. " 

Messrs. Willard and Clothier have been busy since Commence- 
ment preparing an experiment station bulletin. It will give the 
most important results reached in their studies of soil moisture dur- 
ing the last two years and means of conserving it. The bulletin will 
be issued as number 89, and will be sent to all farmers applying. 

One of the most successful years in the history of.the College has 
iust drawn to a close. The attendance has been larger than ever 
before, the students have done excellent work, and developed a 
great deal of college spirit and enthusiasm . The degree of bachelor 
of science was conferred upon fifty-three young people, and the 
degree of master of science was conferred upon ume.—harmis City 
Journal. 

Mr Phil S Creager, '91. news editor of the Kan.sas City Journal, 
and Miss Weenonah Hall were married at the home of the bride's 
brother, Mr. Clifford F. Hall, 3530 Kenwood avenue, Kansas City, 
May 18, at 5 o'clock. Dr. Henry Hopkins officiated. Only immediate 
relatives attended. Mr. and Mrs. Creager left at once for an eastern 
trip which will include Washington, Philadelphia, New York Boston, 
Albany, Buffalo and Detroit. They will be at home, after July 1, at 
3302 Woodland avenue, Kansas City. The Industrialist wishes 
them a happy and prosperous married life. 



478 



THE INDUSTRIALIST. 



[July, '99 




There are over eighty names enrolled in the Riley county inslitute 
now in session at Manhattan. Prof. E. T. Fairchild, president of 
the board of regents, is the conductor, and Prof. E. R. Nichols, tem- 
porary president-elect of this College, is one of the instructors. 
Over two-tliirds of the attending teachers and candidates have been 
students at this College, and all report a very social and profitable 
institute. . 

The most amusing incident of the season was the senior faculty 
ball game, May 22. The seniors commenced the game, confident 
of success, but their hopes were blasted, and the faculty let them 
down by a score of 21 to 12. Tho the game was full of grand-stand 
plays. Professor Hitchcock's slide on second and Mr. True's gentle 
fall on the Professor's back were the most mirth provoking. The 
seniors played ''y^orkupr'— Students' Heiald. 

The last number of the Mathematical Monthly contains an article 
by Prof. A. Emch. "On Loxodromic Lines of the Torus"— a general- 
ization of a theorem published by him last year in the Program of 
the Polytechnic of Biel. Another article from the same prolific pen, 
containing a mathematical proposition for a novel improvement of 
the driving mechanism of the bicycle, under the title "Chain and 
tsprocket Problem," appeared in the last number of the Scientific 
American. 

Mr. S. Detweiler, of Hiawatha, writes: "I notice an article in the 
Kansas Farmer of recent date on 'Seed Breeding ' which to my mind 
IS susceptible of great possibilities. Seed selection, a matter too 
long neglected by farmers, is, I am glad to know, receiving more 
attention than formerly, but is yet in its infancy. By properly 
cleanmg and screening my seed wheat, I have raised the average on 
my farm from 8 to 10 bushels to the acre. Have been impressed for 
years that if the pollen from degenerate and unfruitful stalks could 
be prevented from fertilizing it would be a grand attainment. If 
there is any manner in which I can be of any assistance let me know. " 

The address before the Alumni association, Wednesday of com- 
mencement week, was given by John W. Shartel, '84, of Oklahoma 
City. Mr. Shartel is one of the leading lawyers of Oklahoma. His 
address was a very timely one, being a clear and logical analysis of 
the relation o the American constitution to the modern trust The 
tremendous changes that have taken place in the means of production 
and transportation could not h:;ve been anticipated by the framers 
^f^utr^K^^r/i^'^'^'u^'^^J^^^^^^^^^f^^^ lecturer, consolidated 
Sh v!;;, % f'^^' check (miy when this instrument has been 
!n It /fT ^^^^- i^"" ^''""^*'' ^^^* ^'"« ^«"ld require a strength- 

ZlA^I K .r^'l^'f P""^^^"' ^""^ ^^^ sacrifice of certain rights Sow 
retained by the states. 

Among the interesting sights of commencement week was an ex- 
periment in the chemical laboratory by Mr. A. T Kinsley of the 
graduating class The current statements concerning the effects of 
oxygen upon animal life being so various and eontfadict^ry Mr 
Kmsley took that sub ect for his graduating thesis. In successive 



July, '99.] 



LOCAL NOTES. 



479 



experiments he kept a cat, a rabbit and two chickens in a respiration 
chamber thru which a current of pure oxygen was passing. The 
time of confinement varied from 18 to 53 hours. The cat and the 
rabbit showed an increased rate of respiration at first, but otherwise 
no effect was shown. To emphasize the results, two chickens were 
kept in the chamber from Friday, June 2. to one week from that date, 
the oxyo-en giving out about two hours before the completion 
of the f ufl week. The chickens suffered no inconvenience whatever, 
arrangements being provided in the apparatus to feed and water 
them regularly. 

Prof J W. Towney, of the Division of Forestry, spent several 
days in May studying the condition of the forestry plantations at 
this College The division has added about seventy-five thousand 
trees mostly conifers, to its plantation on the college farm withm 
the last four years. Several other plantations have been maintained 
in the West, but none of them have been so successful as the one un- 
der the control of the Horticultural department at this place. Pro- 
fessor Towney says that the plan of the government for the future is 
to add no more to the plantations, but largely to increase the publi- 
cation of useful information on matters pertaining to forestry and 
tree planting. It is also planned to make this College a distributing 
point for seeds and seedlings of hardy trees. The aim of the divis- 
ion will be to encourage planting among the farmers rather than to 
make large plantations itself. This will without doubt arouse great 
interest in tree planting among the people of the central and west- 
ern part of the country. 

At a business meeting of the alumni, June 8, plans were con- 
sidered whereby the alumni might become more effective in in- 
creasing the influence of the College thru the state and also extend 
more effective help in increasing the attendance at College. A com- 
mittee was appointed to take charge of this work : four from college 
employees (J T. Willard, '83; H. M. Cottrell, 84; RS Kellogg, 96 
and W L. Hall, '98;) and five from the state at large (M^F Leasm;e, 
77 H C. Rushmore, '79; J. W. Berry, '83; F. J. Smith, '95 and T. 
M Robertson. '97). This committee has been unable as yet to meet, 
and the college members have taken the liberty to issue a circular. 
They have arranged that every graduate shall receive the college 
catalog and the bulletins of the Experiment Station. ^-S- Kellogg, 
'96, Manhattan, Kansas, has been appointed alumnus editor of the 
^^le,,^..' Fem/(Und all alumni are requested t^^ 

every three months, telling all the news about theoldK S^A^U 
students in his section. The alumni can help the College by bnng- 
Lfftswirk before the leading farmers, business men statesmen 
Lnd newspapers of the state, and by helping the College to place its 
catalogi and circulars in the hands of the teachers and schools of 
the state. 

The New York Produce Beview speaks of our press bulletins in the 
following handsome manner: "We desire in this public manner to 
commend the methods of the State Experiment Station at Kansas 
Agricultural CoUege. The gentlemen engaged in the work of mvesti- 



480 



THE INDUSTRIALIST 



[July, '99 




gation at thai station are hard workers and are evidently directing 
their energies toward a great variety of subjects of every- day 
practise on the farm and in the factory. They derive from their 
investigations a fund of information of practical value which is 
immediately scattered broadcast to the agricultural community thru 
the columns of the press. It is this method of bringing the results 
of their work to the attention of those most interested that we 
especially commend. The experiment station bulletin must, of 
course, be used to a large extent in spreading and preserving in 
record the work of these institutions, but the columns of the agri- 
cultural press afford a quicker and cheaper method of dissemination, 
and should be more largely used. Those who are most likely to 
benetit by the results of scientific investigation are generally readers 
of the agricultural journals, and the btter are always ready to give 
space to results of experimental research. The Kansas people have 
the right idea in this matter, and we respectfully suggest the same 
plan to directors of other experiment stations." 

The Charles Silly Bequest. 

The following is excerpted from the Topeka, Journaly May 22, 1899: 

Charles Silly is a Frenchman who came to Kansas in 1874, about the time 
De Boissiere founded the Silkville farm, now known as the I. O. O. F. Orphans' 
home. He owned about 240 acres of fine, well-improved land in Franklin and 
Coffey counties, valued by him at $5,000, some monev in the bank and some 
property in France. He lived a solitary life, caring for no one's society. 

April 1, 1899, he sent a neig-hbor's boy to ask F. L. Williams, manager of 
^if oMi ^® agency, Agricola, Kan., to come over, as he wished to see him. 
The Silly farms join the Williams farm on the north and west. The dwellings 
are about eighty rods apart. Silly and Williams were not intimate. 

Mr. Williams found his neighbor suffering from rheumatism, and called a 
Waverly doctor by wire. On the 5th of April, Mr. Silly went to Bethany 
hospital, Kansas City, Kansas, where he remained until cured: and then he left 
for California, where he will purchase a small home in a more suitable climate. 
^Tir-n? ^^^® ^^^ ^^^ property in America, except a buried treasure, to F. L 
Williams, in trust for worthy, white, male students to aid them in securing an 
education at the Stale Agricultural College, at Manhattan, Kansas. Mr. Sillv 
said: "It isnt much, but it will help a little, and I think the bovs will make 
better citizens if they can go to school at the Agricultural College' "' 

He knew that Mr. Williams borrowed money in 1882 to attend school and 
that he was borrowing money to aid a friend to attend the Agricultural College. 

When Mr. Williams asked the question if he. Silly, understood that Wil- 
lianas would have the power to act the rascal, he replied: "Yes, but I do not 
think you will. You have worked hard, attended to vour own business, and I 
have full confidence in you. I often see a light in your window as late as 10 or 
1^ o'clock at night when you are writing.'" 

The plan is to aid those who actually need the help and could hardly get it 
elsewhere. It is to be hoped that all- who are aided by the fund will live lives 
worthy of such help. 

Any reader of The Industru.list knowing a deserving boy who 
really needs aid and wishes to attend the Agricultural College should 
inform the trustee, Mr. F. L. Williams, of Agricola, Kansas, of the 
fact. The plan is to make the loans as small and short as possible so 
as to aid as many as can be reached. The trustee knows from ex- 
perience that a boy once placed on his feet, will take care of himself 
if he cares to do so. 



g TYLEBODK BHD pNUBL OF T YPOBRHPHY. 

Governing Composition and Proofreading, and for the use 
of Classes, in the 

Printing Departmenl of the Kansas State %icultufal College. 

PrpnarPfl nndftr authority of the Board of Regents, June 11, 



Prepared under authority 

1898, by the Superintendent of Printing-. 

i 

^resB Commente anb ^eaftmoniafB. 



"WORTH TEN TIMES ITS COST.' 
Charles S. Davis, who is superintendent of 
printing in the Kansas State A ffricultunil Col- 
lege, has published a valuable pamphlet, -btyie- 
book and Manualof Typography." for the use of 
the compositor and proofreader as well as for . 
the information of those who prepare copy for | 
the press. It will be a valuable reference | 
Vook in every school and library. No pnce is 
ndicated on the copy we have received, but 
t will be worth, to almost anyone, ten times 
what it will cost.—sc/iool ami Howe tdncatwii. 

"REMARKABLY HELPFUL.' 
Your "Stylebook and Manual of Typography '• 
is an interestinjf one. I have gone thru it and 
know that it possesses muca interest and 
merit, and that it will be remarkably he pful to 
those who expect to become practical print- 
ers -if^c/x I). SampHon. Director Spfciol Co'irxe 
in Jonrnalwn. yorthern. Indianu Xormal ( ollet/e. 

"PLEASED WITH ITS COMPACTNESS 

AND VALUE.- 
We are very much pleased with the compact- 
ness and value of your -Stylebook and Manual 
of Typography. "We think your article on type 
bodiescoversthe subject very thoroly. You are 
right in your statement that the destruction of 
Marder.Luse &Co.-sold punchesmthe Chicago 
flre of 71 was really the tii-st impetus to the 
adoption of the new system [of type bodies], 
which Marder. Luse & Co. had had ip contem- 
plation some time.-.^//^ Type Fotou/ers' Com- 
pany. Chicago. Aug. IH, 98. 

"OUGHT TO BE IN GENERAL USE." 
The work was authorized by the Board and 
was done by Charles S. Davis. suiDerintend- 
ent of printing. All who know Mr. Davis 
understand that it is well done. It is a care- 
fuUv compiled manual of twenty pages that 
gives abundant speciftc information on aU 
mltteii wHhln the scope of its title. It is cx.m- 
piled from the highest authorities on all topics 
treated, and ought to be in general use -./«//*^'. 
/■•. KaMerhiAn Eureka i mon. Aug. 11». »»• 
"WILL HELP THE COMPOSITOR." 
It is not expected that all will conform to 
every .ule but it will be found of great value 
as a book of reference, ^-reft care has-been 
taken in its preparation, and its contents if 
we 1 studied, will help the compositor and the 
proofreader as well as th9se who prepare copy 
for the press. -/(/'/A ^> Spri><0'< (''<>'"■) -^^"•''- ^^'^^ 
19, 1«99. 

•MOST COMPACT ARRANGEMENT." 
It is the most compact arrangement of useful 
knowledge for the newspaper ottice that we 
have seen answering almost any question that 
may S.-(Vr.«< Bend (Kan.) Tribune, Jyxne 
16 99 
' "A GREAT DEAL IN A FEW WORDS." 

wo^i^^s ThTo^Te i^ ^h^-^c^oX'wJjil^Yl 
iriJi^vedbyits^adoptionasaguuleinstyle 



"ONE OF THE MOST COMPLETE AND AC- 
CURATE GUIDES." 

One of the most complete and accurate guides 
to both compositor and proofreader. There are, 
of course, in this pamphlet, as in all other works 
of the kind, a few rules not acceptable to every 
one. such as those relating to compound words, 
etc.. yet one would not go far astray to follow 
it in toto. It is just such a work as should be 
found in every ottice: then, if followed, what a 
wonderful improvement would soon be seen, 
especially among our country weeklies.— /VtfM. 
A', /'ral/ier. nitli Hndnou-h'imherly Pnblimmg 
Company, h'annas City, Mo. 
"VALUABLE IN ANY PRINTING OFFICE." 

The Kansas State Agricultural College 
Printing department has just issued a "Style- 
book and Manual of Typography." It covers 
16 pages and takes up and treats thoroly the 
subjects. It is intendpa, we presume, to be 
used principaUv as a text-book in the Pnntinir 
department. The booklet will be valuable in 
any printing omce.— Junction City Union. 

"A FONT OF USEFUL INFORMATION." 

This ottice is under obligations to Charles S. 
Davis, superintendent of printing at the Snite 
Agricultural College, for a copy of the Style- 
book and Manual of Typography recently 
issued from the College Press. To a beginner 
and even to an 'old hand" the little pamphlet 
is of great value as a refresher of meniory, a 
book of reference and a font of useful informa- 
tion . Having educated several typos we have 
often felt the need of just such a Utile book to 
put into the hands of the beginner to study 
and be guided by. The price of the little book 
is 10 cents.-i(?/i'02/ Heporter. Aug. 26, 98. 
•MUCH THAT IS ADMIRABLE," 

In ordering several copies of the K. S . A. C. 
Stylebook. Henry R. Boss, for the publi.shei-s of 
the Stvlebookof the Chicago Society of Proof- 
re-aders. says: "There is much that is admir- 
able in your work. We are especially gratified 
at the stand you take on the question of spell- 
ing. In this work your book will render im- 
portant aid." 
•HAVBREFERRED TO IT MANY TIMES." 

Please pardon me for not thanlnngyou before 
for the ••Stylebook and Manual of Typography 
sent. I have referred to it many times and ex- 
npct to manvmore,-/^ //• FAxworth. with the 
^llfaruU^f^ ndrei'xity of Michigan. Feb. 16, 99, 

ESPECIALLY VALUABLE TO TYPE- 
WRITERS, 
Your Stylebook will be especially valuable 
to our I law J ottice, as it tills a place that has 
heretofore been entirely vacant,- i^, L. U!«- 
iainx. Cluy Center, han. 

"THE STANDARD OF MERIT." 
containing information that Jf adopted by 
publishers, would raise the standard 
several marks 
June n, "99. 



Valley Falh {han.) 



of merit 
Xew Fra, 



typography.-^««'»« ( A'«"^ > Light. June 15 ^^ , », ., » ^ 

REMIT 10 CENTS TO THE COLLEGE PRESS. MANHATTAN. KAN 



I^dnsas City 
^^ IWedieal College 



J. 



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ESTABLISHED 1869. 



New building, new and well-equipped labora- 
tories. Forty professors and instructors. Hos- 
pital and clinical facilities large. Bedside instruc- 
tion in medicine and surgery. Instruction em- 
inently practical. Graded course— didactic and 
recitation systems of instruction. Thirty-first 
annual session begins September 15 and continues 
six months. 



For announcement and 

OTHER INFORMATION ADDRESS FI|flHKLIH E. [IIURPHY, [11. D., 

J. D. GUIFFITH, m. D., Dean. 

KANSAS CITY, MO. 



SecrBtary. 



Evolution ^^^ ^®®° Soing on steadily 
in steel pen making. 
Those in general use are larger and 
blunter-pointed than those made fifty 
years ago. No pen manufacturer has 
made so many improvements as 



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prSTon 'LvZlt^f the best thought expressed in the current 
^'TSusEroFTS^ti'nrToL^^ interested in our new booklet 
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«chool-t>onk«. with the prices at whieli 
we accept leconct-taiid as well at Hew 
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We pay cash 

For all niarketabic school-book*, or if ' 
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4 Cooper Institnte Hev; York City 

Jfcntwn this ad. 





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The saving (»f time 
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PRICE $3 TO $5, according to style. 
F. O WO EST E M EY E R agent for 

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Ask him to show you styles and prices. 
Century Pen Co., Whitewater, Wis. 



60 YEARS' 
EXPERIENCE 




Trade Marks 
Designs 
Copyrights &c. 

Anyone sending a sketch and description may 
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sent free. Oldest ntrency for securinKpatents. 

Patents taken through Munn & Co. receive 
tpecial notice, without c harg e, in the 

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Agents Wanted— Write for infoi-mation 
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EVERGRE ENS 

ilOO, « to 8 In. $1) 18 to 18 In. $8.50. 
100, 8 rt. $10 prepaid. 100, 4 to« tt. 

" varieties, $15. 45choice Fruit trees, 20 
varieties, ^10. Ornamental & Fruit 
Trees. Catalogue and prices of 60 
great bargain lots SENT FREE. 
t3r Oood Local Ajrentu Wanted. 



mi I Evergreen 



Specialist, 



Dundee, IIL 



In writing to any advertiser you will confer a 
favor by mentioning The Industrialist. 



l^USH mEDlCAll COliliEGE 

< in affiliation cuith the Univensity of Chieago. 

THE curriculum of the school of medicine requires a proper preliminary education, and tbree 
years of study in coUege. devoted to laboratory, didactic and chnical Instruction, to recita- 
tions and to manual training in the use of instruments and apphances. 

Instruction is given In two capacious, well-lighted edifices. The new building contains five 
large laboratories. In which are conducted the practical laboratory courses in 



Anatomy, Physiology and Histology 
Pathology and Bacteriology. 



Chemistry, Materia Medica, 



ThP old building is devoted to instruction by clinics, didactic lectures, and by numerous 
important prac leaf coui^es in manual training in manipulations, and in the use of the mstru- 
ments employed in medical science, surgery, obstetncs and the specialties. 

ftttflliuaf ftainiw in aU departments of medicine is a special featiire of the ios'iuc ^ion ia 

V^ianiwi (i^iwHung 1^^^ college. Systematic recitations, conducted in five commodious 
recitation rooms, are regarded as a most important means of teaching. 

With over 70 professors and Instructors and with ample room and appliances, this school is 
able to furnish its classes with the most approved systematic education in medicine. 

Physicians and medical students are invited to visit the laboratories and to inspect the 
educational appliances of this school. 

For further information and for announcements apply to the College Clerk or to the 
Secretary, 



J. H. ETHEniDGE, M. O. 

S3 Washington Street, Chieago. 



Diploma; 



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StMk ud H*7 8ealM at Oaaka Bip*. 

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and "••■l<«'»l'»l'',efcle«rs 19M. R«l»lr« 

jk I ■ ■« ■ - "0 pit. et<>«l rrimt; Irona for Stork 

HWIH nVliai Q««Ut7. bwett Prien. WarrMUd. 

Steel Prama & Royal Scale Racki^^ ^ 




B «k.j.Hh.' Tool., feed Bill,, Co,* 8heller..EBgl„e,.Boll.™; 
now.,8er.per., WIr, Kenw, 8to«,, Saddles Harae,., Burgles^ 

nil-AWI SCILB CO., 28« Jaelnoa BaBle»rd, Ckleaga, HI, 



<<' I »«« 



. For Profitable Employment dur- 
ing the vacation months address Ppo- 
ple^sMf g.Co., 17th St., Rac?ne, wIs 



♦<»ee « <eeee >»»>♦ 



BIG WAGES ... 
FOR HONEST WORK. 

THE best Harness Rlv. 
eter on the market- 
Every machine Kuaran- 
teed. An absolute neces. 
sity to every qne owning^ 
a set of harness. Will 
more than pay for Itself 
in a very short time. 
Sample outfit 75 cents. 
We have pleasant em- 
ployment for the ladlesj 
sellinK our new Dexter 
Dust Pan. No more break- 
ing of backs stooping. A 
very fast selling article, 
especially adapted for 
the ladies. Retail price 
2.5 cents. Sample outfit 
IncludUig express charge* 
40 cents. We want good 
live agents only. 

r^/Jl^°^^T^'' MFG. CO., 
PE PT ^ SALEM. OHIO. 

What is more far-reaching in its in- 
fluence than a good steel pen? And Es- 
terbrook makes them by the million. 




»♦♦<♦♦♦»♦ < 



♦*<»*»» • » 




Bryan's New Book 

REPUBLIC 0. EMPIRE? 

THE nUUPPINE QUESTION 



BY 



Hon. W. J. Betan. 




HON. WILLIAM J. BRYAN 

With Supplementary 
Chaptei'8 (rom 

Ho?; ^vlf'^A^f"***"' Senators 
Uoar, Vest, Allen, White. Gor- 
mun. Bacon, Mkson nAni»i 

— „„. Chilton Butler. MdLairin, Till: 

H?»°«l«. Clay: Hon. H. C. Johnrn.'H^''cifi. V'tT' ^«*"*'' "°''- ^*™«=^ Oabnegib. 

THE GOSPEL OF ^mm muwmmBHmi, liberty. 

It 16 profu.,eIy illustrated, giving.^Slfti'STf».f^^'*"'"^**- 

It^unnot be bought arbilk.^n™J'"f"P*«*^*"h A ,1'",°"* and cuBtoms In the 

Official Publishers.^ boolctores; it cannot be furnished by ^„y VheJ Z,".f "«?' ''^*"'l- 

The first Edition. 100,000 copies. Alar™ octavo h w. '^ "'""''»'" ^^o^^e- >^e are the sol. 
WR PAY FREIGHT on ZT 1 °°''' *""'""'"' """' *yP»- 

'%TrorTp.T ,« rnrr 1 """"""" " " ""' " °"' """'• """ """• 

St'';i^„^;-.^\-i,''°-;-iS"*^^^^^^^ t"o^;4°oU?%«„'«tt r^'r ^-''-*- 

s^Mte^S^^Sj^^^ n-iir 




MS THF 



v-^ 



THE COIL 

In the Horizontal Wires in the 

^1 PAGE FENCES 1^. 

Provides for the "Give and Take" required to adapt a wire 
fence to the varying temperatures. 




liOOK AT THIS FAI^|« SCBflBI 

Doesn't it seem as tho Page Fence, besides affording per- 
fect security for the stock, is quite ornamental ? 




Mr C. W. DeMotts Farm Residence. East New Market. Maryland, showing 
Page 8-bar 44-inch cow fence, with posts 32 feet apart. See the fence does 
not sag. 

PAGE FENCES 

Are used to enclose some of the handsomest suburban resi- 
dences in the United States. 

PAGE FENCES 

Are acknowledge! to be standards all over the world, and 
standards do not cost more than many of their imitations. 

Isn't It Safe 

To buv standard articles made by standard manufacturers? 



Let us make you a price on 
your next job of fencing... . 

PHGE WOVEN WiqE FENCE CO., fMrlan, iniGtilgan. 



800 STUDENTS. 



$51)0,000 ENDOWIHEIIT. 



AO INSTRUCTORS. 



K FRee EDUCPfTION 

IN 

The • Largest • flgrlGuiturai • College • in •the • Woim. 



SIX COURSES 
OF STUDY: . , . 



K^rioultural, 
7(,robiteotu ral, 



Qomestio 3o>c*c<2< 

General, 

TWeobanioal Qni^lireGPin^, and 



*.*:*«a?v*"^ 




[1. 



Beautiful Qroupds. f/ji^e Substantial Stope BuildipQs 

Admission on examination direct from the District Schools. 

Funds derived chiefly from federal government. 
Reputation established for thoro, scientific and practical work. 
Engineering course of a high order. 
Enrollment largest in the history of the College. 

Equipment for Domestic Science unsurpassed in the West. 
Dinmg HaU furnishes full board at actual cost— $1.75 per week. 
United States Agricultural Experiment Station. 
College Bookstore furnishes Books and Stationery at cost. 
Apprentice Course in Shops, Sewing and Printing. 
The Laboratories and Shops are splendidly equipped, 
instruction in Model Private Dairy— a newly added feature. 
Oratory and Music entirely free— something unusual. 
No Tuition nor Fees in any Department. 
For further particulars or catalog, address 

PRES. THOS. E. WILL, Manhattan. Kansas. 



■■■ 



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